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Enclosed Vehicle Excessive Heat

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21. Neck Trauma (Overview)

, clothesline tackle), strangulation, blows from the fists or feet, and excessive manipulation (ie, any manual operation such as chiropractic treatment or physical realignment or repositioning of the spine). [ , ] In motor vehicle crashes in which the driver is not belted, the driver is in danger of thrusting forward with the head extended, forcing the anterior neck against the steering column. Shoulder harnesses appear to offer some, though incomplete, protection against blunt neck trauma; cerebral vessel (...) the pretracheal region (including the trachea, larynx, thyroid gland, and pericardium), the prevertebral area (containing the prevertebral muscles, phrenic nerve, brachial plexus, and axillary sheath), and the carotid sheath (enclosing the carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and vagus nerve). Musculoskeletal structures at risk include the vertebral bodies; cervical muscles, tendons, and ligaments; clavicles; first and second ribs; and hyoid bone. Neural structures at risk include the spinal cord, phrenic

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

22. Smoke Inhalation (Overview)

cm water Neurologic abnormalities and a history of loss of consciousness are the primary clinical features used to define severe CO toxicity and are indications for hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy. In addition, HBO use is indicated in patients with any of the following: Base excess lower than -2 mmol/L CO level greater than 25% (or >15% in pregnancy, as fetal hemoglobin binds CO more tightly) Signs of cerebellar dysfunction Cardiovascular dysfunction Pulmonary edema Extremes of age See (...) size. [ ] Smoke inhalation may produce injury through several mechanisms. Heated air from a fire can cause significant thermal injury to the upper airway. Particulate matter produced during combustion (soot) can mechanically obstruct and irritate the airways, causing reflex bronchoconstriction. Noxious gases released from burning materials include carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen cyanide (CN). Smoke may also contain aldehydes from combustion of furniture and cotton, and a variety of chemicals

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

23. Evaluation of Smokefree England: a longitudinal, qualitative study

might impact adversely on individuals’ self esteem and well-being, reinforcing isolation among those who have more economically and socially disadvantaged lives 5 Executive summary Background Smokefree legislation was introduced in England on 1 st July 2007. After this date, virtually all enclosed public places and workplaces were to be completely smokefree. The legislation was expected to produce significant reductions in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, particularly in leisure (...) impact of Smokefree on everyday life, working life and community life Awareness of the legislation was almost universal 2-3 months before 1st July 2007 There was a perceived lack of clarity among some participants about the meaning of ‘enclosed public space’ Few patrons/customers of bars, clubs, pubs, cafes etc. were warned about Smokefree in advance of 1st July Most members of the public understood that there was a health rationale for Smokefree, but had less clear understanding of the meaning

2009 Public Health Research Consortium

24. Overview of Fractures, Dislocations, and Sprains

knowledge Overview of Heat Illness Withdrawal from which of the following substances is most likely to increase a patient’s heat input? Alcohol Cannabis Cocaine Phencyclidine NEWS & VIDEOS Fractures Have Long-Term Impact on Quality of Life for Older Adults TUESDAY, Feb. 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Incident fragility fractures are associated with long-term impacts on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in older people, according to a study... 3D Model Musculoskeletal Connective Tissues Video Wrist (...) suggests potentially severe or multiple injuries (as in a high-speed motor vehicle crash or fall from a height), patients are first evaluated from head to toe for serious injuries to all organ systems and, if needed, are resuscitated (see ). Patients, especially those with pelvic or femoral fractures, are evaluated for hemorrhagic shock due to occult blood loss. If a limb is injured, it is immediately evaluated for open wounds and symptoms or signs of neurovascular injury (numbness, paresis, poor

