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Ergotism

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1. Prophylactic use of ergot alkaloids in the third stage of labour. (PubMed)

Prophylactic use of ergot alkaloids in the third stage of labour. Previous research has shown that the prophylactic use of uterotonic agents in the third stage of labour reduces postpartum blood loss and moderate to severe postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). PPH is defined as a blood loss of 500 mL or more within 24 hours after birth. This is one of a series of systematic reviews assessing the effects of prophylactic use of uterotonic drugs; in this review prophylactic ergot alkaloids as a whole (...) , and different regimens of administration of ergot alkaloids, are compared with no uterotonic agents. This is an update of a Cochrane Review which was first published in 2007 and last updated in 2011.To determine the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic use of ergot alkaloids in the third stage of labour by any route (intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), or oral) compared with no uterotonic agents, for the prevention of PPH.For this update, we searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's

2018 Cochrane

3. Quantitative molecular diagnostic assays of grain washes for Claviceps purpurea are correlated with visual determinations of ergot contamination. (PubMed)

Quantitative molecular diagnostic assays of grain washes for Claviceps purpurea are correlated with visual determinations of ergot contamination.

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2017 PLoS ONE

4. Ergot Alkaloids at Doses Close to EU Regulatory Limits Induce Alterations of the Liver and Intestine (PubMed)

Ergot Alkaloids at Doses Close to EU Regulatory Limits Induce Alterations of the Liver and Intestine An increase in the occurrence of ergot alkaloids (EAs) contamination has been observed in North America and Europe in recent years. These toxins are well known for their effects on the circulatory and nervous systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of EAs on the liver and on the intestine using the pig both as a target species and as a non-rodent model for human. Three

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2018 Toxins

5. Ergot alkaloids induce vasoconstriction of bovine uterine and ovarian blood vessels. (PubMed)

Ergot alkaloids induce vasoconstriction of bovine uterine and ovarian blood vessels. Fescue toxicosis is a syndrome that impairs growth and reproduction in cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum [(Schreb.].) Darbysh)] in the United States, resulting in approximately $1 billion in annual economic loss in species that utilize this forage resource. Approximately 90% of tall fescue contains an endophytic fungus (Epichloë coenophiala) that produces ergot alkaloids. Ergot (...) alkaloids cause vasoconstriction and reduced blood flow to the extremities; however, it remains unknown how blood flow to the reproductive organs is affected in cattle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue reduce blood flow to the reproductive organs, thus hindering reproductive function. Angus heifers (n = 36) naïve to ergot alkaloids were placed in Calan gates and randomly assigned to receive either endophyte-infected fescue

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2018 Journal of animal science

6. Effects of Feeding a Mycotoxin Binder on Nutrient Digestibility, Alkaloid Recovery in Feces, and Performance of Lambs Fed Diets Contaminated with Cereal Ergot (PubMed)

Effects of Feeding a Mycotoxin Binder on Nutrient Digestibility, Alkaloid Recovery in Feces, and Performance of Lambs Fed Diets Contaminated with Cereal Ergot As contamination with cereal ergot has been increasing in western Canada, this study evaluated impacts of feeding a mycotoxin binder (Biomin® II; BB) on nutrient digestibility, alkaloid recovery in feces, and lamb growth performance. Forty-eight ram lambs (25.9 ± 1.4 kg) were randomly assigned to one of four barley-based diets: Control (C (...) ), no added alkaloids, Control + BB fed at 30 g/head per day (CBB); Ergot, 2564 ppb total R + S epimers (E); Ergot + BB, 2534 ppb R + S epimers (EBB). Lambs were fed ab libitum for up to 11 weeks until slaughter at >46 kg live weight. Both average daily gain (ADG) and gain/feed ratio were greater (p < 0.01) for lambs fed C and CBB diets as compared with those containing added ergot, although dry matter intake was not affected by dietary ergot or BB. Serum prolactin concentrations were two times higher

