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Emergency Medicine Treatment and Labor Act

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41. Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Treatment (PDQ®) - PDQ Cancer Information Summaries - NCBI Bookshelf Warning: The NCBI web site requires JavaScript to function. Search database Search term Search NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US); 2002-. PDQ Cancer Information (...) , or a short-acting calcium-channel blocker (e.g., nicardipine). Tumor removal may be followed by a sudden drop in blood pressure that may require rapid volume replacement and intravenous vasoconstrictors (e.g., norepinephrine or phenylephrine). Postoperatively, patients should remain in a monitored environment for 24 hours. Postoperative hypotension is managed primarily by volume expansion, and postoperative hypertension usually responds to diuretics. Inherited Pheochromocytoma The standard treatment

2015 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

42. Evaluation and Management of Adult Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department With Acute Headache

policies of the American College of Emergency Physiciansand,assuch,arenotsubjecttothesamepeerreviewprocessasarticlesappearingintheprint journal. Policy statements and clinical policies of ACEP do not necessarily re?ect the policies and beliefs of Annals of Emergency Medicine and its editors. 0196-0644/$-see front matter Copyright © 2008 by the American College of Emergency Physicians. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2008.07.001 Volume ??, ??. ? : October ???? Annals of Emergency Medicine 407[Ann Emerg Med (...) -language sources, human studies, adults, and years January 2000 to August 2006. Additional articles were reviewed from the bibliography of articles cited and from published textbooks and review articles. Subcommittee members supplied articles from their own ?les, and more recent articles identi?ed during the expert review process were also included. The reasons for developing clinical policies in emergency medicine and the approaches used in their development have been enumerated. 4 This policy

2008 Congress of Neurological Surgeons

43. Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer

, the Children’s Oncology Group (COG), and the Institute of Medicine. A risk-based medical follow-up is recommended, which includes a systematic plan for lifelong screening, surveillance, and prevention that incorporates risk estimates based on the following:[ ] Previous cancer. Cancer therapy. Genetic predisposition. Lifestyle behaviors. Comorbid conditions. Sex. Part of long-term follow-up is also focused on appropriate screening of educational and vocational progress. Specific treatments for childhood (...) Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version - National Cancer Institute Menu Search Search Search General Information About Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer During the past five decades, dramatic progress has been made in the development of curative therapy for pediatric malignancies. Long-term survival into adulthood is the expectation for more than 80% of children with access to contemporary

2012 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

44. Abdominal Trauma, Penetrating (Treatment)

stabilizing surgical intervention. Obviously, if no surgeon is available, transfer may be the only course of action. Practitioners must be cognizant of Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA)/Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) violations and document accordingly (see ). This legislation was enacted with the intention of removing economic considerations from important medical decisions in the ED. Previous Next: Initial Emergency Department Care A team leader should (...) nonoperative management of gunshot wounds of the anterior abdomen. Arch Surg . 1997 Feb. 132(2):178-83. . Kelemen JJ 3rd, Martin RR, Obney JA, Jenkins D, Kissinger DP. Evaluation of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in stable patients with gunshot wounds to the abdomen. Arch Surg . 1997 Aug. 132(8):909-13. . Hedges JR, Roberts JR. Clinical Procedures in Emergency Medicine. Peritoneal procedures . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders; 1997. Simon RJ, Rabin J, Kuhls D. Impact of increased use of laparoscopy

2014 eMedicine Surgery

45. Psychosocial and Environmental Pregnancy Risks (Treatment)

in the pregnant woman is usually associated with a high level of anxiety for the woman, her family, and, often, the physician. 2014 study also showed that there is a deficiency in both emergency department (ED) and obstetric/gynecologic physicians' knowledge when counseling women about the risks of diagnostic imaging in pregnancy. [ ] A number of modalities may be required for diagnosis and treatment of exposures in pregnancy. It is necessary to balance the benefits of such procedures with an accurate (...) Psychosocial and Environmental Pregnancy Risks (Treatment) Psychosocial and Environmental Pregnancy Risks: Overview, Radiation Exposure, Chemical Exposure Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache

2014 eMedicine.com

46. Hypercoagulability: Hereditary Thrombophilia and Lupus Anticoagulants Associated With Venous Thrombosis and Emboli (Treatment)

as alternatives to warfarin. They have been approved for use in VTE prophylaxis, VTE treatment, and stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation. In patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, fondaparinux, a long-acting anti-Xa agent, is thought to have advantages over the short-acting antithrombin agents argatroban and bivalirudin. [ ] Direct oral anticoagulants have several possible advantages over warfarin, including the following: No or limited interaction with other drugs and diet Metabolic (...) . [ ] Idarucizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to and inactivates dabigatran, has received expedited approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Andexanet alfa is a genetically engineered factor Xa molecule that has no procoagulant activity but can bind with and neutralize both direct factor Xa inhibitors (eg, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban) and the factor Xa inhibitors that act through antithrombin (LMWHs and fondaparinux). A of andexanet for treatment of acute major bleeding

2014 eMedicine.com

47. Subdural Hematoma (Treatment)

Subdural Hematoma (Treatment) Subdural Hematoma Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Surgical Decompression, Preoperative Treatments Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache (...) =aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTEzNzIwNy10cmVhdG1lbnQ= processing > Subdural Hematoma Treatment & Management Updated: Jul 26, 2018 Author: Richard J Meagher, MD; Chief Editor: Helmi L Lutsep, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Subdural Hematoma Treatment Approach Considerations As with any trauma patient, resuscitation begins with the ABCs (airway, breathing, circulation). All patients with a (GCS) score of less than 8 should be intubated for airway protection. Despite prompt surgical evacuation of hematomas, patients

2014 eMedicine.com

48. Suicide (Treatment)

means killing oneself. The act constitutes a person willingly, perhaps ambivalently, taking his or her own life. Several forms of suicidal behavior fall within the self-destructive spectrum. Death by suicide means the person has died. It is important not to use the term successful suicide; the goal is to prevent suicide and provide treatment. A suicide attempt involves a serious act, such as taking a fatal amount of medication and someone intervening accidentally. Without the accidental discovery (...) Suicide (Treatment) Suicide: Practice Essentials, Overview, Etiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMjAxMzA4NS1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Suicide Updated: Sep 25, 2018 Author: Stephen Soreff, MD

2014 eMedicine.com

49. Shock and Pregnancy (Treatment)

, perfusion is insufficient to meet the metabolic demands of the tissues; consequently, cellular hypoxia and end-organ damage ensue. [ , ] Determinants of cardiac function and oxygen delivery to tissues. Adapted from Strange GR. APLS: The Pediatric Emergency Medicine Course. 3rd ed. Elk Grove Village, Ill: American Academy of Pediatrics; 1998:34. Next: Cardiovascular Physiology During Normal Pregnancy During pregnancy, significant cardiovascular changes occur, including changes in the blood volume, heart (...) , but their benefit has not been established. The mortality rate for AFE is high: 86% of patients may succumb to this disorder. Approximately 40% of cases have fetal death at the time of presentation, and placental abruption occurs in 50% of the cases. Management includes supportive measures and should begin emergently. The initial principles of dealing with obstetric emergencies include airway, breathing, and circulation. The 3 main goals of treatment are (1) oxygenation, (2) maintaining cardiac output and blood

2014 eMedicine.com

50. Seizure Disorders in Pregnancy (Treatment)

, treatment of seizures should be discussed a priori with the group of practitioners who are caring for the patient. AED levels should be checked upon admission. If the serum drug level is low, patients may be administered extra doses or may be switched over to intravenous benzodiazepines or phenytoin, although benzodiazepines can cause respiratory depression in the mother and the newborn. Status epilepticus Rarely, a patient has intractable seizures upon labor and delivery. When these last longer than 30 (...) Seizure Disorders in Pregnancy (Treatment) Seizure Disorders in Pregnancy: Overview, Fetal Congenital Abnormalities and Adverse Outcomes, Mechanisms of Teratogenicity Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache

