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Emergency Medicine Treatment and Labor Act

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61. i STAT CG4+ and CHEM8+ cartridges for point-of-care testing in the emergency department

decision improve. Age is a protected characteristic under the 2010 Equality Act. i STAT CG4+ and CHEM8+ cartridges for point-of-care testing in the emergency department (MIB38) © NICE 2018. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 12 of 41Evidence re Evidence review view Clinical and technical evidence Regulatory bodies Regulatory bodies A search of the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency website revealed (...) : 1120–4 The College of Emergency Medicine (2014) Crowding in emergency departments. Date for review: 24 June 2015 The College of Emergency Medicine (2011) Emergency department clinical quality indicators – A CEM guide to implementation. [online; accessed 5 June 2015] Thomas FO, Hoffman TL, Handrahan DL et al. (2009) The measure of treatment agreement between portable and laboratory blood gas measurements in guiding protocol-driven ventilator management. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 67

2015 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

62. BTS guideline for oxygen use in adults in healthcare and emergency settings.

, a subsequent written record must be made of what oxygen therapy has been given to every patient in a similar manner to the recording of all other emergency treatment. If a patient has an oxygen alert card (see the "Availability of Companion Documents" field), initial oxygen therapy should be based on the guidance on the card until the results of blood gases are available. Monitoring and Adjusting Oxygen Therapy (see sections 9-11 in the original guideline document) Pulse oximetry must be available in all (...) is below or above the target range ( grade D ). Good Practice Points for Clinical Assessment of Patients with Suspected Hypoxaemia The medical history should be taken when possible in an acutely breathless patient and may point to the diagnosis of a particular acute illness such as pneumonia or pulmonary embolism or an exacerbation of a chronic condition such as COPD, asthma or heart failure. Never discontinue oxygen therapy to obtain an oximetry measurement on room air in patients who clearly require

2017 National Guideline Clearinghouse (partial archive)

63. MASCC/ISOO Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Mucositis Secondary to Cancer Therapy

Cancer. 2004;4: 277-284. 12. Al-Dasooqi N, Sonis ST, Bowen JM, et al. Emerging evidence on the pathobiology of mucositis. Support Care Cancer. 2013;21:2075- 2083. 13. Rubenstein EB, Peterson DE, Schubert M, et al;Mucositis Study Sec- tion of the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer;- International Society for Oral Oncology. Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of cancer therapy-induced oral and gastrointestinal mucositis. Cancer. 2004;100(suppl 9):2026-2046 (...) refer to the use of the listed agents for the specific indication listed (ie, the prevention or treatment of mucositis or related symptoms). These guidelines do not apply to the use of the listed agents for other indications. For example, although it is suggested that chlorhexidine mouthwash not be used to prevent oral mucositis in patients receiving head and neck radiation therapy, clinicians may choose to use this agent for other indications in this or other populations. DOI: 10.1002/cncr.28592

2014 International Society for Oral Oncology

64. Pharmacologic Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Adults

of our patients, who risk their well-being as volunteer participants in clinical studies. Met h o d s Th e goal of this CHEST guideline project was to produce clinically relevant and useful recommendations on medical therapies for PAH for clinicians who treat adult patients with PAH. Health-care providers should use these guidelines to assist patients with treatment choices that optimize benefi ts and minimize harms and burdens. In 2011, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released new guideline (...) It is a critical responsibility of the clinician to ensure that an accurate diagnosis is established, and readers are referred to previously published guidelines by the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) and other organizations on the evaluation of PH and diagnosis of PAH. 2 - 4 Th e recom- mendations in this guideline are for the treatment of patients with PAH and should not be applied to the treatment of patients with other types of PH. None of the drugs currently approved for therapy for PAH

2014 American College of Chest Physicians

65. Bankruptcy, medical insurance, and a law with unintended consequences. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Bankruptcy, medical insurance, and a law with unintended consequences. Congress passed the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA) in 1986, guaranteeing a standard of medical care to anyone who entered an emergency room. This guarantee made default a more reliable substitute for medical insurance. I construct a tractable structural model of the medical insurance market and find that repealing EMTALA would increase the fraction of the population with insurance while decreasing

2014 Health economics

66. Perioperative Medication Management

. During the procedure, while the patient is under anesthesia, these drugs are usually not needed. Following surgery, if the endotracheal tube is still present, the inhaled medication can be continued. Optimization of treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is critical, and some patients require an increase in their steroid dose for 1-2 weeks preoperatively. Consider preoperative bronchodilator therapy in those with a forced vital capacity of less than 1 L or a forced expiratory volume in 1 (...) . Many medications must be continued through the perioperative period, with the last dose taken with a sip of clear liquid up to 2 hours prior to the procedure, and resumed during recovery. Other drugs must be stopped, replaced, or temporarily administered by another route. Obtain advice on selecting alternative treatments from clinical or drug information pharmacists. Additional monitoring of the patient or plasma drug concentrations may be required when different treatments or formulations are used

