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Emergency Medicine Treatment and Labor Act

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621. History of abortion

in . Other substances reputed to have been used by the English include , , seed, , and iron chloride. Another mixture, not abortifacient, but rather intended to relieve , contained , , and hot water. The root of , called "prostitute root" in French, was used in France and Germany; it was also recommended by a Greek physician in the 1st century. In folk medicine, there was also an abortifacient , which included , , , and . Other preparations of unspecified origin included crushed , the saliva (...) the foundation for our discipline by an oath in which it was proscribed not to give a pregnant woman a kind of medicine that expels the embryo or fetus." Other medical scholars disagree, believing that Hippocrates sought to discourage physicians from trying dangerous methods to abort a fetus. This may be born out by the fact that the oath originally also prohibited (at the time, it was far more dangerous, and were a separate profession from ). Soranus acknowledges two parties among physicians: those who

2012 Wikipedia

622. Human skin color

exposure to UV can damage health. Evolution of skin color [ ] Further information: in species is assumed to be related to the emergence of some 5 to 7 million years ago. Bipedal hominin body hair may have disappeared gradually to allow better heat dissipation through sweating. Reconstruction of a female based on fossils dated c. 1.5 million years ago, the estimated time for the emergence of skin pigmentation in early humans ( , , 2010). The emergence of skin pigmentation dates to at about 1.2 million (...) years ago, under conditions of a that drove early humans into arid, open landscapes. Such conditions likely caused excess UV-B radiation. This favored the emergence of skin pigmentation in order to protect from due to the increased exposure to sunlight. A theory that the pigmentation helped counter xeric stress by increasing the has been disproved. With the evolution of hairless skin, abundant sweat glands, and skin rich in melanin, early humans could walk, run, and forage for food for long periods

2012 Wikipedia

623. Hepatitis C

. 535. . from the original on 2016-05-15. Maheshwari, A; Ray S; Thuluvath PJ (2008-07-26). "Acute hepatitis C". Lancet . 372 (9635): 321–32. : . . ^ Wilkins, T; Malcolm JK; Raina D; Schade RR (2010-06-01). (PDF) . American Family Physician . 81 (11): 1351–7. . (PDF) from the original on 2013-05-21. Bailey, Caitlin (Nov 2010). . Emergency Medicine Practice . 12 (4). from the original on 2012-11-21. ^ . Springer Verlag. 2011. p. 4. . from the original on 2016-06-17. ^ Nelson, PK; Mathers BM; Cowie B (...) ; Starnini G; Carbonara S; Rezza G; Monarca R (April 2008). "Correlates of hepatitis C virus seropositivity in prison inmates: a meta-analysis". Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health . 62 (4): 305–13. : . . Moyer, VA; U.S. Preventive Services Task, Force (3 September 2013). "Screening for hepatitis C virus infection in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement". Annals of Internal Medicine . 159 (5): 349–57. : . . ^ Marx, John (2010). Rosen's emergency medicine: concepts

2012 Wikipedia

624. IUD with progestogen

. : . . Marjoribanks, Jane; Lethaby, Anne; Farquhar, Cindy (2016-01-29). "Surgery versus medical therapy for heavy menstrual bleeding". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD003855. : . . . ^ Winner, B; Peipert, JF; Zhao, Q; Buckel, C; Madden, T; Allsworth, JE; Secura, GM. (2012). "Effectiveness of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception". New England Journal of Medicine . 366 (21): 1998–2007. : . . ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010). . from the original on 19 July 2017. . Planned (...) of the , and occasionally preventing . The IUD with levonorgestrel was first approved for medical use in 1990 in Finland and in the United States in 2000. It is on the , the most effective and safe medicines needed in a . The wholesale cost in the is about 122.46 each. In the United Kingdom they cost the about 88 pounds. In the United States they cost around US$844.00. More than 120 countries have approved the device and it is used by more than 10 million women. Contents Medical uses [ ] In addition to , hormonal IUD

