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Esophageal Rupture

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101. The long-term benefits of nucleos(t)ide analogs on esophageal varices in compensated HBV cirrhotics with no or small esophageal varices: A 12-year prospective cohort study. (Abstract)

The long-term benefits of nucleos(t)ide analogs on esophageal varices in compensated HBV cirrhotics with no or small esophageal varices: A 12-year prospective cohort study. Esophageal varices (EV) are a marker of disease severity in compensated cirrhosis due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) which predicts also the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), clinical decompensation and anticipated liver related death. The dynamics and prognostic significance of EV in patients under long-term HBV (...) . No bleedings from ruptured EV occurred, 12 patients died (9 HCC) and 15 were transplanted (13 HCC): the 12-year cumulative incidence of HCC and overall survival was 33% (95% CI: 24-42%) and 76% (95% CI: 67-83%), respectively.Long-term pharmacological suppression of HBV in HBeAg-seronegative patients with compensated cirrhosis leads to a significant regression of pre-existing EV accompanied by a negligible risk of developing de novo EV.Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver

2015 Journal of Hepatology

102. Esophageal Balloon Tamponade

Esophageal Balloon Tamponade Aka: Esophageal Balloon Tamponade , Sengstaken-Blakemore Tube , Linton Tube , Balloon Tamponade II. Indications with Stabilize until emergent endoscopy III. Precautions Emergent endoscopy is preferred if immediately available IV. Contraindications Recent esophageal or gastric surgery V. Mechanism Balloons inflated within and esophagus Applies direct pressure on bleeding Applies pressure to left gastric vein (supplies the esophageal venous plexus) VI. Types Linton Tube (...) balloon device in same manner as a and feed to the 50 cm mark Apply continuous suction to gastric port and esophageal port Gastric balloon Inject air into balloon while auscultating over Insert 50 cc air into gastric port Confirm positioning on XRay Gastric balloon must be in (not esophagus), otherwise risks Further inflate gastric balloon Attach manometer using Y-Tube, and check pressure at every 100 cc of inflation Inflate gastric balloon to 250 cc by inserting another 200 cc Balloon filled

2018 FP Notebook

103. Esophageal Varices

, Oesophageal varices NOS , Varices esophageal , Varices;oesophageal , Varicose veins;oesophagus , varices esophageal , esophageal varice , esophageal varix , esophagus varicose veins , varicose veins esophagus , varix esophagus , Oesophageal varices NOS (disorder) , Esophageal varices NOS (disorder) , Oesophageal varices (disorder) , Varices oesophageal , Esophageal varices , Esophageal varix , Oesophageal varices , Oesophageal varix , OV - Esophageal varices , OV - Oesophageal varices , Esophageal varices (...) (disorder) , esophagus; varices , varices; esophagus , Esophageal varices, NOS , Oesophageal varices, NOS , Esophageal Varices , oesophageal varices , Varices;esophageal , Varicose veins;esophagus , varicose veins on the esophagus , varicose veins on the oesophagus Portuguese VARIZES ESOFAGICAS , Varizes esofágicas NE , Varizes Esofágicas , Varizes do esófago , Varizes esofágicas Spanish VARICES ESOFAGICAS , Varices esofágicas NEOM , Varices Esofágicas , várices esofágicas, SAI , várices esofágicas, SAI

2018 FP Notebook

104. Diaphragmatic Hernia of the Stomach with Gastric Rupture in a Domestic Pig Full Text available with Trip Pro

Diaphragmatic Hernia of the Stomach with Gastric Rupture in a Domestic Pig A 5.5-mo-old castrated, male Red Duroc pig presented acutely with depression and abdominal pain 9 d after an altercation with another pig. A CT examination indicated right pneumothorax and herniation of the stomach into the thoracic cavity. Due to a poor prognosis, the pig was euthanized. A necropsy and gross examination revealed a tear of the diaphragmatic muscle in the region of the esophageal hiatus through which (...) the stomach was displaced into the right side of the thoracic cavity. In addition, the herniated stomach had a rupture of the stomach wall through which the gastric mucosa was everted and exposed into the right thoracic cavity. The right thoracic cavity had acute fibrinous pleuritis, and the right lung was collapsed. CT scans performed every 1 to 2 wk for 2 mo prior to the pig's death did not reveal any abnormalities in the diaphragm. Trauma was considered the most likely cause of the diaphragmatic tear

