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Endocrine Manifestations of HIV

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101. Developmental rheumatology in children. Scenario: Bow legs in children

dysplasia, bony manifestation of endocrine or renal abnormalities) [ ]. There may be an association with pathologic bow legs and early osteoarthritis. Surgery may be necessary if the condition does not spontaneously resolve or there is extreme angulation [ ]. Scenario: Clumsy child Scenario: Clumsy child From birth to 16 years. Clumsy child When should I consider referring a clumsy child? Management in the community (for example by a physiotherapist with paediatric expertise) is usually appropriate (...) or young person with: Atypical symptoms. Worsening symptoms. Unremitting pain; night pain; thoracic pain. Non-mechanical pain. Abnormal loss or deterioration of function. Significant loss of movement. Gait disturbance. Significant lower limb asymmetry. TB, cancer, HIV/AIDS, steroid use, multiple fractures. Skin changes, for example, cafe au lait, psoriasis, bruising. Paediatric Musculoskeletal Matters ( ) is a resource for clinicians working with children and young people. It aims to facilitate early

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

102. Developmental rheumatology in children. Scenario: Tip-toe walking

dysplasia, bony manifestation of endocrine or renal abnormalities) [ ]. There may be an association with pathologic bow legs and early osteoarthritis. Surgery may be necessary if the condition does not spontaneously resolve or there is extreme angulation [ ]. Scenario: Clumsy child Scenario: Clumsy child From birth to 16 years. Clumsy child When should I consider referring a clumsy child? Management in the community (for example by a physiotherapist with paediatric expertise) is usually appropriate (...) or young person with: Atypical symptoms. Worsening symptoms. Unremitting pain; night pain; thoracic pain. Non-mechanical pain. Abnormal loss or deterioration of function. Significant loss of movement. Gait disturbance. Significant lower limb asymmetry. TB, cancer, HIV/AIDS, steroid use, multiple fractures. Skin changes, for example, cafe au lait, psoriasis, bruising. Paediatric Musculoskeletal Matters ( ) is a resource for clinicians working with children and young people. It aims to facilitate early

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

103. Developmental rheumatology in children. Scenario: Curly toes in children

dysplasia, bony manifestation of endocrine or renal abnormalities) [ ]. There may be an association with pathologic bow legs and early osteoarthritis. Surgery may be necessary if the condition does not spontaneously resolve or there is extreme angulation [ ]. Scenario: Clumsy child Scenario: Clumsy child From birth to 16 years. Clumsy child When should I consider referring a clumsy child? Management in the community (for example by a physiotherapist with paediatric expertise) is usually appropriate (...) or young person with: Atypical symptoms. Worsening symptoms. Unremitting pain; night pain; thoracic pain. Non-mechanical pain. Abnormal loss or deterioration of function. Significant loss of movement. Gait disturbance. Significant lower limb asymmetry. TB, cancer, HIV/AIDS, steroid use, multiple fractures. Skin changes, for example, cafe au lait, psoriasis, bruising. Paediatric Musculoskeletal Matters ( ) is a resource for clinicians working with children and young people. It aims to facilitate early

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

104. Developmental rheumatology in children. Scenario: Flat feet in children

dysplasia, bony manifestation of endocrine or renal abnormalities) [ ]. There may be an association with pathologic bow legs and early osteoarthritis. Surgery may be necessary if the condition does not spontaneously resolve or there is extreme angulation [ ]. Scenario: Clumsy child Scenario: Clumsy child From birth to 16 years. Clumsy child When should I consider referring a clumsy child? Management in the community (for example by a physiotherapist with paediatric expertise) is usually appropriate (...) or young person with: Atypical symptoms. Worsening symptoms. Unremitting pain; night pain; thoracic pain. Non-mechanical pain. Abnormal loss or deterioration of function. Significant loss of movement. Gait disturbance. Significant lower limb asymmetry. TB, cancer, HIV/AIDS, steroid use, multiple fractures. Skin changes, for example, cafe au lait, psoriasis, bruising. Paediatric Musculoskeletal Matters ( ) is a resource for clinicians working with children and young people. It aims to facilitate early