2012 Wikipedia

625. Spanish National Health System

and functional structure devoted to coordinated global, integral, permanent and continuing primary care, based in a team of health care professionals and other professionals who work there as a team. Health centers basically practice the or , providing a unity of care in which a specialist in community and family medicine is responsible to provide preventive care, health promotion, diagnosis and basic treatment on an outpatient basis. According to the 2008 National Catalog of Hospitals ( Catálogo Nacional de (...) of , and other tissue and cell transplants. Urgent care [ ] Emergency room of the Virgen del Rocío hospital, . is health care provided in cases where emergency care is needed. Emergency medicine is practiced both in healthcare facilities and at the site of , , etc. or in the home of a patient whose condition prevents them from getting to a healthcare facility. Emergency medicine is a 24-hour-a-day service provided, in particular, by physicians and other medical professionals in hospital , but also

2012 Wikipedia

626. Kaiser Permanente

. Around the same time, The Permanente Company was also chartered as a vehicle to provide investment opportunities for the for-profit Permanente Medical Groups. One of the ventures of the Permanente Company is Kaiser Permanente Ventures, a venture capital firm that invests in emerging medical technologies. Kaiser Permanente's headquarters (the in ) One of Kaiser's six other office buildings in Oakland History [ ] Kaiser Sunset Hospital complex in Los Angeles, California Early years [ ] The history (...) into the positive, and to experiment with providing a broader range of services to the workers besides pure emergency care. By the time work on the aqueduct concluded and the project was wrapped up, Garfield had paid off all his debts, was supervising ten physicians at three hospitals, and controlled a financial reserve of $150,000. Garfield returned to Los Angeles for further study at County-USC with the intent of entering private practice. However, in March 1938, Consolidated Industries (a consortium led

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2012 Wikipedia

627. Veganism

emerged as part of the that focused on concerns about diet, the environment, and a distrust of food producers, leading to increasing interest in organic gardening. One of the most influential vegetarian books of that time was 's 1971 text, . It sold more than three million copies and suggested "getting off the top of the food chain". The following decades saw research by a group of scientists and doctors in the United States, including physicians , , , , , and , who argued that diets based

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2012 Wikipedia

628. Tuberculosis

. The evidence to support this practice over people simply taking their medications independently is of poor quality. There is no strong evidence indicating that directly observed therapy improves the number of people who were cured or the number of people who complete their medicine. Moderate quality evidence suggests that there is also no difference if people are observed at home versus at a clinic, or by a family member versus a health care worker. Methods to remind people of the importance of treatment (...) ; about 80% of the population in many Asian and African countries test positive in tuberculin tests, while only 5–10% of the US population test positive. Hopes of totally controlling the disease have been dramatically dampened because of a number of factors, including the difficulty of developing an effective vaccine, the expensive and time-consuming diagnostic process, the necessity of many months of treatment, the increase in HIV-associated tuberculosis, and the emergence of drug-resistant cases

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2012 Wikipedia

629. Tobacco smoking

in fourteen low-income and middle-income countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Vietnam), with about 80% of this usage in the form of smoking. The gender gap tends to be less pronounced in lower age groups. Many smokers begin during or . During the early stages, a combination of perceived pleasure acting as and desire to respond to social may offset the unpleasant symptoms of initial use, which typically include (...) . It was believed that tobacco was a gift from the Creator and that the exhaled tobacco smoke was capable of carrying one's thoughts and prayers to heaven. Apart from smoking, tobacco had a number of uses as medicine. As a pain killer it was used for earache and toothache and occasionally as a . Smoking was said by the desert Indians to be a cure for colds, especially if the tobacco was mixed with the leaves of the small , , or the root of or , Leptotaenia multifida , the addition of which was thought

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2012 Wikipedia

630. Vegetarianism

of moral concerns involving the raising or consumption of animals in general, but because of concerns about the specific treatment and practises involved in the raising and slaughter of animals, i.e. and the industrialisation of . Others still avoid meat because meat production is claimed to place a greater burden on the environment than production of an equivalent amount of plant . Ethical objections based on consideration for animals are generally divided into opposition to the act of killing (...) vegetarian restaurants. In September 2009, schools in Ghent are due to have a weekly veggiedag ("vegetarian day") too. Public opinion and acceptance of meat-free food is expected to be more successful if its descriptive words focus less on the health aspects and more on the flavor. Labor conditions and diet Some groups, such as , promote vegetarianism as a way to offset poor treatment and working conditions of workers in the contemporary . These groups cite studies showing the psychological damage caused