2016 Comparative medicine

105. Intragastric Rupture of a Splenic Artery Aneurysm Associated with a Pancreatic Cancer Full Text available with Trip Pro

Intragastric Rupture of a Splenic Artery Aneurysm Associated with a Pancreatic Cancer Acute upper digestive tract hemorrhage most often arises from gastric and esophageal vessels located in the mucosa or the submucosa. Rupture in the upper gastrointestinal tract is a classical but uncommon complication of arterial (mainly the abdominal aorta) aneurysms. Splenic artery aneurysm usually ruptures in the peritoneum, unless it is associated with a disease eroding the gastrointestinal wall. We (...) present and describe the management of the rare occurrence of an intragastric rupture of a splenic aneurysm associated with a pancreatic cancer.

2016 Journal of the Belgian Society of Radiology

106. Emergency endoscopic variceal ligation following variceal rupture in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and portal vein tumor thrombosis: a retrospective study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Emergency endoscopic variceal ligation following variceal rupture in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and portal vein tumor thrombosis: a retrospective study The outcomes of treatment of ruptured varices in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) are unclear. We therefore evaluated the long- (rebleeding and death) and short-term (immediate death within 24 h of variceal bleeding diagnosis) outcomes of patients with PVTT who underwent (...) emergency variceal band ligation.Data on 62 patients with PVTT and endoscopically proven esophageal or gastric variceal bleeding from 2007 to 2012 were studied. In most cases, the varices were treated using endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVL). We assessed the patients' rebleeding-free and overall survival using the Kaplan-Meier method, and a Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyze effect of independent factors on rebleeding-free and overall survival times.Most patients had decompensated

2016 World journal of surgical oncology

107. Subcutaneous cervical emphysema and pneumomediastinum due to a diastatic rupture of the cecum Full Text available with Trip Pro

Subcutaneous cervical emphysema and pneumomediastinum due to a diastatic rupture of the cecum Pneumomediastinum usually occurs after esophageal or chest trauma. Subcutaneous cervical emphysema as a presentation of non-traumatic colonic perforation following colorectal cancer or diverticulitis, is very rare. We report a case of a patient with rectal cancer who developed a diastatic cecum retroperitoneal perforation with a secondary pneumomediastinum and cervical emphysema. The patient

2016 Il Giornale di chirurgia

108. Predictive Factors and Outcome of Esophageal Ulcers After Endoscopic Treatment of Esophageal Varices

to reduce variceal wall tension by obliteration of the varix. The two principal methods available for esophageal varices are endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST) and band ligation (EBL). Endoscopic therapy is a local treatment that has no effect on the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to portal hypertension and variceal rupture. However, a spontaneous decrease in HVPG occurs in around 30% of patients treated with either EST or EBL to prevent variceal rebleeding. Device: Esophagogastroduodenoscope (...) Endoscopic therapies for varices aim to reduce variceal wall tension by obliteration of the varix. The two principal methods available for esophageal varices are endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST) and band ligation (EBL). Endoscopic therapy is a local treatment that has no effect on the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to portal hypertension and variceal rupture. However, a spontaneous decrease in HVPG occurs in around 30% of patients treated with either EST or EBL to prevent variceal rebleeding

2014 Clinical Trials

109. Guidelines for the Surgical Treatment of Esophageal Achalasia

the quality of the evidence and the strength of the recommendation for each of the guidelines were assessed according to the GRADE system. There is a 4-tiered system for quality of evidence (very low (+), low (+ +), moderate (+ + +), or high (+ + + +)) and a 2-tiered system for strength of recommendation (weak or strong) [1, 2] . Introduction Achalasia is a rare primary motility disorder of the esophagus that affects one person in 100,000 per year and is characterized by the absence of esophageal (...) , in patients with achalasia, it might be explained by retention of acidic or noxious food contents or by lactate production from bacterial fermentation within the esophagus [6] . The clinical suspicion of achalasia should be confirmed by a barium esophagram showing smooth tapering of the lower esophagus leading to the closed LES, resembling a “bird’s beak.” Esophageal manometry establishes the diagnosis showing esophageal aperistalsis and insufficient LES relaxation with swallowing. All patients should