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

105. Developmental rheumatology in children. Scenario: Growing pains

dysplasia, bony manifestation of endocrine or renal abnormalities) [ ]. There may be an association with pathologic bow legs and early osteoarthritis. Surgery may be necessary if the condition does not spontaneously resolve or there is extreme angulation [ ]. Scenario: Clumsy child Scenario: Clumsy child From birth to 16 years. Clumsy child When should I consider referring a clumsy child? Management in the community (for example by a physiotherapist with paediatric expertise) is usually appropriate (...) or young person with: Atypical symptoms. Worsening symptoms. Unremitting pain; night pain; thoracic pain. Non-mechanical pain. Abnormal loss or deterioration of function. Significant loss of movement. Gait disturbance. Significant lower limb asymmetry. TB, cancer, HIV/AIDS, steroid use, multiple fractures. Skin changes, for example, cafe au lait, psoriasis, bruising. Paediatric Musculoskeletal Matters ( ) is a resource for clinicians working with children and young people. It aims to facilitate early

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

106. Developmental rheumatology in children

, special shoes, and inserts) are not usually indicated [ ; ]. Referral The recommendation on when to consider referral is based on musculoskeletal triage guidance for children and young people [ ], an explanation of the pGALS (paediatric Gait, Arms, Legs, and Spine) examination [ ], and expert opinion in review articles [ ; ; ; ]. In a small number of children, bracing or surgical intervention may be indicated (for example infantile Blount disease, skeletal dysplasia, bony manifestation of endocrine (...) symptoms. Unremitting pain; night pain; thoracic pain. Non-mechanical pain. Abnormal loss or deterioration of function. Significant loss of movement. Gait disturbance. Significant lower limb asymmetry. TB, cancer, HIV/AIDS, steroid use, multiple fractures. Skin changes, for example, cafe au lait, psoriasis, bruising. Paediatric Musculoskeletal Matters ( ) is a resource for clinicians working with children and young people. It aims to facilitate early diagnosis and appropriate referral to specialist

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

107. Developmental rheumatology in children. Scenario: Knock knees in children

dysplasia, bony manifestation of endocrine or renal abnormalities) [ ]. There may be an association with pathologic bow legs and early osteoarthritis. Surgery may be necessary if the condition does not spontaneously resolve or there is extreme angulation [ ]. Scenario: Clumsy child Scenario: Clumsy child From birth to 16 years. Clumsy child When should I consider referring a clumsy child? Management in the community (for example by a physiotherapist with paediatric expertise) is usually appropriate (...) or young person with: Atypical symptoms. Worsening symptoms. Unremitting pain; night pain; thoracic pain. Non-mechanical pain. Abnormal loss or deterioration of function. Significant loss of movement. Gait disturbance. Significant lower limb asymmetry. TB, cancer, HIV/AIDS, steroid use, multiple fractures. Skin changes, for example, cafe au lait, psoriasis, bruising. Paediatric Musculoskeletal Matters ( ) is a resource for clinicians working with children and young people. It aims to facilitate early

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

108. Developmental rheumatology in children. Scenario: Hypermobility in children

dysplasia, bony manifestation of endocrine or renal abnormalities) [ ]. There may be an association with pathologic bow legs and early osteoarthritis. Surgery may be necessary if the condition does not spontaneously resolve or there is extreme angulation [ ]. Scenario: Clumsy child Scenario: Clumsy child From birth to 16 years. Clumsy child When should I consider referring a clumsy child? Management in the community (for example by a physiotherapist with paediatric expertise) is usually appropriate (...) or young person with: Atypical symptoms. Worsening symptoms. Unremitting pain; night pain; thoracic pain. Non-mechanical pain. Abnormal loss or deterioration of function. Significant loss of movement. Gait disturbance. Significant lower limb asymmetry. TB, cancer, HIV/AIDS, steroid use, multiple fractures. Skin changes, for example, cafe au lait, psoriasis, bruising. Paediatric Musculoskeletal Matters ( ) is a resource for clinicians working with children and young people. It aims to facilitate early

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

109. Dementia

early (the third decade) or very late (ninth decade). Rarer causes of dementia include: Parkinson’s disease (PD) dementia — subcortical dementia occurs in up to 50% of people with PD. Motor symptoms of PD appear many years before dementia. For further information, see the CKS topic on . Progressive supranuclear palsy. Huntington’s disease. Prion disease (such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease [CJD]). Normal pressure hydrocephalus. Chronic subdural haematoma. Benign tumours. Metabolic and endocrine (...) disorders (such as chronic hypocalcaemia and recurrent hypoglycaemia). Vitamin deficiencies (such as B12 and thiamine deficiency). For further information, see the CKS topic on . Infections (such as HIV infection and syphilis). For further information, see the CKS topic on . [ ; ; ; ; ; ; ] Risk factors What are the risk factors? Risk factors for dementia include: Age — older age is the strongest risk factor for dementia. Mild cognitive impairment — 50% of people with mild cognitive impairment