2012 Wikipedia

631. Alcoholism

due to long-term drinking. Medical treatment in a rehabilitation center will be required; otherwise, the pathological changes will cause death. DSM and ICD In psychology and psychiatry, the DSM is the most common global standard, while in medicine, the standard is ICD. The terms they recommend are similar but not identical. Organization Preferred term(s) Definition 's " " and " " alcohol abuse = repeated use despite recurrent adverse consequences. alcohol dependence = alcohol abuse combined (...) in the decline of death rates from cirrhosis and alcoholism. In 2005 alcohol dependence and abuse was estimated to cost the US economy approximately 220 billion dollars per year, more than cancer and obesity. Society and culture The various health problems associated with long-term alcohol consumption are generally perceived as detrimental to society, for example, money due to lost labor-hours, medical costs due to injuries due to drunkenness and organ damage from long-term use, and secondary treatment costs

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2012 Wikipedia

632. Morphine

to and for labor pains. Its duration of analgesia is about three to seven hours. However, concerns exist that morphine may increase mortality in the event of . Morphine has also traditionally been used in the treatment of . A 2006 review, though, found little evidence to support this practice. A 2016 Cochrane review concluded that morphine is effective in relieving cancer pain. Side-effects of nausea and constipation are rarely severe enough to warrant stopping treatment. Shortness of breath [ ] Morphine (...) , heroin may be thought of as a more rapidly acting form of morphine. Illicit [ ] Illicit morphine is rarely produced from codeine found in over-the-counter cough and pain medicines. This demethylation reaction is often performed using pyridine and hydrochloric acid. Another source of illicit morphine comes from the extraction of morphine from extended-release morphine products, such as MS-Contin. Morphine can be extracted from these products with simple extraction techniques to yield a morphine

2012 Wikipedia

633. Mental health professional

professionals may sometimes work together using a variety of treatment options such as concurrent and and . Additionally, specific mental health professionals may be utilized based upon their cultural and religious background or experience, as part of a theory of both alternative medicines and of the nature of helping and ethnicity. Primary care providers, such as internists, pediatricians, and family physicians, may provide initial components of mental health diagnosis and treatment for children and adults (...) (and/or community service)records and reports. Counsel clients and patients, individually and in group sessions, to assist in overcoming dependencies (seeking new relationships), adjusting to life, and making changes. Collect information about clients through interviews, observations, and tests (and most importantly, speaking with and planning with the person). Act as the client’s advocate in order to coordinate required services or to resolve emergency problems in crisis situations. [often first line

2012 Wikipedia

634. Medical transcription

care to ensure that the impositions on MT autonomy are not so onerous as to outweigh its benefits. Medical transcription is still the primary mechanism for a physician to clearly communicate with other healthcare providers who access the patient record, to advise them on the state of the patient's health and past/current treatment, and to assure continuity of care. More recently, following Federal and State Disability Act changes, a written report (IME) became a requirement for documentation (...) notes that were added in the patient's file for interpretation by the primary physician responsible for the treatment. Ultimately, this mess of handwritten notes and typed reports were consolidated into a single patient file and physically stored along with thousands of other patient records in a wall of filing cabinets in the medical records department. Whenever the need arose to review the records of a specific patient, the patient's file would be retrieved from the filing cabinet and delivered

2012 Wikipedia

635. Medicaid

of 21. [ ] Minimum services include pain relief, restoration of teeth, and maintenance for dental health. Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT) is a mandatory Medicaid program for children that aims to focus on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions. Oral screenings are not required for EPSDT recipients, and they do not suffice as a direct dental referral. If a condition requiring treatment is discovered during an oral screening, the state (...) programs and establishes requirements for service delivery, quality, funding, and eligibility standards. The and the (HIPP) were created by the (OBRA-90). This act helped to add Section 1927 to the Social Security Act of 1935 which became effective on January 1, 1991. This program was formed due to the costs that Medicaid programs were paying for outpatient drugs at their discounted prices. The (OBRA-93) amended Section 1927 of the Act as it brought changes to the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, as well

