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Epidemiology Rates

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1. Risk of solid cancer in low dose-rate radiation epidemiological studies and the dose-rate effectiveness factor.

Risk of solid cancer in low dose-rate radiation epidemiological studies and the dose-rate effectiveness factor. Estimated radiation risks used for radiation protection purposes have been based primarily on the Life Span Study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors who received brief exposures at high dose rates, many with high doses. Information is needed regarding radiation risks from low dose-rate (LDR) exposures to low linear-energy-transfer (low-LET) radiation. We conducted a meta-analysis of LDR (...) epidemiologic studies that provide dose-response estimates of total solid cancer risk in adulthood in comparison to corresponding LSS risks, in order to estimate a dose rate effectiveness factor (DREF).We identified 22 LDR studies with dose-response risk estimates for solid cancer after minimizing information overlap. For each study, a parallel risk estimate was derived from the LSS risk model using matching values for sex, mean ages at first exposure and attained age, targeted cancer types, and accounting

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2018 International journal of radiation biology

2. Potential epidemiologic, economic, and budgetary impacts of current rates of hepatitis C treatment in medicare and non‐medicare populations (PubMed)

Potential epidemiologic, economic, and budgetary impacts of current rates of hepatitis C treatment in medicare and non‐medicare populations We forecast the health and budgetary impact of hepatitis C (HCV) treatment on the Medicare program based on currently observed rates of treatment among Medicare and non-Medicare patients and identify the impact of higher rates of treatment among non-Medicare populations. We developed a computer microsimulation model to conduct an epidemiologic forecast (...) , a budgetary impact analysis, and a cost-effectiveness analysis of the treatment of HCV based on three scenarios: 1) no treatment, 2) continuation of current-treatment rates, and 3) treatment rates among non-Medicare patients increased to match that of Medicare patients. The simulated population is based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. HCV progression rates and costs were calculated in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program Medicare 5% claims data from the Chronic

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2017 Hepatology communications

3. Impact of cross-over rates on the outcome of cardiac surgery trials: a meta-epidemiologic study

Impact of cross-over rates on the outcome of cardiac surgery trials: a meta-epidemiologic study Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external

2019 PROSPERO

4. Is self-esteem associated with self-rated health among French college students? A longitudinal epidemiological study: the i-Share cohort. (PubMed)

Is self-esteem associated with self-rated health among French college students? A longitudinal epidemiological study: the i-Share cohort. The aim of the study was to estimate the association between self-esteem and subsequent self-rated health during college years, taking into account a wide range of potential confounders.Prospective longitudinal study.The French i-Share cohort.The sample consisted of 1011 college students.The association between self-esteem and later self-rated health (...) was evaluated using multivariate modelling.Data regarding self-rated health, global self-esteem and demographic, educational, social, behavioural, environmental and financial characteristics were collected through an internet-based questionnaire.The 1011 participants had a median age of 21.9 years and 79% (795/1011) were females. Self-rated health was assessed a median of 8 months after the self-esteem measurement. Twenty per cent of the students declared average to very poor health (203/1011). Students

2019 BMJ open

5. Diagnostic performance of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation at estimating glomerular filtration rate in adults with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol. (PubMed)

Diagnostic performance of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation at estimating glomerular filtration rate in adults with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol. Timely detection leading to the implementation of reno-protective measures reduces the progression of diabetic kidney disease. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is a major surrogate of kidney function. The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI

2019 BMJ open

6. Incidence of diseases primarily affecting the skin by age group: population-based epidemiologic study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and comparison with age-specific incidence rates worldwide. (PubMed)

Incidence of diseases primarily affecting the skin by age group: population-based epidemiologic study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and comparison with age-specific incidence rates worldwide. Understanding the effects of age on the epidemiology of diseases primarily affecting the skin is important to the practice of dermatology, both for proper allocation of resources and for optimal patient-centered care. To fully appreciate the effect that age may have on the population-based calculations (...) of incidence of diseases primarily affecting the skin in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and worldwide, we performed a review of all relevant Rochester Epidemiology Project-published data and compared them to similar reports in the worldwide English literature. Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project, population-based epidemiologic studies have been performed to estimate the incidence of specific skin diseases over the past 50 years. In older persons (>65 years), nonmelanoma skin cancer, lentigo maligna

