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Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin

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1. Non-invasive measurement of erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin in children. (PubMed)

Non-invasive measurement of erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin in children. Reliable screening for iron deficiency (ID) has required a blood sample and cost-intensive laboratory measurements. A novel method to non-invasively measure erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), an established marker for ID, is evaluated in children.ZnPP was determined non-invasively by fluorescence measurements on the wet vermillion of the lower lip in 99 hospitalized children aged 9 months to 5 years. For comparison

2018 Pediatric Research

2. Is Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin a Better Single Screening Test for Iron Deficiency Compared to Hemoglobin or Mean Cell Volume in Children and Women? (PubMed)

Is Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin a Better Single Screening Test for Iron Deficiency Compared to Hemoglobin or Mean Cell Volume in Children and Women? Hemoglobin (Hb), mean cell volume (MCV), and erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) are commonly used to screen for iron deficiency (ID), but systematic evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of these tests is limited. The objective of this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of Hb, MCV, and EP measurements in screening for ID

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2017 Nutrients

3. Patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria have reduced erythrocyte protoporphyrin IX from early in pregnancy. (PubMed)

Patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria have reduced erythrocyte protoporphyrin IX from early in pregnancy. 27943252 2018 08 13 2018 08 13 1365-2133 177 3 2017 09 The British journal of dermatology Br. J. Dermatol. Patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria have reduced erythrocyte protoporphyrin IX from early in pregnancy. e38-e40 10.1111/bjd.15228 Heerfordt I M IM 0000-0002-6130-875X Department of Dermatology D92, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Bispebjerg Bakke 23, DK (...) -2400, Copenhagen, Denmark. Wulf H C HC Department of Dermatology D92, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Bispebjerg Bakke 23, DK-2400, Copenhagen, Denmark. eng Letter 2017 07 03 England Br J Dermatol 0004041 0007-0963 0 Protoporphyrins C2K325S808 protoporphyrin IX IM Adult Erythrocytes metabolism Female Humans Pregnancy Pregnancy Complications blood Pregnancy Trimesters Protoporphyria, Erythropoietic blood Protoporphyrins metabolism 2016 12 13 6 0 2018 8 14 6 0 2016 12 13 6 0 ppublish

2016 British Journal of Dermatology

4. Non-invasive detection of iron deficiency by fluorescence measurement of erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin in the lip (PubMed)

Non-invasive detection of iron deficiency by fluorescence measurement of erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin in the lip Worldwide, more individuals have iron deficiency than any other health problem. Most of those affected are unaware of their lack of iron, in part because detection of iron deficiency has required a blood sample. Here we report a non-invasive method to optically measure an established indicator of iron status, red blood cell zinc protoporphyrin, in the microcirculation of the lower (...) lip. An optical fibre probe is used to illuminate the lip and acquire fluorescence emission spectra in ∼1 min. Dual-wavelength excitation with spectral fitting is used to distinguish the faint zinc protoporphyrin fluorescence from the much greater tissue background fluorescence, providing immediate results. In 56 women, 35 of whom were iron-deficient, the sensitivity and specificity of optical non-invasive detection of iron deficiency were 97% and 90%, respectively. This fluorescence method

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2016 Nature communications

5. Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin

Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin (...) Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin Aka: Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin , Free Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin , RBC Protoporphyrin , Protoporphyrin , Zinc Protoporphyrin , Free Protoporphyrin From Related Chapters II. Indications Low-cost clinic-based screening screening III. Physiology Protoporphyrin converted to heme by ferrocheletase Lead inhibits ferrocheletase Protoporphyrin accumulates (ferrocheletase absent) results in impaired heme synthesis Protoporphyrin accumulates IV. Technique Hematofluorimeter measures

2018 FP Notebook

6. Pitfalls in Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin Measurement for Diagnosis and Monitoring of Protoporphyrias. (PubMed)

Pitfalls in Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin Measurement for Diagnosis and Monitoring of Protoporphyrias. Laboratory diagnosis of erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) requires a marked increase in total erythrocyte protoporphyrin (300-5000 μg/dL erythrocytes, reference interval <80 μg/dL) and a predominance (85%-100%) of metal-free protoporphyrin [normal, mostly zinc protoporphyrin (reference intervals for the zinc protoporphyrin proportion have not been established)]; plasma porphyrins are not always (...) increased. X-linked protoporphyria (XLP) causes a similar increase in total erythrocyte protoporphyrin with a lower fraction of metal-free protoporphyrin (50%-85% of the total).In studying more than 180 patients with EPP and XLP, the Porphyrias Consortium found that erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentrations for some patients were much higher (4.3- to 46.7-fold) than indicated by previous reports provided by these patients. The discrepant earlier reports, which sometimes caused the diagnosis to be missed