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2018 Toxins

7. Arterial Responses to Acute Low-Level Ergot Exposure in Hereford Cows (PubMed)

Arterial Responses to Acute Low-Level Ergot Exposure in Hereford Cows Ergot alkaloids are toxic secondary metabolites produced by the fungus Claviceps purpurea that contaminate cereal grains. Current Canadian standards allow 2 to 3 parts per million of ergot alkaloids in animal feed. The purpose of this study was to determine whether hemodynamic parameters were altered when beef cows were fed permissible levels of ergot alkaloids (i.e., <3 ppm) on a short-term basis. A dose-response (...) relationship between ergot alkaloid concentration and hemodynamic changes in caudal (coccygeal), median sacral, and internal iliac arteries was hypothesized. Beef cows were randomly allocated to: Control (<15 μg total ergot alkaloids/kg dry matter), Low (132 μg/kg), Medium (529 μg/kg), and High (2115 μg/kg) groups (n = 4 per group). Animals were fed 8.8 kg of dry matter daily for 4 days (pre-treatment), 7 days (treatment), and 4 days (post-treatment). The caudal, median sacral, and internal iliac arteries

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2018 Frontiers in veterinary science

8. Effects of Continuously Feeding Diets Containing Cereal Ergot Alkaloids on Nutrient Digestibility, Alkaloid Recovery in Feces, and Performance Traits of Ram Lambs (PubMed)

Effects of Continuously Feeding Diets Containing Cereal Ergot Alkaloids on Nutrient Digestibility, Alkaloid Recovery in Feces, and Performance Traits of Ram Lambs Allowable limits for cereal ergot alkaloids in livestock feeds are being re-examined, and the objective of this study was to compare nutrient digestibility, growth performance and carcass characteristics of ram lambs fed a range of alkaloid concentrations, including the maximum currently allowed in Canada (2 to 3 ppm). Four pelleted

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2017 Toxins

9. Ergot Alkaloids in Fattening Chickens (Broilers): Toxic Effects and Carry over Depending on Dietary Fat Proportion and Supplementation with Non-Starch-Polysaccharide (NSP) Hydrolyzing Enzymes (PubMed)

Ergot Alkaloids in Fattening Chickens (Broilers): Toxic Effects and Carry over Depending on Dietary Fat Proportion and Supplementation with Non-Starch-Polysaccharide (NSP) Hydrolyzing Enzymes Ergot alkaloids (EA) are mycotoxins produced by Claviceps purpurea. EA-toxicity is poorly characterized for fattening chickens. Therefore, a dose-response study was performed to identify the lowest, and no observed adverse effect levels (LOAEL and NOAEL, respectively) based on several endpoints. Non-starch

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2017 Toxins

10. Ergot Alkaloids of the Family Clavicipitaceae (PubMed)

Ergot Alkaloids of the Family Clavicipitaceae Ergot alkaloids are highly diverse in structure, exhibit diverse effects on animals, and are produced by diverse fungi in the phylum Ascomycota, including pathogens and mutualistic symbionts of plants. These mycotoxins are best known from the fungal family Clavicipitaceae and are named for the ergot fungi that, through millennia, have contaminated grains and caused mass poisonings, with effects ranging from dry gangrene to convulsions and death (...) . However, they are also useful sources of pharmaceuticals for a variety of medical purposes. More than a half-century of research has brought us extensive knowledge of ergot-alkaloid biosynthetic pathways from common early steps to several taxon-specific branches. Furthermore, a recent flurry of genome sequencing has revealed the genomic processes underlying ergot-alkaloid diversification. In this review, we discuss the evolution of ergot-alkaloid biosynthesis genes and gene clusters, including roles

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2017 Phytopathology

11. Ergot alkaloids contribute to virulence in an insect model of invasive aspergillosis (PubMed)

Ergot alkaloids contribute to virulence in an insect model of invasive aspergillosis Neosartorya fumigata (Aspergillus fumigatus) is the most common cause of invasive aspergillosis, a frequently fatal lung disease primarily affecting immunocompromised individuals. This opportunistic fungal pathogen produces several classes of specialised metabolites including products of a branch of the ergot alkaloid pathway called fumigaclavines. The biosynthesis of the N. fumigata ergot alkaloids (...) and their relation to those produced by alternate pathway branches in fungi from the plant-inhabiting Clavicipitaceae have been well-characterised, but the potential role of these alkaloids in animal pathogenesis has not been studied extensively. We investigated the contribution of ergot alkaloids to virulence of N. fumigata by measuring mortality in the model insect Galleria mellonella. Larvae were injected with conidia (asexual spores) of two different wild-type strains of N. fumigata and three different ergot