2011 Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons

110. Life-Threatening Retropharyngeal Hemorrhage Secondary to Rupture of the Inferior Thyroid Artery Full Text available with Trip Pro

was deviated anteriorly and there was esophageal compression. An emergent arteriogram and catheterization confirmed bleeding from branches of the ITA, and successful embolization was performed. It is important to recognize the ITA rupture as a potential etiology of an acute airway compromise. In emergent situations, while securing an airway is a priority, rapidly initiating diagnostic testing to confirm the diagnosis and arranging for arterial embolization can be life-saving. (...) Life-Threatening Retropharyngeal Hemorrhage Secondary to Rupture of the Inferior Thyroid Artery Inferior thyroid artery (ITA) rupture is rare and may progress to life-threatening conditions. We present a patient who visited the emergency department after an episode of syncope and dizziness in which he had a mechanical fall that resulted in abrasions and a hematoma to his left forehead. The patient presented with dysphagia and anterior neck swelling that progressed rapidly into airway compromise

2015 Case Reports in Emergency Medicine

111. Primary oesophageal small cell carcinoma initially manifestating as purulent pericardiac effusion Full Text available with Trip Pro

Primary oesophageal small cell carcinoma initially manifestating as purulent pericardiac effusion This article reports a case of primary oesophageal small cell carcinoma with a large amount of purulent pericardial effusion due to oesophageal rupture. The patient was treated with chemotherapy, which resulted in a marked decrease in the size of the oesophageal mass and partial resolving of metastatic lymphadenopathy.

2016 BJR Case Reports

112. Thoracoscopic esophageal repair with barbed suture material in a case of Boerhaave’s syndrome Full Text available with Trip Pro

Thoracoscopic esophageal repair with barbed suture material in a case of Boerhaave’s syndrome A 53-year-old man was referred to our hospital with Boerhaave's syndrome. Thirty hours after onset, a left thoracoscopic operation was performed, with carbon dioxide pneumothorax and the patient in right semi-prone position. The thoracic cavity was copiously irrigated with physiological saline and a 4-cm longitudinal rupture was identified on the left side of the lower esophagus. The esophageal (...) injury was repaired in 2 layers by using barbed absorbable suture material. The patient was allowed oral feeds after contrast esophagography confirmed the absence of contrast leak at the sutured site on postoperative day 7, and discharged by day 28. Suturing of the ruptured esophagus under thoracoscopic guidance is considered to be difficult and requires expertise. This case report demonstrates that the use of a barbed suture material simplifies thoracoscopic esophageal repair and also highlights

2016 Journal of thoracic disease

113. Aortic Pseudoaneurysm Secondary to Mediastinitis due to Esophageal Perforation Full Text available with Trip Pro

Aortic Pseudoaneurysm Secondary to Mediastinitis due to Esophageal Perforation Esophageal perforation is a condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rates; it requires early diagnosis and treatment. The most common complication of esophageal rupture is mediastinitis. There are several case reports in the literature of mediastinitis secondary to esophageal perforation and development of aortic pseudoaneurysm as a complication. We report the case of a patient with an 8-day history (...) of esophageal perforation due to foreign body (fishbone) with mediastinitis and aortic pseudoaneurysm. The diagnosis was made using Computed Tomography (CT) with intravenous and oral water-soluble contrast material. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy did not detect the perforation.

2016 Case Reports in Radiology

114. A novel biodegradable esophageal stent: results from mechanical and animal experiments Full Text available with Trip Pro

all evaluated. In vitro, the pH values remained constant for 4 weeks and declined from weeks 4 to 8. The biodegradable threads degraded and ruptured at 6 weeks. Consequently, the radial force of the stent decreased to zero at that time. The curve of R[η] decreased with time linearly in PBS. To study the stents in vivo, we used a stricture model in which the middle esophagus of rabbits was damaged by alkali burn. Stents were inserted 2 weeks after injury and observed for 8 weeks. We assessed (...) A novel biodegradable esophageal stent: results from mechanical and animal experiments Biodegradable esophageal stents eliminate stent retrieval, but usually induce hyperplasia. This study investigated the properties of a novel biodegradable stent in vitro and in vivo. The degradation of the novel stent was observed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for 8 weeks. The radial forces, pH values, morphology, and retention rate of the intrinsic viscosity (R[η]) of the new biodegradable stent were

2016 American journal of translational research

115. Management of subtotal tracheal section with esophageal perforation: a catastrophic complication of tracheostomy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Management of subtotal tracheal section with esophageal perforation: a catastrophic complication of tracheostomy Herein, we reported a catastrophic condition as the almost complete rupture of trachea associated with esophageal lesion following an urgent surgical tracheostomy performed for unexpected difficult intubation. The extent of lesions required a surgical management. We decided against a resection and an end to end anastomosis but preferred to perform a direct suture of the lesion due