2014 eMedicine.com

67. Organisation and payment of emergency care services in Belgium: current situation and options for reform

beroepstitel in de up and therapeutic guidance; required actions to preserve the continuity of care to patients whether they are admitted to the hospital or not. 20 Besides other recognition standards (e.g. architecture) it is stipulated that a 24/7 hour service must be provided by at least two nurses (with at least one nurse with a ‘special title in intensive and emergency care d ’ or equal) and one physician. 21 The physician should be: a medical specialist in emergency medicine e (or in training (...) and geriatrics. 22, 23 Acute hospitals without a ‘specialised ED’ are obliged to have a non- specialised ED that is capable to deal with the first care and treatment of patients with an acute pathology. The recognition standards for non- specialised EDs are light compared to these of specialised EDs (e.g. nursing staff is not required to have a special title in emergency and intensive care; one nurse instead of two; medical 24/7 service provided by physician on call for the entire hospital). The legislator

2016 Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre

68. Is oxygen an effective treatment option to alleviate the symptoms of breathlessness for patients dying with COVID-19 and what are the potential harms?

, in-depth recommendations about oxygen therapy for elderly people with COVID-19 is [16] and more general oxygen therapy [17]. International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care (IAHPC): The guidance suggests that, if dyspnoea persists despite optimal treatment of the acute disease, medical and non-medical measures should be used for symptom control. Suggested non-pharmacological interventions include body positioning (leaning forward position, pillow support for arms etc.), relaxation or cooling (...) ”[All Fields] OR “breathless”[All Fields]) AND (die[All Fields] OR dying[All Fields] OR “death”[MeSH Terms] OR “death”[All Fields]) Example of terms used to search PubMed for oxygen therapy relevant literature: (oxygen or o2) AND (end of life care or palliative care or palliation) and (breathless or short of breath or Dyspnoea or dyspnic or laboured breathing) Most viewed COVID-19 podcast © 2020 Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine

2020 Oxford COVID-19 Evidence Service

69. Addiction Treatment in Canada: The National Treatment Indicators Report: 2014?2015 Data

use) 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 Note: Individuals can report a number of different substances used in the past 12 months. A complete list of substance categories and examples can be found in Appendix E. 24 Numbers represent unique individuals who accessed treatment for oneself and not for friends or family members. 25 Alberta does not assess over-the-counter medication and prescription drugs and thus they are not reflected in Figure 11. 26 In Alberta anti-depressants are included in “other drugs.” 27 (...) a number of different substances used in the past 12 months. A complete list of substance categories and examples can be found in Appendix E. 33 Numbers represent unique individuals who accessed treatment for oneself and not for friends or family members. 34 Saskatchewan does not capture prescription drugs or over the counter medications and had no “other drugs” to report. 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0% 90.0% 100.0%Addiction Treatment in Canada: The National Treatment Indicators

2017 Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse

70. Diagnosis and Treatment of Low Back Pain

not necessarily imply endorsement) ? American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (AAPM&R) ? American Physical Therapy Association (APTA)Diagnosis & Treatment of Low Back Pain | Preface Recommendations were developed based on a specific definition, inclusion/exclusion criteria, and the resulting literature which excluded conditions such as presence of a neurological deficit or leg pain experienced below the knee, among others. Given the exclusion criteria, these guideline rec- ommendations address (...) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 II. Guideline Development Methodology and Process 8 III. Glossary and Acronyms 12 IV . Guideline De finition and Inclusion/Ex clusion Crit eria 16 V. Summary of Recommendations 17 VI. Recommendations for Diagnosis and Treatment of Low Back Pain 40 A. Diagnosis 40 B. Imaging 60 C. Medical and Psychological Treatment 69 D. Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 101 E. Interventional T reatment 158 F. Surgical T reatment 190 G. Cost-Utility 198 VII. Appendices 213 A full bibliography and technical

2020 North American Spine Society

71. Treatment of Patients with Schizophrenia

in Aggressive Behavior 138 Statement 10: Long-acting Injectable Antipsychotic Medications 140 Statement 11: Anticholinergic Medications for Acute Dystonia 146 Statement 12: Treatments for Parkinsonism 147 Statement 13: Treatments for Akathisia 147 Statement 14: VMAT2 Medications for Tardive Dyskinesia 148 Psychosocial Interventions 152 Statement 15: Coordinated Specialty Care Programs 152 Statement 16: Cognitive-behavioral Therapy 3 Statement 17: Psychoeducation 5 9 Statement 18: Supported Employment (...) Management and Recovery 52 Psychoeducation 54 Social Skills Training 58 Supported Employment 61 Supportive Therapy 65 Early Interventions for Patients With First-episode Psychosis 68 Co-occurring Substance Use and Schizophrenia 72 10 Acronyms/Abbreviations ACT Assertive community treatment AHRQ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality AIMS Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale APA American Psychiatric Association ANCs Absolute neutrophil counts BAP British Association for Psychopharmacology BMI Body mass