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2015 Clinical Chemistry

7. Diagnostic utility of zinc protoporphyrin to detect iron deficiency in Kenyan preschool children: a community-based survey. (PubMed)

Diagnostic utility of zinc protoporphyrin to detect iron deficiency in Kenyan preschool children: a community-based survey. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) has been used to screen and manage iron deficiency in individual children, but it has also been recommended to assess population iron status. The diagnostic utility of ZPP used in combination with haemoglobin concentration has not been evaluated in pre-school children. We aimed to a) identify factors associated with ZPP in children aged 12-36 (...)  months; b) assess the diagnostic performance and utility of ZPP, either alone or in combination with haemoglobin, to detect iron deficiency.We used baseline data from 338 Kenyan children enrolled in a community-based randomised trial. To identify factors related to ZZP measured in whole blood or erythrocytes, we used bivariate and multiple linear regression analysis. To assess diagnostic performance, we excluded children with elevated plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein or α1-acid

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2017 BMC Hematology

8. Protoporphyrin IX in the skin measured non-invasively predicts photosensitivity in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria. (PubMed)

Protoporphyrin IX in the skin measured non-invasively predicts photosensitivity in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria. Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is a rare genetic disease that causes severe sensitivity to visible light as a result of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulation in the skin.To establish a noninvasive method to measure PpIX in the skin of patients with EPP and to investigate how skin PpIX relates to erythrocyte PpIX and photosensitivity.Skin PpIX was measured in 25 (...) a noninvasive method to measure skin PpIX based on measurements of PpIX fluorescence before and after complete PpIX photobleaching. The patients had an average skin PpIX of 2·0 units and skin emission spectra confirmed the presence of skin PpIX (peak emission 632 nm). Skin PpIX was associated with erythrocyte PpIX (P = 0·002, R2 = 0·34), skin erythema (P = 0·001, R2 = 0·47) and symptoms during illumination. Furthermore, skin PpIX increased during the hours after illumination.We have developed a noninvasive

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2016 British Journal of Dermatology

9. STUDIES OF PROTOPORPHYRIN: IV. A COMPARISON OF THE ERYTHROCYTE PROTOPORPHYRIN CONCENTRATION WITH THE RETICULOCYTE PERCENTAGE UNDER EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL CONDITIONS (PubMed)

STUDIES OF PROTOPORPHYRIN: IV. A COMPARISON OF THE ERYTHROCYTE PROTOPORPHYRIN CONCENTRATION WITH THE RETICULOCYTE PERCENTAGE UNDER EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL CONDITIONS 16695085 2006 05 31 2018 11 13 0021-9738 23 1 1944 Jan The Journal of clinical investigation J. Clin. Invest. STUDIES OF PROTOPORPHYRIN: IV. A COMPARISON OF THE ERYTHROCYTE PROTOPORPHYRIN CONCENTRATION WITH THE RETICULOCYTE PERCENTAGE UNDER EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL CONDITIONS. 69-80 Watson C J CJ Division of Internal Medicine

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1944 Journal of Clinical Investigation

10. Free Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin

Free Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin Zinc Protoporphyrin Produced by In partnership with User Top Links Menu Search User Top Links Search Zinc Protoporphyrin Also Known As ZPP ZP Free Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin FEP Formal Name Zinc Protoporphyrin This article was last reviewed on 24 August 2015. This article was last modified on 15 October 2018. At a Glance Why Get Tested? To screen for and monitor chronic exposure to lead; as an aid in the diagnosis of iron deficiency in children When To Get Tested (...) available, then protoporphyrin combines with zinc instead of iron to form zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP). ZPP serves no useful purpose in the red blood cells since it cannot transport oxygen around the body. Lead prevents iron (but not zinc) from attaching to protoporphyrin so zinc protoporphyrin will also be elevated in severe cases of . ZPP is measured in two ways. The free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) test measures both ZPP (which accounts for 90% of protoporphyrin in red blood cells) and free