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

25. Smoking ban (Full text)

banning smoking across whole cities, including every place except residential homes. More than 20 cities in California enacted park and beach smoking restrictions. Since December 1993, in , it is illegal to smoke in any public enclosed places and any public transport vehicles (according to Law 25357 issued on 27 November 1991 and its regulations issued on 25 November 1993 by decree D.S.983-93-PCM). There is also legislation restricting publicity, and it is also illegal (Law 26957 21 May 1998) to sell (...) Clean Air Act of 1999 prohibits smoking inside a public building or an enclosed public place including public vehicles and other means of transport or in any enclosed area outside of one’s private residence, private place of work or any duly designated smoking area. has original text related to this article: The Tobacco Regulation Act also prohibits smoking in public places, like schools, public transportation terminals, malls, and places with , like gas stations. Cancer survivors support

2012 Wikipedia

26. Carbon monoxide

of -containing compounds; it forms when there is not enough oxygen to produce (CO 2 ), such as when operating a or an in an enclosed space. In the presence of oxygen, including atmospheric concentrations, carbon monoxide burns with a blue flame, producing carbon dioxide. , which was widely used before the 1960s for domestic lighting, cooking, and heating, had carbon monoxide as a significant fuel constituent. Some processes in modern technology, such as , still produce carbon monoxide as a byproduct. A large (...) was the mechanism of death. Greek physician (129–199 AD) speculated that there was a change in the composition of the air that caused harm when inhaled. In 1776, the French chemist produced CO by heating with , but mistakenly concluded that the gaseous product was , as it burned with a blue flame. The gas was identified as a compound containing and by the Scottish chemist in 1800. Its toxic properties on dogs were thoroughly investigated by around 1846. During , a gas mixture including carbon monoxide was used

2012 Wikipedia

27. Carbon monoxide poisoning (Full text)

. This is enforced by municipal inspectors, and was inspired by the death of 7-year-old Nicole Garofalo in 2005 due to snow blocking a home heating vent. Other jurisdictions may have no requirement or only mandate detectors for new construction or at time of sale. Despite similar deaths in vehicles with clogged exhaust pipes (for example in the and ) and the commercial availability of the equipment, there is no legal requirement for automotive CO detectors. [ ] World Health Organization recommendations (...) ventilation, may produce excessive carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide detection and poisoning also increases during power outages, when electric heating and cooking appliances become inoperative and residents may temporarily resort to fuel-burning space heaters, stoves, and grills (some of which are safe only for outdoor use but nonetheless are errantly burned indoors). It has been estimated that more than 40,000 people per year seek medical attention for carbon monoxide poisoning in the United States. 95

2012 Wikipedia

28. Mosquito (Full text)

. Aedes females generally drop their eggs singly, much as Anopheles do, but not as a rule into water. Instead, they lay their eggs on damp mud or other surfaces near the water's edge. Such an oviposition site commonly is the wall of a cavity such as a hollow stump or a container such as a bucket or a discarded vehicle tire. The eggs generally do not hatch until they are flooded, and they may have to withstand considerable desiccation before that happens. They are not resistant to desiccation straight (...) . A mosquito has a variety of ways of finding its prey, including chemical, visual, and heat sensors. Both plant materials and blood are useful sources of energy in the form of sugars, and blood also supplies more concentrated nutrients, such as , but the most important function of blood meals is to obtain proteins as materials for egg production. Among humans, the feeding preferences of mosquitoes typically include those with blood, those who are heavy breathers, those with an abundance of skin bacteria

2012 Wikipedia

30. Ultrasound Scanning - Non-obstetric

tissues or predisposes to malignant change. Unlike ionising radiation, it does not break chromosomes, at least at the power used for medical purposes. It does cause a slight heating of tissues and potentially small cavitation in tissues. There is no evidence this causes any harm but, nevertheless, it is advised that imaging which is not medically necessary be avoided and exposure limited to the minimum level required. [ ] It is non-invasive and painless. The equipment tends to be much cheaper than (...) stationary. We may recall the change in pitch from higher to lower of the whistle of a train as it speeds through a station, or the siren of an emergency vehicle as it speeds past on the road. This is the Doppler effect and the degree of change in pitch can be used to calculate the velocity of the moving source. However, the source may be static and the reflecting interface moving. This produces the same effect. Hence, it is possible to measure speed of flow. This may be displayed in the form of colour

2008 Mentor

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