2020 American Psychiatric Association

72. Evidence-Based Clinical Guidelines for Multidisciplinary Spine Care: Diagnosis and Treatment of Low Back Pain

Society of Spine Radiology (ASSR) Medical & Psychological Treatment Section Section Chair: Christopher M. Bono, MD Authors: Paul Dougherty, DC Gazanfar Rahmathulla, MD, MBBS Christopher K. Taleghani, MD Terry Trammell, MD Randall P. Brewer, MD; Stakeholder Representative, American Academy of Pain Medicine (AAPM) Ravi Prasad, PhD; Stakeholder Representative, American Academy of Pain Medicine (AAPM) Contributor: John P. Birkedal, MD Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Section Section Chair: Charles (...) Intervention Society (SIS) Contributing Societies (does not necessarily imply endorsement) ? American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (AAPM&R) ? American Physical Therapy Association (APTA)Diagnosis & Treatment of Low Back Pain | Preface Recommendations were developed based on a specific definition, inclusion/exclusion criteria, and the resulting literature which excluded conditions such as presence of a neurological deficit or leg pain experienced below the knee, among others. Given

2020 American Academy of Pain Medicine

73. AASLD Guidelines for Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B

infections was peg- IFN and ribavirin for 24-48 weeks, depending on the HCV genotype. Moderate-to-high rates of HCV eradication and HBV suppression were reported with this combination. (141,142) However, a rebound in serumHBVDNAafteraninitialdeclineandincreased HBV replication in patients with undetectable HBV DNA before treatment have been reported with peg- IFN and ribavirin. (141,143,144) Similarly, direct-acting antiviral (DAA) HCV therapy has been reported to increase HBV-DNA levels in HBsAg (...) interactions between HBV antivi- rals (entecavir, TDF, or TAF) and approved HCV DAAs. For triply infected patients with HIV, HBV, and HCV, more opportunities for drug interactions exist, and careful review of antiretroviral therapy before initiation of HCV or HBV therapy is recommended (CoinfectionwithHIV,section6C). Guidance Statements for Treatment of Patients withHBVandHCVCoinfection 1. All HBsAg-positive patients should be tested for HCV infection using the anti-HCV test. 2. HCV treatment is indicated

2020 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases

74. Treatment of Fungal Infections in Adult Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine: An Official ATS Statement

may emerge, medication cross-reference resources should be consulted when instituting treatment. Recommendations. In patients receiving itraconazole, vori- conazole, or posaconazole, we recommend measurements of drug levels in serum to be certain that the drug is being absorbed and to guide treatment (AII). In patients with renal insuf?ciency (creatinine clearance ,50 ml/min), we suggest reducing the dose of ?uconazole by 50% (BIII). Remark. Patients undergoing hemodialysis require redosing after (...) , interactionsoccurwith manysuchdrugs, particularlycyclospor- ine, benzodiazepines, statins, certain anti-HIV drugs, and many other agents related to its metabolism by the P450 cytochrome system (10). Pharmacy and medication cross-reference re- sources should be consulted whenever instituting treatment. Fluconazole. In the 1990s, ?uconazole joined this class of antifungals,offeringareducedlipophilicitythatallowsforeasier administration.Thisagenthasbeenshowntohavegoodactivity against Candida albicans, and is used

2011 American Thoracic Society

75. Enabling medication management through health information technology

and patient education related to medication management). Medication management can also include procurement, storage, and reporting from the first assessment of patients to determine their need for drugs through to optimal care and monitoring after the drugs are prescribed. The organization of the information in this report is based on the Bell framework of the five phases across the continuum of medication management and reconciliation and education. 1 To address the goals of this report, we further (...) cost effective and safer. Seven questions structure this evidence report. Within reporting related to the questions, sections are based on phases of medication management. Reporting is done to address the multiple settings where medication management is important, the range of health care providers who deliver and support care using medications, and classes of medications, specific drugs, or a broad spectrum of medications. Key Questions (KQs) KQ1. Effectiveness Within all phases of the medication