2012 Lab Tests Online UK

11. Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin

Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin (...) Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin Aka: Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin , Free Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin , RBC Protoporphyrin , Protoporphyrin , Zinc Protoporphyrin , Free Protoporphyrin From Related Chapters II. Indications Low-cost clinic-based screening screening III. Physiology Protoporphyrin converted to heme by ferrocheletase Lead inhibits ferrocheletase Protoporphyrin accumulates (ferrocheletase absent) results in impaired heme synthesis Protoporphyrin accumulates IV. Technique Hematofluorimeter measures

2015 FP Notebook

12. Zinc erythrocyte protoporphyrin as marker of malaria risk in pregnancy - a retrospective cross-sectional and longitudinal study. (PubMed)

Zinc erythrocyte protoporphyrin as marker of malaria risk in pregnancy - a retrospective cross-sectional and longitudinal study. The effects of iron interventions and host iron status on infection risk have been a recurrent clinical concern, although there has been little research on this interaction in pregnant women.Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were undertaken to determine the association of whole blood zinc erythrocyte protoporphyrin (ZPP) with malaria parasitaemia in pregnant

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2012 Malaria journal

13. Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin level and nerve conduction velocity in end-stage renal disease. (PubMed)

Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin level and nerve conduction velocity in end-stage renal disease. Increased free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentrations and depressed motor nerve conduction velocities (MNCV) were observed in 45 patients on maintenance haemodialysis. Neither of these findings could be correlated with age, duration or frequency of dialysis, or the degree of uraemia present. A strong negative correlation (r=--0-53; P less than 0-001), however, existed between the free erythrocyte (...) protoporphyrin level and the MNCV, which suggested either (a) a direct effect of iron status on nerve function, or (b) a toxic factor in "uraemia" that depresses both nerve conduction and haemsynthetase activity.

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1975 British medical journal

14. Erythropoietic protoporphyria and lead intoxication: the molecular basis for difference in cutaneous photosensitivity. I. Different rates of disappearance of protoporphyrin from the erythrocytes, both in vivo and in vitro. (PubMed)

Erythropoietic protoporphyria and lead intoxication: the molecular basis for difference in cutaneous photosensitivity. I. Different rates of disappearance of protoporphyrin from the erythrocytes, both in vivo and in vitro. In lead intoxication photosensitivity is usually absent, despite concentrations of protoporphyrin in the erythrocytes equal to or greater than in erythropoietic protoporphyria. Profound differences in the distribution of protoporphyrin in aging erythrocytes were demonstrated (...) by age-dependent fractionation of cells on discontinuous density gradients. In erythropoietic protoporphyria the concentration of protoporphyrin declined extremely rapidly with erythrocyte age; the bulk of the protoporphyrin was lost in less than 3 days and the concentration of fluorescent erythrocytes in the gradient paralleled the decline of protoporphyrin. In lead intoxication the protoporphyrin concentration declined only slightly with cell aging and erythrocytes of all ages fluoresced

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1975 Journal of Clinical Investigation

15. Erythropoietic protoporphyria and lead intoxication: the molecular basis for difference in cutaneous photosensitivity. II. Different binding of erythrocyte protoporphyrin to hemoglobin. (PubMed)

Erythropoietic protoporphyria and lead intoxication: the molecular basis for difference in cutaneous photosensitivity. II. Different binding of erythrocyte protoporphyrin to hemoglobin. Acidic solvents extract the same porphyrin-protoporphyrin-from the erythrocytes of patients with either erythropoietic protoporphyria or lead intoxication. However, extractable protoporphyrin disappears rapidly, both in vivo and in vitro, from erythrocytes in erythropoietic protoporphyria but slowly, if at all (...) , in lead intoxication. Consistent with these observations, fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the intracellular state of the erythrocyte protoporphyrin is different in the two diseases. Spectrofluorometric measurements coupled with fractionations and biochemical syntheses showed that in erythropoietic protoporphyria the protoporphyrin is bound as the free base to hemoglobin molecules at sites other than the heme binding sites. In lead intoxication the fluorescent porphyrin is also bound

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1975 Journal of Clinical Investigation

16. Letter: Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin. (PubMed)

Letter: Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin. 1244954 1976 03 20 2008 11 20 0007-1447 1 6001 1976 Jan 10 British medical journal Br Med J Letter: Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin. 95 Stewart W K WK Fleming L W LW eng Journal Article England Br Med J 0372673 0007-1447 0 Porphyrins 0 Protoporphyrins AIM IM Anemia, Hypochromic blood Erythrocytes analysis Humans Neural Conduction Porphyrins blood Protoporphyrins blood Uremia complications 1976 1 10 1976 1 10 0 1 1976 1 10 0 0 ppublish 1244954 PMC1638380

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1976 British medical journal

17. Increased protoporphyrin in erythrocytes in a child with acute intermittent porphyria. (PubMed)

Increased protoporphyrin in erythrocytes in a child with acute intermittent porphyria. A child is described with acute intermittent porphyria but having an erythropoietic component, with disordered metabolism of porphyrins in bone marrow.