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

110. Developmental rheumatology in children. Scenario: Delayed walking in children

dysplasia, bony manifestation of endocrine or renal abnormalities) [ ]. There may be an association with pathologic bow legs and early osteoarthritis. Surgery may be necessary if the condition does not spontaneously resolve or there is extreme angulation [ ]. Scenario: Clumsy child Scenario: Clumsy child From birth to 16 years. Clumsy child When should I consider referring a clumsy child? Management in the community (for example by a physiotherapist with paediatric expertise) is usually appropriate (...) or young person with: Atypical symptoms. Worsening symptoms. Unremitting pain; night pain; thoracic pain. Non-mechanical pain. Abnormal loss or deterioration of function. Significant loss of movement. Gait disturbance. Significant lower limb asymmetry. TB, cancer, HIV/AIDS, steroid use, multiple fractures. Skin changes, for example, cafe au lait, psoriasis, bruising. Paediatric Musculoskeletal Matters ( ) is a resource for clinicians working with children and young people. It aims to facilitate early

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

111. Developmental rheumatology in children. Scenario: In-toeing gait in children

dysplasia, bony manifestation of endocrine or renal abnormalities) [ ]. There may be an association with pathologic bow legs and early osteoarthritis. Surgery may be necessary if the condition does not spontaneously resolve or there is extreme angulation [ ]. Scenario: Clumsy child Scenario: Clumsy child From birth to 16 years. Clumsy child When should I consider referring a clumsy child? Management in the community (for example by a physiotherapist with paediatric expertise) is usually appropriate (...) or young person with: Atypical symptoms. Worsening symptoms. Unremitting pain; night pain; thoracic pain. Non-mechanical pain. Abnormal loss or deterioration of function. Significant loss of movement. Gait disturbance. Significant lower limb asymmetry. TB, cancer, HIV/AIDS, steroid use, multiple fractures. Skin changes, for example, cafe au lait, psoriasis, bruising. Paediatric Musculoskeletal Matters ( ) is a resource for clinicians working with children and young people. It aims to facilitate early

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

112. Developmental rheumatology in children. Scenario: Heel pain in children

dysplasia, bony manifestation of endocrine or renal abnormalities) [ ]. There may be an association with pathologic bow legs and early osteoarthritis. Surgery may be necessary if the condition does not spontaneously resolve or there is extreme angulation [ ]. Scenario: Clumsy child Scenario: Clumsy child From birth to 16 years. Clumsy child When should I consider referring a clumsy child? Management in the community (for example by a physiotherapist with paediatric expertise) is usually appropriate (...) or young person with: Atypical symptoms. Worsening symptoms. Unremitting pain; night pain; thoracic pain. Non-mechanical pain. Abnormal loss or deterioration of function. Significant loss of movement. Gait disturbance. Significant lower limb asymmetry. TB, cancer, HIV/AIDS, steroid use, multiple fractures. Skin changes, for example, cafe au lait, psoriasis, bruising. Paediatric Musculoskeletal Matters ( ) is a resource for clinicians working with children and young people. It aims to facilitate early

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

113. Diagnosis and management of testosterone deficiency syndrome in men: clinical practice guideline

refractory to standard treatment, as well as for men taking glucocorticoid or opioid therapy and men with HIV infection if they have experienced weight loss (weak recommendation; low-quality evidence). 9. In men with erectile dysfunction and no other manifestations of testosterone deficiency syndrome, we suggest investigation only after a trial of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors has failed (weak recommendation; low-quality evidence). Treatment 10. We recommend that men with documented (...) testosterone + high LH/FSH Consider treatment or referral to TDS expert if clear manifestations of TDS but borderline biochemical levels Secondary hypogonadism (pituitary/hypothalamic) Low testosterone + normal LH/FSH Borderline low or low-normal testosterone (repeat for conrmation) Measure testosterone in morning (between 7 am and 11 am, or within 3 hours after waking) Clinical suspicion of TDS  Type II diabetes  Insulin resistance Metabolic syndrome  HIV-associated weight loss  Treatment

2015 CPG Infobase

114. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock

). Rationale . Early effective fluid resuscitation is crucial for stabilization of sepsis -induced tissue hypoperfusion or septic shock . Sepsis -induced hypoperfusion may be manifested by acute organ dysfunction and/or ± decreased blood pressure and increased serum lactate. Previous iterations of these guidelines have recommended a protocolized quantitative resuscitation, otherwise known as early goal-directed therapy (EGDT), which was based on the protocol published by Rivers ( ). This recommendation

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2016 European Respiratory Society