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2017 Scientific reports

12. Biosynthesis of the Pharmaceutically Important Fungal Ergot Alkaloid Dihydrolysergic Acid Requires a Specialized Allele of cloA (PubMed)

Biosynthesis of the Pharmaceutically Important Fungal Ergot Alkaloid Dihydrolysergic Acid Requires a Specialized Allele of cloA Ergot alkaloids are specialized fungal metabolites that are important as the bases of several pharmaceuticals. Many ergot alkaloids are derivatives of lysergic acid (LA) and have vasoconstrictive activity, whereas several dihydrolysergic acid (DHLA) derivatives are vasorelaxant. The pathway to LA is established, with the P450 monooxygenase CloA playing a key role (...) agroclavine to LA, indicating that a functional CloA was produced. A genomic clone of cloA from Claviceps africana, a sorghum ergot fungus that produces a DHLA derivative, was cloned and expressed in the festuclavine-accumulating mutant of N. fumigata, but several introns in this genomic clone were not processed properly. Expression of a synthetic intron-free version of C. africanacloA resulted in the accumulation of DHLA as assessed by fluorescence high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid

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2017 Applied and environmental microbiology

13. Risks of Cardiac Valve Regurgitation and Heart Failure Associated with Ergot- and Non-Ergot-Derived Dopamine Agonist Use in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies. (PubMed)

Risks of Cardiac Valve Regurgitation and Heart Failure Associated with Ergot- and Non-Ergot-Derived Dopamine Agonist Use in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies. Dopamine agonists (DAs) are commonly used in the therapy of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, several observational studies have suggested a putative association between DAs and specific cardiac adverse events.The aim of this study was to systematically review and summarize the available (...) epidemiologic evidence on the association between use of ergot- and non-ergot-derived DAs and the risk of valvular heart disease, specifically cardiac valve regurgitation (CVR) and heart failure (HF) in patients with PD.The databases MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE were searched for all relevant articles published before February 2015. Studies were eligible if they met the following inclusion criteria: exposure to any approved non-ergot- or ergot-derived DA, presentation of original data, inclusion

2015 CNS drugs

14. Transdermal Patch of Rotigotine Attenuates Freezing of Gait in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: An Open-Label Comparative Study of Three Non-Ergot Dopamine Receptor Agonists (PubMed)

Transdermal Patch of Rotigotine Attenuates Freezing of Gait in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: An Open-Label Comparative Study of Three Non-Ergot Dopamine Receptor Agonists Objective Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Rotigotine is a non-ergot dopamine receptor agonist (DA). Its transdermal patch maintains the effective concentrations for 24 hours. Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common and devastating symptom (...) in PD patients. Little is known about therapeutic effects of rotigotine on FOG in PD patients. Herein we compared how three non-ergot DAs of rotigotine, pramipexole LA and ropinirole CR influence FOG, besides classical motor deficits in PD patients. Methods Rotigotine (maintenance doses of 9-27 mg/day) was administered in 51 patients, 36 patients received pramipexole LA (1.5-4.5 mg/day) and 35 patients received ropinirole CR (8-16 mg/day). The Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) parts I-IV, FOG

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2016 Internal Medicine

15. Ergot Use and Overuse: A Pharmacoepidemiology Retrospective Cohort Study. (PubMed)

Ergot Use and Overuse: A Pharmacoepidemiology Retrospective Cohort Study. The objective of this study was to estimate and to characterize the actual patterns of ergot use and overuse in France using a drug reimbursement database.We included all people covered by the French General Health Insurance System (GHIS) from the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur (PACA) and Corsica administrative areas who had at least one prescription of ergot between May 2010 and December 2011. All prescriptions of ergots (...) , migraine prophylactic treatment, and psychotropic medications were extracted from the GHIS database. We defined occasional ergot users (<3 months of prescription) and regular ergot users (>3 months of prescription). Among regular ergot users, we identified overusers and nonoverusers.We included 4358 patients who had at least one prescription of ergots (oral ergotamine tartrate, dihydroergotamine mesilate nasal spray, intravenous dihydroergotamine mesilate). Among ergot overusers, a large majority