2018 International Journal of Dermatology

7. Diagnostic test guidelines based on high-quality evidence had greater rates of adherence: A meta-epidemiological study. (PubMed)

Diagnostic test guidelines based on high-quality evidence had greater rates of adherence: A meta-epidemiological study. To determine the association between the quality of guidelines for diagnostic tests (both the quality and reporting and the quality of the evidence underpinning recommendations) and nonadherence.We conducted a meta-epidemiological study. We previously published a systematic review that quantified the percentage of test use that was nonadherent with guidelines. For the present

2018 Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

8. Disparities in the Estimation of Glomerular Filtration Rate According to Cockcroft‐Gault, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease‐4, and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration Equations and Relation With Outcomes in Patients With Acute Corona (PubMed)

Disparities in the Estimation of Glomerular Filtration Rate According to Cockcroft‐Gault, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease‐4, and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration Equations and Relation With Outcomes in Patients With Acute Corona A simple method to assess renal function is the estimated glomerular filtration rate, and it shows prognostic implications. However, it remains unknown which equation should be used in patients with acute coronary syndrome. We compared (...) the ability and correlation of the Cockcroft-Gault, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease-4 (MDRD-4), and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations and their predictive performance for major adverse cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality, and major bleeding in a cohort of patients with acute coronary syndrome.Multicenter prospective registry involving 1699 consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome from 3 tertiary institutions. At entry, renal function was assessed

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2018 Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease

9. Couple serostatus patterns in sub-Saharan Africa illuminate the relative roles of transmission rates and sexual network characteristics in HIV epidemiology (PubMed)

Couple serostatus patterns in sub-Saharan Africa illuminate the relative roles of transmission rates and sexual network characteristics in HIV epidemiology HIV prevalence has surpassed 30% in some African countries while peaking at less than 1% in others. The extent to which this variation is driven by biological factors influencing the HIV transmission rate or by variation in sexual network characteristics remains widely debated. Here, we leverage couple serostatus patterns to address (...) this question. HIV prevalence is strongly correlated with couple serostatus patterns across the continent; in particular, high prevalence countries tend to have a lower ratio of serodiscordancy to concordant positivity. To investigate the drivers of this continental pattern, we fit an HIV transmission model to Demographic and Health Survey data from 45,041 cohabiting couples in 25 countries. In doing so, we estimated country-specific HIV transmission rates and sexual network characteristics reflective

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2018 Scientific reports

10. The Epidemiological Influence of Climatic Factors on Shigellosis Incidence Rates in Korea (PubMed)

The Epidemiological Influence of Climatic Factors on Shigellosis Incidence Rates in Korea Research has shown the effects of climatic factors on shigellosis; however, no previous study has evaluated climatic effects in regions with a winter seasonality of shigellosis incidence. We examined the effects of temperature and precipitation on shigellosis incidence in Korea from 2002⁻2010. The incidence of shigellosis was calculated based on data from the Korean Center for Disease Control (...) and Prevention (KCDC, Cheongju, Korea), and a generalized additive model (GAM) was used to analyze the associations between the incidence and climatic factors. The annual incidence rate of shigellosis was 7.9 cases/million persons from 2002⁻2010. During 2007⁻2010, high incidence rates and winter seasonality were observed among those aged ≥65 years, but not among lower age groups. Based on the GAM model, the incidence of shigellosis is expected to increase by 13.6% and 2.9% with a temperature increase of 1 °C

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2018 International journal of environmental research and public health

11. Serum Creatinine and Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate: Independent Predictors of Renal Replacement Therapy following Cardiac Surgery. (PubMed)

Serum Creatinine and Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate: Independent Predictors of Renal Replacement Therapy following Cardiac Surgery. Most studies evaluating predictors of renal replacement therapy (RRT) following cardiac surgery use arbitrary defined limits of preoperative serum creatinine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative renal function using either estimated-glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) derived using Chronic Kidney (...) Disease-Epidemiology (CKD-EPI) or serum creatinine alone as a predictor for RRT after cardiac surgery.In this prospective cohort study, baseline, intraoperative, and postoperative data of all patients who underwent an elective, urgent, or emergency cardiac surgery between 2012 and 2016 in a single center were analyzed in order to identify multivariate parameters determining the need for RRT after surgery. For preoperative renal function, we used serum creatinine levels and eGFR-derived CKD-EPI

