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Esophageal Rupture

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721. Tracheobronchial injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

found in up to 25%. However, isolated TBI does not usually cause profuse bleeding; if such bleeding is observed it is likely to be due to another injury such as a ruptured large . The patient may exhibit dysphonia or have diminished breath sounds, and is common. Coughing may be present, and , an abnormal, high-pitched breath sound indicating obstruction of the upper airway can also occur. Damage to the airways can cause (air trapped in the of the skin) in the abdomen, chest, neck, and head (...) trachea may also be injured in front-on collisions by the seat belt. Although the mechanism is not well understood, TBI due to blunt trauma is widely thought to be caused by any combination of three possible mechanisms: an increase in pressure within the airways, , and pulling apart. The first type of injury, sometimes called an "explosive rupture", may occur when the chest is violently compressed, for example when a driver strikes the steering wheel in a vehicle accident or when the chest is crushed

2012 Wikipedia

722. Gastroesophageal reflux disease

: – inflammation of esophageal epithelium which can cause ulcers near the junction of the stomach and esophagus – the persistent narrowing of the esophagus caused by reflux-induced inflammation – intestinal (changes of the epithelial cells from squamous to intestinal columnar epithelium) of the distal esophagus – a form of cancer Children [ ] GERD may be difficult to detect in and , since they cannot describe what they are feeling and indicators must be observed. Symptoms may vary from typical adult symptoms (...) progressing to Barrett's, every five years is recommended for people with chronic heartburn, or who take drugs for chronic GERD. Causes [ ] A comparison of a healthy condition to GERD GERD is caused by a failure of the lower esophageal sphincter. In healthy patients, the " "—the angle at which the esophagus enters the stomach—creates a valve that prevents duodenal bile, enzymes, and stomach acid from traveling back into the esophagus where they can cause burning and inflammation of sensitive esophageal

2012 Wikipedia

723. Extraesophageal reflux disease

Extraesophageal reflux disease Laryngopharyngeal reflux - Wikipedia Laryngopharyngeal reflux From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from ) Sagittal illustration of the anterior portion of the human head and neck. In LPR, the pharynx (1) and larynx (3) are exposed to gastric contents that flow upward through the esophagus (4). Laryngopharyngeal reflux ( LPR ), also known as extraesophageal reflux disease ( EERD ), silent reflux , and supra-esophageal reflux , is the retrograde flow (...) . Unlike GERD, LPR also poses a risk for or as reflux of stomach acid to the level of the larynx can result in aspiration. LPR is also commonly associated with , or redness, as well as in the tissues of the larynx that are exposed to gastric contents. In contrast, most cases of GERD are nonerosive, with no apparent injury to the mucosal lining of the esophageal tissue exposed to the refluxed material. Differences in the molecular structure of the lining the laryngopharyngeal region may be partly

2012 Wikipedia

724. Aortic dissection

to be associated with weakening of the vascular wall due to . In those who present with distal (Stanford type B) AD, 60-70% present with high blood pressure, while 2-3% present with . Severe hypotension at presentation is a grave prognostic indicator. It is usually associated with pericardial tamponade, severe aortic insufficiency, or rupture of the aorta. Accurate measurement of the blood pressure is important. Pseudohypotension (falsely low blood-pressure measurement) may occur due to involvement (...) coronary artery. If the myocardial infarction is treated with therapy, the mortality increases to over 70%, mostly due to bleeding into the pericardial sac, causing . Pleural effusion [ ] A (fluid collection in the space between the and the chest wall or ) can be due to either blood from a transient rupture of the aorta or fluid due to an inflammatory reaction around the aorta. If a pleural effusion were to develop due to AD, it is more commonly in the left hemithorax rather than the right hemithorax