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1977 Archives of Disease in Childhood

18. Levels of delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase, uroporphyrinogen-I synthase, and protoporphyrin IX in erythrocytes from anemic mutant mice. (PubMed)

Levels of delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase, uroporphyrinogen-I synthase, and protoporphyrin IX in erythrocytes from anemic mutant mice. Levels of erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase [ALA-dehydratase; porphobilinogen synthase; 5-aminolevulinate hydro-lyase (adding 5-aminolevulinate and cyclizing), EC 4.2.1.24], UROPORPHYRINOGEN-I synthase [Uro-synthase; porphobilinogen ammonia-lyase (polymerizing), EC 4.3;1.8], AND PROTOPORPHYRIN IX (Proto) were measured by sensitive semimicroassays (...) using 2-5 mul of whole blood obtained from normal and anemic mutant mice. The levels of erythrocyte ALA-dehydratase and Uro-synthase showed marked developmental changes and ALA-dehydratase was influenced by the Lv gene. Mice with overt hemolytic diseases (ja/ja, sph/sph, nb/nb, ha/ha) had 10- to 20-fold increases in ALA-dehydratase, Uro-synthase, and Proto compared with their normal controls. Mice with an iron deficiency (mk/mk) and mice with hypoplastic anemias (W/Wv, Sl/Sld, an/an) had mild

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1977 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

19. THE ANEMIA OF INFECTION. VII. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF FREE ERYTHROCYTE PROTOPORPHYRIN, TOGETHER WITH SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE MEANING OF THE “EASILY SPLIT-OFF” IRON (PubMed)

THE ANEMIA OF INFECTION. VII. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF FREE ERYTHROCYTE PROTOPORPHYRIN, TOGETHER WITH SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE MEANING OF THE “EASILY SPLIT-OFF” IRON 16695548 2006 05 31 2018 11 13 0021-9738 27 2 1948 Mar The Journal of clinical investigation J. Clin. Invest. THE ANEMIA OF INFECTION. VII. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF FREE ERYTHROCYTE PROTOPORPHYRIN, TOGETHER WITH SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE MEANING OF THE "EASILY SPLIT-OFF" IRON. 245-59 Grinstein M M Department of Medicine, School

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1948 Journal of Clinical Investigation

20. STUDIES ON FREE ERYTHROCYTE PROTOPORPHYRIN, SERUM IRON, SERUM IRON-BINDING CAPACITY AND PLASMA COPPER DURING NORMAL PREGNANCY (PubMed)

STUDIES ON FREE ERYTHROCYTE PROTOPORPHYRIN, SERUM IRON, SERUM IRON-BINDING CAPACITY AND PLASMA COPPER DURING NORMAL PREGNANCY 16695702 2006 05 31 2018 12 01 0021-9738 28 3 1949 May The Journal of clinical investigation J. Clin. Invest. STUDIES ON FREE ERYTHROCYTE PROTOPORPHYRIN, SERUM IRON, SERUM IRON-BINDING CAPACITY AND PLASMA COPPER DURING NORMAL PREGNANCY. 487-91 Fay J J Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City. Cartwright G E GE Wintrobe M M MM eng (...) Journal Article United States J Clin Invest 7802877 0021-9738 0 Protoporphyrins 789U1901C5 Copper E1UOL152H7 Iron OM Copper Erythrocytes Female Humans Iron Plasma Pregnancy blood Protoporphyrins 4917:56r PREGNANCY/blood in 1949 5 1 0 0 1949 5 1 0 1 1949 5 1 0 0 ppublish 16695702 10.1172/JCI102095 PMC439626 J Clin Invest. 1948 Jan;27(1):91-7 16695536 Science. 1946 Oct 11;104(2702):340-1 17774530 Biochem J. 1931;25(4):1267-94 16744690 J Clin Invest. 1949 Jan;28(1):86-98 16695665 J Clin Invest. 1932 May

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1949 Journal of Clinical Investigation

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