2018 American journal of nephrology

12. Evaluation of epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics and mortality rate of patients with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in the northeast region of Turkey. (PubMed)

Evaluation of epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics and mortality rate of patients with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in the northeast region of Turkey. : Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), an illness characterized by fever and hemorrhage, is caused by a CCHF virus (CCHFV). It is an important public health problem in Turkey. The objective of this study was to evaluate the demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics and mortality rates of CCHF patients (...) and 4.4% by IFA methods. Severe cases constituted 22.3% (46) of the included patients. Throughout the course of this study, 7 (3.4%) patients died, and the remaining 96.6% (199) patients were discharged with a full recovery. Disease severity was significantly correlated with mortality rate and duration of hospitalization (p <0.001 and p = 0.013).: In this study, the mortality rate observed was lower than that reported in the literature because of accessibility of early supportive therapy. It would

2017 Journal of Vector Borne Disease

13. Plasma Proteomics for Epidemiology: Increasing Throughput With Standard-Flow Rates. (PubMed)

Plasma Proteomics for Epidemiology: Increasing Throughput With Standard-Flow Rates. Mass spectrometry is selective and sensitive, permitting routine quantification of multiple plasma proteins. However, commonly used nanoflow liquid chromatography (LC) approaches hamper sample throughput, reproducibility, and robustness. For this reason, most publications using plasma proteomics to date are small in study size.Here, we tested a standard-flow LC mass spectrometry (MS) method using multiple (...) reaction monitoring for the application to large epidemiological cohorts. We have reduced the LC-MS run time to almost a third of the nanoflow LC-MS approach. On the basis of a comparison of the quantification of 100 plasma proteins in >1500 LC-MS runs, the SD range of the retention time during continuous operation was substantially lower with the standard-flow LC-MS (<0.05 minutes) compared with the nanoflow LC-MS method (0.26-0.44 minutes). In addition, the standard-flow LC method also offered less

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2017 Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics

14. Trend analysis of mortality rates and causes of death in children under 5 years old in Beijing, China from 1992 to 2015 and forecast of mortality into the future: an entire population-based epidemiological study. (PubMed)

Trend analysis of mortality rates and causes of death in children under 5 years old in Beijing, China from 1992 to 2015 and forecast of mortality into the future: an entire population-based epidemiological study. To analyse trends in mortality and causes of death among children aged under 5 years in Beijing, China between 1992 and 2015 and to forecast under-5 mortality rates (U5MRs) for the period 2016-2020.An entire population-based epidemiological study was conducted. Data collection (...) was based on the Child Death Reporting Card of the Beijing Under-5 Mortality Rate Surveillance Network. Trends in mortality and leading causes of death were analysed using the χ2 test and SPSS 19.0 software. An autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was fitted to forecast U5MRs between 2016 and 2020 using the EViews 8.0 software.Mortality in neonates, infants and children aged under 5 years decreased by 84.06%, 80.04% and 80.17% from 1992 to 2015, respectively. However, the U5MR

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2017 BMJ open

15. Changes in medical management and colectomy rates: a population-based cohort study on the epidemiology and natural history of ulcerative colitis in Örebro, Sweden, 1963-2010. (PubMed)

Changes in medical management and colectomy rates: a population-based cohort study on the epidemiology and natural history of ulcerative colitis in Örebro, Sweden, 1963-2010. Whether the epidemiology of ulcerative colitis (UC) has changed during recent decades is partly unknown.To depict temporal trends in the epidemiology and medical treatment of UC as well as the long-term risk of progression in disease extent and colectomy, during 1963-2010.Patients were identified by evaluation of all (...) for progression in disease extent was 34.5% and 18.5% at 10 years, for patients with proctitis and left-sided colitis, respectively (P < .01). The use of 5-aminosalicylates, within 10 years, rise from 79% to 92% between 1963-1975 and 1976-1990 (P < .01). Thiopurine use increased from 7% in 1976-1990 to 34% during 1991-2005 (P < .01). The colectomy rate at 10 years was 13.5% (95% CI 11.1%-15.8%), and the risk was lower among patients diagnosed in 1991-2005 compared to 1963-1975 (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.61; 95