2016 Headache

16. Non-Ergot Dopamine Agonists Do Not Increase the Risk of Heart Failure in Parkinson's Disease Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. (PubMed)

Non-Ergot Dopamine Agonists Do Not Increase the Risk of Heart Failure in Parkinson's Disease Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. In recent years, some observational studies suggested that pramipexole, a non-ergot dopamine agonist (DA) used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), may increase the risk of heart failure (HF). However, the limitations inherent in observational studies made it difficult to determine whether the excess of incident HF was related (...) to the drug or to other determinants. Thus, some concerns remained regarding the increased putative HF risk associated with non-ergot DAs as a class or individually.In our meta-analysis, primary endpoint was the risk of incident HF in patients with PD treated with non-ergot DAs compared to those treated with monotherapy with levodopa. Secondary outcome measures were all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. For these purposes, only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were considered, provided

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2016 Journal of clinical medicine research

17. Functional analysis of the gene controlling hydroxylation of festuclavine in the ergot alkaloid pathway of Neosartorya fumigata (PubMed)

Functional analysis of the gene controlling hydroxylation of festuclavine in the ergot alkaloid pathway of Neosartorya fumigata Bioactive ergot alkaloids produced by several species of fungi are important molecules in agriculture and medicine. Much of the ergot alkaloid pathway has been elucidated, but a few steps, including the gene controlling hydroxylation of festuclavine to fumigaclavine B, remain unsolved. Festuclavine is a key intermediate in the fumigaclavine branch of the ergot alkaloid (...) pathway of the opportunistic pathogen Neosartorya fumigata and also in the dihydrolysergic acid-based ergot alkaloid pathway of certain Claviceps species. Based on several lines of evidence, the N. fumigata gene easM is a logical candidate to encode the festuclavine-hydroxylating enzyme. To test this hypothesis we disrupted easM function by replacing part of its coding sequences with a hygromycin resistance gene and transforming N. fumigata with this construct. High-pressure liquid chromatography

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2016 Current genetics

18. Ergotism

Ergotism Ergotism Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Ergotism Ergotism Aka: Ergotism II. History Seen in epidemic form (...) since the Middle Ages Implicated in alleged behavior of Salem witches III. Causes Excessive Ergot alkaloid drug intake Ergonovine Methylergometrine (Methergine) ( ) ( ) Ergot alkaloid used concurrently with potentiator Rye or wheat infected with fungus Claviceps purpurea IV. Symptoms s s Drowsiness or V. Signs: Gangrene of poorly vascularized distal structures Tip of nose Ears Fingers Toes Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search

2018 FP Notebook

19. Ergotism in Thailand Caused by Increased Access to Antiretroviral Drugs: A Global Warning (PubMed)

Ergotism in Thailand Caused by Increased Access to Antiretroviral Drugs: A Global Warning Ergotism is a toxic condition resulting from overexposure to the ergot compounds produced by various fungi of the genus Claviceps. Traditionally, such exposure was due to ingestion of infected grains, but long-term or excessive use of medications containing ergot derivatives or drug-drug interactions between these medications can result in ergotism. Ergotamine, typically used to treat migraine, has less (...) than 5% bioavailability due to extensive first-pass metabolism by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Concurrent intake of ergotamine and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as the HIV protease inhibitors (PIs), can lead to clinical ergotism. A total of 13 cases of clinical ergotism in HIV-infected patients has been published since 1997 (most recently reviewed by Frohlich et al).

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2016 Topics in antiviral medicine

20. Physiological Effects of Ergot Alkaloid and Indole-Diterpene Consumption on Sheep under Hot and Thermoneutral Ambient Temperature Conditions (PubMed)

Physiological Effects of Ergot Alkaloid and Indole-Diterpene Consumption on Sheep under Hot and Thermoneutral Ambient Temperature Conditions A controlled feeding study was undertaken to determine the physiological and production effects of consuming perennial ryegrass alkaloids (fed via seed) under extreme heat in sheep. Twenty-four Merino ewe weaners (6 months; initial BW 30.8 ± 1.0 kg) were selected and the treatment period lasted 21 days following a 14 day acclimatisation period. Two levels

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2016 Animals : an open access journal from MDPI

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