2012 Wikipedia

636. Biomedical engineering

treatment, including , , and . Also included under the scope of a biomedical engineer is the management of current medical equipment within hospitals while adhering to relevant industry standards. This involves equipment recommendations, procurement, routine testing and preventative maintenance, through to decommissioning and disposal. This role is also known as a or . Biomedical engineering has recently emerged as its own study, as compared to many other engineering fields. Such an evolution is common (...) experienced steady and strong growth over its history, with many companies investing large amounts of money into the development of new products. Biomaterials science encompasses elements of medicine, biology, chemistry, tissue engineering and materials science. Biomedical optics [ ] Biomedical optics refers to the interaction of biological tissue and light, and how this can be exploited for sensing, imaging, and treatment. Tissue engineering [ ] Main article: Tissue engineering, like genetic engineering

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2012 Wikipedia

637. Asbestos

, the material has extremely widespread use in many areas. Continuing long-term use of asbestos after harmful health effects were known or suspected, and the slow emergence of symptoms decades after exposure ceased, made the longest, most expensive mass in U.S. history though a much lesser legal issue in most other countries involved. Asbestos-related also remains an ongoing concern for many manufacturers, . Contents Etymology [ ] The word "asbestos", first used in the 1600s, ultimately derives from (...) died of mesothelioma and an unknown number died from asbestosis. The United States government and asbestos industry have been criticized for not acting quickly enough to inform the public of dangers, and to reduce public exposure. In the late 1970s, court documents proved that asbestos industry officials knew of asbestos dangers since the 1930s and had concealed them from the public. In Australia, asbestos was widely used in construction and other industries between 1946 and 1980. From the 1970s

2012 Wikipedia

638. Automated external defibrillator

[ ] The first use of an external defibrillator on a human was in 1947 by Claude Beck. The portable version of the defibrillator was invented in the mid-1960s by in , , a pioneer in emergency medical treatment. Case studies [ ] In a study published in 2017, researchers in Poland selected the main entrances of buildings which had AEDs, although the researchers themselves did not know the exact locations of the devices. In drills of pretend heart attack, the average time to bring the AED to the patient was 96 (...) Commons has media related to . Emergency medicine (BVM) ( ) (ECG/EKG) (IO) (IV) (NPA) (OPA) Drugs ( ) / (ACoRN) (ACLS) (ATLS) (BLS) (CPR) (CCrISP) (NRP) (PALS) Scoring systems Techniques Equipment Mnemonics Certifications Topics : Retrieved from " " : Hidden categories: Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged in Namespaces Variants Views More Search Navigation Interaction Tools Print/export In other projects Languages This page was last edited on 6 March 2019, at 17:23 (UTC) . Text is available

2012 Wikipedia

639. Breastfeeding

with perhaps a little extra effort. In one type of inverted nipple, the nipple easily becomes erect when stimulated, but in a second type, termed a "true inverted nipple," the nipple shrinks back into the breast when the areola is squeezed. According to La Leche League, "There is debate about whether pregnant women should be screened for flat or inverted nipples and whether treatments to draw out the nipple should be routinely recommended. Some experts believe that a baby who is latched on well can draw (...) , the infant’s body can usually rid itself of the bilirubin excess. However, in some cases, the infant may need additional treatments to keep the condition from progressing into more severe problems. There are two types of newborn jaundice. Breast milk jaundice occurs in about 1 in 200 babies. Here the jaundice isn’t usually visible until the baby is a week old. It often reaches its peak during the second or third week. Breast milk jaundice can be caused by substances in mother’s milk that decrease

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2012 Wikipedia

640. Clinical psychology

Psychology in 1930, which would act as the primary forum for psychologists until after World War II when the APA reorganized. In 1945, the APA created what is now called Division 12, its division of clinical psychology, which remains a leading organization in the field. Psychological societies and associations in other English-speaking countries developed similar divisions, including in Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. World War II and the integration of treatment [ ] When broke out (...) , and program development and administration. In many countries, clinical psychology is a regulated . The field is generally considered to have begun in 1896 with the opening of the first psychological at the by . In the first half of the 20th century, clinical psychology was focused on psychological assessment, with little attention given to treatment. This changed after the 1940s when World War II resulted in the need for a large increase in the number of trained clinicians. Since that time, three main

2012 Wikipedia

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