2016 Journal of thoracic disease

116. Revisional surgery for recurrent tracheoesophageal fistula and anastomotic complications after repair of esophageal atresia in 258 infants. (Abstract)

-related rupture. Mortality was 4/42 (10%). Two patients died of recurred leakage or TOF and two of unrelated cause. Of 38 survivors, 35 retained their native or initially reconstructed esophagus, and 3 had secondary reconstruction. After a median follow-up of 23 (range 0.6-32) years, 35 (95%) patients have acceptable esophageal function. Three patients remained dependent on gastrostomy feedings.Anastomotic and TOF complications required a substantial number of reoperations, including esophageal (...) Revisional surgery for recurrent tracheoesophageal fistula and anastomotic complications after repair of esophageal atresia in 258 infants. We assessed the occurrence and outcome of major reoperations following repair of esophageal atresia with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (TOF). Major outcome measures were survival, preservation of native esophagus, and long-term esophageal function.Hospital charts of 258 consecutive patients treated for esophageal atresia from 1980 to 2013 were

2015 Journal of Pediatric Surgery

117. Emergent Esophagectomy for Esophageal Perforations: A Safe Option. (Abstract)

Emergent Esophagectomy for Esophageal Perforations: A Safe Option. Esophageal perforation is an injury associated with high morbidity and mortality. Initial management ranges from observation to esophagectomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative mortality and safety of emergent esophagectomy for acute esophageal rupture when compared with elective esophagectomies.We performed a retrospective review of a prospective esophagectomy database from a single institution from 1977 (...) to 2013. Patients who were admitted for esophageal perforation and underwent esophagectomy were identified and compared with patients who underwent elective esophagectomy.In all, 3,015 patients received an esophagectomy in elective and emergent settings; 90 esophagectomies were for acute injuries (52 for benign and 38 for malignant causes). A longer median length of stay was associated with emergent esophagectomy compared with elective esophagectomy (13 versus 10 days, p < 0.0001

2015 Annals of Thoracic Surgery

118. Esophageal Tumors, Childhood

Esophageal Tumors, Childhood Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version - National Cancer Institute Menu Search Search Search General Information About Unusual Cancers of Childhood Introduction Cancer in children and adolescents is rare, although the overall incidence of childhood cancer has been slowly increasing since 1975.[ ] Referral to medical centers with multidisciplinary teams of cancer specialists experienced in treating cancers that occur in childhood

2012 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

119. Esophageal Rupture

is by esophagography with a water-soluble contrast agent. Immediate surgical repair and drainage are required. (See also .) Endoscopic procedures are the primary cause of esophageal rupture, but spontaneous rupture may occur, typically related to vomiting, retching, or swallowing a large food bolus. The most common site of rupture is the distal esophagus on the left side. Acid and other stomach contents cause a fulminant mediastinitis and shock. is common. Symptoms and Signs Symptoms of esophageal rupture include (...) Esophageal Rupture Esophageal Rupture - Gastrointestinal Disorders - MSD Manual Professional Edition Brought to you by The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases / / / / IN THIS TOPIC OTHER TOPICS IN THIS CHAPTER Test your knowledge Helicobacter pylori

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

120. Hemomediastinum due to spontaneous rupture of a mediastinal bronchial artery aneurysm – A rare cause of thoracic pain Full Text available with Trip Pro

present with thoracic pain or symptoms related to extrinsic compression of the airways or esophagus. Using contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the chest, hemomediastinum can be adequately diagnosed, and the involved vascular structures can be revealed. In case of a (ruptured) bronchial artery aneurysm, transcatheter embolization provides a minimally invasive procedure and is treatment of first choice. In this case report, a 76-year-old female is presented with spontaneous rupture (...) Hemomediastinum due to spontaneous rupture of a mediastinal bronchial artery aneurysm – A rare cause of thoracic pain Hemomediastinum is a rare pathological event. Multiple underlying causes and contributory factors can be identified, such as trauma, malignancy, iatrogenic, bleeding disorder or mediastinal organ hemorrhage. Also, a mediastinal bronchial artery aneurysm may be the source of a hemomediastinum. Hemoptysis is an important directive symptom, however occasionally, patients only

2014 Respiratory Medicine Case Reports

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