2012 Wikipedia

725. Alendronic acid

)O InChI=1S/C4H13NO7P2/c5-3-1-2-4(6,13(7,8)9)14(10,11)12/h6H,1-3,5H2,(H2,7,8,9)(H2,10,11,12) Y Key:OGSPWJRAVKPPFI-UHFFFAOYSA-N Y N Y Alendronic acid , sold under the brand name Fosamax among others, is a used to treat and . It is taken by mouth. Use is often recommended together with , , and lifestyle changes. Common side effects include constipation, abdominal pain, nausea, and . Serious side effects may include esophageal problems, , and . Use is not recommended during or in those (...) [ ] Alendronic acid 35 mg (as alendronate sodium 45.7 mg) oral tablet Prevention and treatment of female Treatment of male osteoporosis Prevention and treatment of corticosteroid-associated osteoporosis together with supplements of calcium and vitamin D Contraindications [ ] Alendronate should not be used in: Acute inflammations of the gastrointestinal tract (esophagitis, gastritis, ulcerations) Clinically manifested Certain malformations and malfunctions of the esophagus (strictures, achalasia) Inability

2012 Wikipedia

726. Barrett's esophagus

the lower portion of the , from normal to with interspersed that are normally present only in the , , and . This change is considered to be a because it is associated with a high incidence of further transition to , an often-deadly . The main cause of Barrett's esophagus is thought to be an adaptation to chronic acid exposure from reflux esophagitis. Barrett's esophagus is diagnosed by : observing the characteristic appearance of this condition by direct inspection of the lower esophagus; followed (...) -grade dysplasia, the risk of developing cancer might be at 10% per patient-year or greater. The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has increased substantially in the Western world in recent years. The condition is found in 5–15% of patients who seek medical care for heartburn ( , or GERD), although a large subgroup of patients with Barrett's esophagus are asymptomatic. The condition is named after (1903–1979). Despite this, the condition was originally described by Philip Rowland Allison in 1946

2012 Wikipedia

727. Peptic ulcer

stands erect, as when having a chest X-ray, the gas will float to a position underneath the diaphragm. Therefore, gas in the peritoneal cavity, shown on an erect chest X-ray or supine lateral abdominal X-ray, is an omen of perforated peptic ulcer disease. Classification [ ] 1. Esophagus 2. Stomach 3.Ulcers 4.Duodenum 5.Mucosa 6.Submucosa 7.Muscle By location [ ] (called duodenal ulcer) (called esophageal ulcer) (called gastric ulcer) (called Meckel's diverticulum ulcer; is very tender with palpation (...) D, Atherton JC (September 2003). . The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy . 52 (3): 522–3. : . . External links [ ] Classification - : – - : – : : External resources : : Wikimedia Commons has media related to . : primarily , / ( ) , , : , : Either B. henselae or B. quintana , , , ungrouped: / / ( ) , : / / , , H2S− / / / , / / : / / , , , Diseases of the (primarily , ) Rupture (GERD) (LPR) : / ( / / ) : ( / ) / / / Large and/or small : : / / / / Other / / Undefined location

2012 Wikipedia

728. Norfloxacin Full Text available with Trip Pro

for prevention of in cirrhotic patients who have a low ascites fluid protein level, impaired renal function, severe liver disease, have had a prior episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, or esophageal variceal bleeding. Note: Norfloxacin may be licensed for other uses, or restricted, by the various regulatory agencies worldwide. Contraindications [ ] As noted above, under licensed use, norfloxacin is also now considered to be contraindicated for the treatment of certain sexually transmitted diseases (...) by some experts due to bacterial resistance. Norfloxacin is contraindicated in those with a history of tendonitis, tendon rupture and those with a hypersensitivity to fluoroquinolones. There are three contraindications found within the 2008 package insert: "Noroxin (norfloxacin) is contraindicated in persons with a history of hypersensitivity, tendinitis, or tendon rupture associated with the use of norfloxacin or any member of the quinolone group of antimicrobial agents." "Quinolones, including

2012 Wikipedia

729. Nutcracker esophagus

Esophageal Motility Disorders". Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology . 11 (9): 1115–1121.e2. : . . [ ] External links [ ] Classification - : - : : : External resources : Freidin N., Traube M., Mittal R.K.; et al. (1989). . Digest Dis Sci . 34 : 1063–1067. : . CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list ( ) Diseases of the (primarily , ) Rupture (GERD) (LPR) : / ( / / ) : ( / ) / / / Large and/or small : : / / / / Other / / Undefined location Retrieved from " " : Hidden categories: Navigation menu (...) sequence but at an excessive amplitude or duration. Nutcracker esophagus is one of several disorders of the esophagus, including and . It causes difficulty swallowing, or , to both solid and liquid foods, and can cause significant ; it may also be asymptomatic. Nutcracker esophagus can affect people of any age, but is more common in the sixth and seventh decades of life. The diagnosis is made by an (esophageal manometry), which evaluates the pressure of the esophagus at various points along its length