2011 EvidenceUpdates

76. Interfacility neurosurgical transfers: an analysis of nontraumatic inpatient and emergency department transfers with implications for improvements in care. Full Text available with Trip Pro

facilities may lack necessary resources or expertise, and the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA) obligates tertiary care centers to accept these patients under those circumstances. Telemedicine and integration of electronic medical records may help guide referring hospitals to pursue additional workup, which may eliminate the need for unnecessary transfer and provide additional cost savings. (...) Interfacility neurosurgical transfers: an analysis of nontraumatic inpatient and emergency department transfers with implications for improvements in care. OBJECTIVEInterfacility neurosurgical transfers to tertiary care centers are driven by a number of variables, including lack of on-site coverage, limited available technology, insurance factors, and patient preference. The authors sought to assess the timing and necessity of surgery and compared transfers to their institution from emergency

2018 Journal of Neurosurgery

77. The economic evaluation of early intervention with Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha treatments in pediatric Crohn's disease

Table 2.5.7.1.1-1. Costs and Doses of Anti-TNF-a Treatments. 72 Table 2.5.7.1.1-2. Costs and Doses of Immunomodulators. 74 Table 2.5.7.1.1-3. Costs and Doses of Corticosteroids. 76 Table 2.5.7.1.1-4. Costs and Doses of Antibiotics. 79 Table 2.5.7.1.1-5. Costs and Doses of Oral 5-ASA Drugs. 81 Table 2.5.7.1.1-6. Cost and Dose of Enteral Nutrition Brands. 83 Table 2.5.7.1.2-1. Medical Procedure Costs for CD Patients. 86 Table 2.5.7.1.2-2. Costs for Adverse Events of Special Interest and Surgical (...) and their families. 2 The traditional treatment of pediatric CD has involved a step-wise approach, or “step-up” strategy, involving several classes of drugs such as corticosteroids, immunomodulators and tumour necrosis factor alpha antagonist (anti-TNF-a) biologics. In Canada and the US, based on clinical practice guidelines, remission is typically induced in newly diagnosed CD pediatric patients using oral corticosteroids or exclusive enteral nutrition (Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 2007

2019 SickKids Reports

78. What constitutes an effective and efficient package of services for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care of tuberculosis among refugees and migrants in the WHO European Region? Themed issues on migration and health

in the Region in 2016, with an estimate 71 000 cases of rifampicin-resistant/ MDR-TB. MDR-TB is difficult to treat because of its resistance to multiple first-line anti-TB medications, including the most potent ones (isoniazid and rifampicin), and presents significant challenges to the elimination of TB (3,4). Its occurrence is thought to have diverse reasons including quality of medicines, infection prevention control and the substantial driver of poor treatment completion rates, in particular (...) programme, Division of Health Emergencies and Communicable Diseases, WHO Regional Office for Europe Soorej J Puthoopparambil Consultant, Migration and Health programme, Division of Policy and Governance for Health and Well-being, WHO Regional Office for Europe Jon S Friedland Head of Infectious Diseases and Immunity, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdomvi vi External peer reviewers Knut Lönnroth Professor of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet

2018 WHO Health Evidence Network

79. Best Practices across the Continuum of Care for the Treatment of Opioid Use Disorder

) until they are stabilized. Individuals then receive ongoing treatment from community services and/or a primary care provider who may receive support, resources and training about addiction management from the addiction clinic staff. 6 ? Rapid access to addiction medicine services have resulted in reduced emergency department visits, reduced wait times and lessened stigma, 6 as well as greater retention in treatment. 51 However, there is insufficient data to determine if this is a best practice (...) , diacetylmorphine- assisted treatment (with or without flexible methadone doses) resulted in greater treatment retention and reductions in illicit drug use compared to methadone treatment or baseline substance use. 16,17,55,56,57,58,59,60 There is a risk of serious events, however, so this treatment should only be considered for individuals for whom other treatment options have not been successful, and with careful medical supervision. 55,59 ? Naltrexone (antagonist) should be considered for those wanting

2018 Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse

80. Nonsurgical Treatments for Urinary Incontinence in Women: A Systematic Review Update

20. Quality of life outcomes for pharmacological interventions versus placebo/no treatment 73 Table 21. Quality of life outcomes for pharmacological versus pharmacological interventions . 75 Table 22. Adverse events reported for anticholinergics 78 Table 23. Adverse events reported for drugs other than anticholinergics 81 Table 24. Quality of life outcomes for nonpharmacological versus pharmacological interventions 89 Table 25. Comparisons of cure, improvement, and satisfaction rates between (...) ) comparisons with no treatment (or sham or placebo), 2) comparisons of first- and second-line interventions together (since only behavioral therapy is categorized as a first-line intervention, and second-line interventions may also be used as initial treatment), and 3) comparisons of third-line interventions. Furthermore, where relevant, we provide summaries for both analyses based specifically on studies that included women with either stress or urgency UI (“stress UI studies” and “urgency UI studies

2018 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

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