115. Guideline on the management of premature ovarian insufficiency

-Ab/ACA and TPO-Ab are negative in women with POI, there is no indication for re-testing later in life, unless signs or symptoms of these endocrine diseases develop. C Test Implications Positive test Negative test Genetic/Chromosomal Karyotyping (for diagnosis of Turner syndrome) Refer to endocrinologist, cardiologist and geneticist A second analysis of the karyotype in epithelial cells (in case of high clinical suspicion) Test for Y-chromosomal material Discuss gonadectomy with the patient Fra-X (...) an echocardiogram prior to pregnancy, and referral to a cardiologist if indicated. D Women with Turner Syndrome should be assessed by a cardiologist with a specialist interest in adult congenital heart disease and should have a general medical and endocrine examination. GPP Women with POI should have their blood pressure, renal function, and thyroid function assessed prior to pregnancy. C Pregnancy in some women can be of such high risk that clinicians may consider oocyte donation to be life threatening

2015 European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology

116. Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

of the upper medial eyelid but any hemangioma around the eye that is large enough can obstruct the visual axis. The clinician should be aware of subcutaneous periocular hemangiomas, as these lesions can extend into the orbit, causing exophthalmos or globe displacement with only limited cutaneous manifestations. Issues with these lesions include astigmatism from direct pressure of the growing hemangioma, ptosis, proptosis, and strabismus. One of the leading causes of preventable blindness in children (...) in children with facial hemangiomas and PHACE association. Pediatrics 117 (3): 959-64, 2006. [ ] Heyer GL, Dowling MM, Licht DJ, et al.: The cerebral vasculopathy of PHACES syndrome. Stroke 39 (2): 308-16, 2008. [ ] Haggstrom AN, Garzon MC, Baselga E, et al.: Risk for PHACE syndrome in infants with large facial hemangiomas. Pediatrics 126 (2): e418-26, 2010. [ ] Poindexter G, Metry DW, Barkovich AJ, et al.: PHACE syndrome with intracerebral hemangiomas, heterotopia, and endocrine dysfunction. Pediatr

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

117. Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

intrachromosomal rearrangements, are frequently found; among them, RET/PTC rearrangements are the most common.[ ] Genetic inheritance. Genetic inheritance plays a role in a subset of thyroid carcinomas. In children, medullary thyroid carcinoma is caused by a dominantly inherited or de novo gain-of-function mutation in the RET proto-oncogene associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2, either MEN2A or MEN2B, depending on the specific mutation.[ ] When occurring in patients with the MEN syndromes (...) carcinoma: Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a rare form of thyroid carcinoma that originates from the calcitonin-secreting parafollicular C cells and accounts for less than 10% of all cases of thyroid carcinoma in children.[ ] In children, medullary thyroid carcinoma is usually associated with RET germline mutations in the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndrome.[ ] Anaplastic carcinoma: Less than 1% of pediatric thyroid carcinomas are anaplastic carcinoma. Molecular Features Thyroid

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

119. Acute pain management: scientific evidence (3rd Edition)

Acute musculoskeletal pain 253 9.6 Acute medical pain 254 9.6.1 Acute abdominal pain 254 9.6.2 Herpes zoster-associated pain 257 9.6.3 Acute cardiac pain 259 9.6.4 Acute pain associated with haematological disorders 260 9.6.5 Acute headache 264 9.6.6 Acute pain associated with neurological disorders 276 9.6.7 Orofacial pain 277 9.6.8 Acute pain in patients with HIV infection 282 9.7 Acute cancer pain 284 9.7.1 The scope of acute cancer pain 284 9.7.2 Principles of management of acute cancer pain 285 (...) pain after surgery 11 1.3 Risk factors for chronic postsurgical pain 11 1.4 Definitions of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia 13 1.5 Summary of studies according to target agent administered 14 1.6 Metabolic and endocrine responses to injury 17 2.1 Fundamentals of a pain history 36 3.1 Possible benefits of an Acute Pain Service 51 4.1 Antidepressants for the treatment of neuropathic pain 89 6.1 The 2007 Oxford league table of analgesic efficacy 154 9.1 Taxonomy of acute pain associated

2015 National Health and Medical Research Council

120. Guidance on the clinical management of depressive and bipolar disorders, specifically focusing on diagnosis and treatment strategies

manifest as overt behavioural change. Together these abnormalities result in clinical signs and symptoms, which are grouped into syndromes and termed mood disorders. A variety of psychological and neurobiological models address the aetiology and pathophysiology of mood disorders (e.g. Berman et al., 2011; Caspi et al., 2003; Charney and Manji, 2004; Hasler et al., 2004; Nolen-Hoeksema, 2000). These ‘explanations’ offer important insights as to the origin of mood symptoms and provide clinicians

2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists

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