2017 Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

16. Influence of Epidemiologic and Patient Behavior-Related Predictors on Amputation Rates in Diabetic Patients: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. (PubMed)

Influence of Epidemiologic and Patient Behavior-Related Predictors on Amputation Rates in Diabetic Patients: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Amputation of patients with diabetic foot is a major issue worldwide, particularly from a medical and economic standpoint. This meta-analysis aimed to identify significant risk factors of high amputation rate among epidemiologic and patient behavior-related predictors in diabetic patients. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis were (...) performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. Seven variables were extracted from the included studies and evaluated based on amputation rate. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess the quality of the studies. The search strategy identified 101 publications. After screening, 33 articles were selected for review. Male sex and smoking were identified as significant risk factors of high amputation rate of diabetic foot. Although further investigation of long-term and randomized controlled

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2017 The international journal of lower extremity wounds

17. Epidemiologic Surveillance of Teenage Birth Rates in the United States, 2006-2012. (PubMed)

Epidemiologic Surveillance of Teenage Birth Rates in the United States, 2006-2012. To investigate the geographic variation in the average teenage birth rates by county in the contiguous United States.Data from the National Center for Health Statistics were used in this retrospective cohort to count the total number of live births to females aged 15-19 years by county between 2006 and 2012. Software for disease surveillance and spatial cluster analysis was used to identify clusters of high (...) or low teenage births in counties or areas of greater than 100,000 teenage females. The analysis was then adjusted for percentage of poverty and high school diploma achievement.The unadjusted analysis identified the top 10 clusters of teenage births. The cluster with the highest rate was a city and the surrounding 40 counties, demonstrating an average teen birth rate of 67 per 1,000 females in the age range, 87% higher than the rate in the contiguous United States. Adjustments for poverty rates

2017 Obstetrics and Gynecology

18. Cockcroft-Gault, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations for estimating glomerular filtration rates in cancer patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy (PubMed)

Cockcroft-Gault, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations for estimating glomerular filtration rates in cancer patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy Although the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation has been recommended for accurate estimates of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), there is little information regarding differences in GFR estimates obtained using the Cockcroft-Gault (CG

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2017 Kidney research and clinical practice

19. Epidemiological Screening of IL10RA Mutation Rate in China

Epidemiological Screening of IL10RA Mutation Rate in China Epidemiological Screening of IL10RA Mutation Rate in China - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Epidemiological Screening of IL10RA (...) Duration: 3 Years Official Title: Epidemiological Screening of p.R101W and p.T179T IL10RA Mutation Rates in Henan Province, China Estimated Study Start Date : March 1, 2019 Estimated Primary Completion Date : March 31, 2020 Estimated Study Completion Date : December 1, 2020 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: (AHRQ) related information: Groups and Cohorts Go to Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : The mutation rate of IL-10RA in chinese [ Time Frame

2017 Clinical Trials

20. Optimal control of vaccination rate in an epidemiological model of Clostridium difficile transmission (PubMed)

Optimal control of vaccination rate in an epidemiological model of Clostridium difficile transmission The spore-forming, gram-negative bacteria Clostridium difficile can cause severe intestinal illness. A striking increase in the number of cases of C. difficile infection (CDI) among hospitals has highlighted the need to better understand how to prevent the spread of CDI. In our paper, we modify and update a compartmental model of nosocomial C. difficile transmission to include vaccination. We (...) then apply optimal control theory to determine the time-varying optimal vaccination rate that minimizes a combination of disease prevalence and spread in the hospital population as well as cost, in terms of time and money, associated with vaccination. Various hospital scenarios are considered, such as times of increased antibiotic prescription rate and times of outbreak, to see how such scenarios modify the optimal vaccination rate. By comparing the values of the objective functional with constant

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2017 Journal of mathematical biology

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