2012 Wikipedia

730. "Paramedics are Bringing in a Hypotensive Gastrointestinal Bleeder": An Unexpected Diagnosis. (Abstract)

"Paramedics are Bringing in a Hypotensive Gastrointestinal Bleeder": An Unexpected Diagnosis. Acute esophageal rupture is a rare emergency that must be diagnosed quickly and treated aggressively to avoid significant morbidity and mortality. The typical presentation of this disease includes chest pain, and the diagnosis is challenging when cardinal features such as this are absent.This case report discusses an atypical presentation of esophageal rupture in a patient with a predisposing condition (...) radiograph led to the diagnosis of esophageal rupture with a bilateral pneumothorax requiring thoracostomies. She reported no chest pain.The esophageal rupture and subsequent hypotension was likely secondary to the combination of her Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and recent vomiting episodes. It is important to avoid premature diagnostic closure and think about unusual presentations of emergent conditions such as esophageal rupture.Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2010 Journal of Emergency Medicine

731. National Cohort of Uncomplicated Alcoholic Cirrhosis

with HBV or HCV, or liver focal lesion suggestive of HCC will be excluded (and their serum samples achieved for the BioBank will be destroyed): Monitoring: According to current guidelines, patients will have periodical surveillance with liver ultrasonography and medical consultation at least every 6 months, blood tests at least every year, periodic assessment of esophageal and gastric varices (every 1 to 3 years) and prevention of their rupture if any. An additional blood sampling of 20 ml

2010 Clinical Trials

732. Primary Prevention of Gastric Variceal Bleeding : Endoscopic Treatment Versus Non-selective Beta-blocker

variceal bleeding. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Bleeding Gastric Varices Liver Cirrhosis Drug: propranolol Phase 4 Detailed Description: Up to date, the treatment of gastric variceal bleeding (GVB) is still sub-optimal in contrast to the treatment of esophageal variceal bleeding (EVB), which already had a big improvement of prognosis in recent two decades. Gastric varices (GV) rarely rupture. However should it occur, the outcome would be worse than rupture of esophageal varies (EV (...) ). Rupture of GV is characteristic of a higher rebleeding rate (90%), a requirement for a larger amount of blood transfusion and a higher mortality (40-50%). Therefore, primary prevention of GV rupture is critically important. The management of GV has been focused on treatment of acute GVB. Tissue adhesive (cyanoacrylate) may polymerize and occlude the vascular channels in seconds and obliterate for more than 70% cases of GV. The rebleeding rate after endoscopic cyanoacrylate injection(GVO) of acute GVB

2010 Clinical Trials

733. Erlotinib Plus Bevacizumab in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) as Second-line Therapy

chemotherapy rupture of existing HCC lesion, or HCC lesion (...) : known history of esophageal or gastric varices; evidence of hepatic cirrhosis and/or portal hypertension including biopsy-proven cirrhosis, radiographic evidence of cirrhosis, hypersplenism, or radiographic findings of varices) will be screened for esophageal varices. (Continuation of # 17) If varices are identified that require intervention (banding), that patient will not be eligible for the trial until the varices have been adequately treated. Known CNS disease, except for treated brain

2010 Clinical Trials

734. Boerhaave's syndrome - rapidly evolving pleural effusion; a radiographic clue. (Abstract)

Boerhaave's syndrome - rapidly evolving pleural effusion; a radiographic clue. Boerhaave's syndrome is the rare and often fatal condition of spontaneous esophageal rupture. Meckler's triad of vomiting, pain and subcutaneous emphysema are characteristic features of Boerhaave's syndrome. When these symptoms are absent, diagnosis is frequently late and often occurs as the result of incidental investigation. This contributes to the observed high morbidity and mortality. Unless specifically

2010 Minerva anestesiologica

735. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum Due to Achalasia: An Unusual but Benign Cause Full Text available with Trip Pro

Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum Due to Achalasia: An Unusual but Benign Cause Pneumomediastinum is usually first identified radiographically in the emergency department. Distinguishing benign from more ominous causes, such as esophageal rupture, is imperative, particularly in the setting of associated esophageal disease. We describe a case, with correlative imaging, of spontaneous pneumomediastinum as the initial presentation of achalasia. A general discussion of spontaneous pneumomediastinum

2010 Journal of Radiology Case Reports

736. Unique case of esophageal rupture after a fall from height. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Unique case of esophageal rupture after a fall from height. Traumatic ruptures of the esophagus are relatively rare. This condition is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Most traumatic ruptures occur after motor vehicle accidents.We describe a unique case of a 23 year old woman that presented at our trauma resuscitation room after a fall from 8 meters. During physical examination there were no clinical signs of life-threatening injuries. She did however have a massive amount (...) presents a high cervical esophageal rupture without associated local injuries after a fall from height.

2009 BMC Emergency Medicine

737. Acute management of aortobronchial and aortoesophageal fistulas using thoracic endovascular aortic repair. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Five patients died (45%), including 3 patients with AEF, 1 patient with ABF, and 1 patient with a combined ABF and AEF, after a median duration of 22 days (interquartile range, 51 days). The patient with AEF that survived had received early esophageal reconstruction. Causes of death were: sepsis (n = 2), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (n = 1), thoracic infections (n = 1), and aortic rupture (n = 1). Median follow-up of surviving patients was 45 months (interquartile range, 45 months (...) in three European teaching hospitals between 2000 and January 2009. Eleven patients were identified including 6 patients with ABF, 4 patients with AEF, and 1 patient with a combined ABF and AEF. In-hospital outcomes and follow-up after TEVAR were evaluated.Median age was 63 years (interquartile range, 31); 8 were male. Ten patients presented with hemoptysis or hematemesis; 4 developed hemorrhagic shock. All patients underwent immediate TEVAR, and 3 AEF patients required additional esophageal surgery

2009 Journal of Vascular Surgery

738. Non-invasive Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist in Healthy Volunteers

(but not limited to): severe oropharyngeal malformation or bleeding; esophageal varices, tumor, infection, stenosis, or rupture, bleeding disorder with evidence of active bleeding. Presence or suspicion of diaphragm injury. Prior medical history that might contribute to a disturbance of the neural system, including, but not limited to: diabetes, prior critical illness, carcinoma, uremia, vitamin B12 deficiency, chronic liver disease, alcohol abuse, malabsorption (sprue), HIV, Lyme disease, Lymphoma, multiple

2009 Clinical Trials

739. Fibrinogen Concentrate (Human) − Efficacy and Safety Study

Presence or history of esophageal varicose bleeding End stage liver disease (i.e., Child Pugh score B or C) Planned or expected surgery (i.e., for bleedings from aneurysm or splenic rupture) Pregnancy, or an intention to become pregnant during the study Currently breast-feeding, or with the intention of breast-feeding during the study Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive Polytrauma, present or within 6 months prior to enrollment Suspicion of an anti-fibrinogen inhibitor as indicated by previous

2009 Clinical Trials

740. A Clinical Trial of the Vessel Sealing System (LigaSure) in Azygoportal Disconnection and Splenectomy in Patients With Portal Hypertension

/treatment Phase Liver Cirrhosis Device: Vessel sealing system LigaSure Phase 4 Detailed Description: Bleeding from esophageal and gastric cardia varices is the major life threatening complication in patients with portal hypertension. Patients with portal hypertension have a mortality rate of 30%-50% at the first episode of esophagogastric variceal rupture. The associated 1-year mortality rate is reported to be 75%. The ideal treatment for gastric varices should effectively control bleeding and improve (...) the liver function to optimum levels. Although endoscopic treatments have showed great promise for esophageal varices, there is still controversy regarding the treatment of gastric varices. Hepatic encephalopathy remain a dominant problems after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement (TIPS) and surgical shunts. A meta-analysis has shown that the incidence of hepatic encephalopathy and mortality was increased significantly either in nonselective or selective shunt operations

2009 Clinical Trials

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