2014 eMedicine.com

51. Spatial Neglect (Treatment)

to this treatment are its simplicity and feasibility. The disadvantage is that, like prism adaptation treatment, few occupational therapists are trained to use this approach. Therapists report that this treatment is labor-intensive, as they need to remember to implement the movement cuing, which interrupts the chain of activities in training dressing, bathing, or other therapy goals during treatment sessions. Alternate approaches. Optikinetic stimulation, virtual reality, mental imagery, and neck vibration (...) Spatial Neglect (Treatment) Spatial Neglect: Overview, Etiology, Mechanisms and Morbidities in Spatial Neglect Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTEzNjQ3NC1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Spatial Neglect

2014 eMedicine.com

52. Cor Pulmonale (Treatment)

that mimics the function of nitric oxide as well as acts synergistically with it to promote vasodilation. Unlike other advanced therapies, riociguat has been FDA approved for the treatment of group I pulmonary hypertension as well as group 4 pulmonary hypertension (chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension). It was shown to improve exercise tolerance as well as reduce symptoms. [ ] Cardiac glycoside agents The use of cardiac glycosides, such as digitalis, in patients with cor pulmonale has been (...) Cor Pulmonale (Treatment) Cor Pulmonale: Introduction to Cor Pulmonale, Etiology and Pathophysiology of Cor Pulmonale, Epidemiology of Cor Pulmonale Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache

2014 eMedicine.com

53. Cesarean Delivery (Treatment)

who are near term should be offered external cephalic version (ECV) to decrease the overall rate of cesarean delivery. [ , ] ACOG/SMFM guidelines for prevention of primary cesarean delivery The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) released joint guidelines for the safe prevention of primary cesarean delivery. These include the following [ , ] : Prolonged latent (early)-phase labor should be permitted The start of active-phase (...) , major uterine anomalies, antepartum hemorrhage, abnormal fetal heart tracing, multiparity and rupture of memebrane. [ ] Relative contraindications include poor fetal growth or the presence of congenital anomalies. Risks of an external cephalic version include rupture of membranes, labor, fetal injury, and the need for an emergent cesarean delivery due to placental abruption. A recent review reported a severe complication rate of 0.24% and a cesarean section rate secondary to complications of 0.34

2014 eMedicine.com

54. Clavicular Injuries (Treatment)

continue until repeat radiographs show callus formation and healing across the fracture site. Stiffness is usually not a problem after nonoperative treatment of clavicle fractures. If the patient does require some rehabilitation, it should include forward elevation and external rotation. Laborers may return to light lifting after 6 weeks and full duty at 12 weeks. Athletes may return to contact sports after 3 months. Grassi et al found that patients treated nonoperatively for uncomplicated midclavicle (...) Medicine: Principles and Practice . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders; 2003. 958-68. Kochhar T, Jayadev C, Smith J, Griffiths E, Seehra K. Delayed presentation of Subclavian venous thrombosis following undisplaced clavicle fracture. World J Emerg Surg . 2008 Jul 22. 3:25. . . Bahk MS, Kuhn JE, Galatz LM, Connor PM, Williams GR Jr. Acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular injuries and clavicular, glenoid, and scapular fractures. J Bone Joint Surg Am . 2009 Oct. 91(10):2492-510. . van der Meijden OA

2014 eMedicine.com

55. Autonomic Dysreflexia in Spinal Cord Injury (Treatment)

with individuals with spinal cord injuries must be aware of this syndrome, recognize the symptoms, and understand the causes and treatment algorithm. [ , ] Briefly, autonomic dysreflexia develops in individuals with a neurologic level of spinal cord injury at or above the sixth thoracic vertebral level (T6). Autonomic dysreflexia causes an imbalanced reflex sympathetic discharge, leading to potentially life-threatening hypertension. It is considered a medical emergency and must be recognized immediately (...) symptoms and treatment for autonomic dysreflexia. Such cards can be found from multiple sources, including the following: Previous Next: Consultations If the cause of the episode of autonomic dysreflexia is not found and blood pressure remains elevated, emergency department care is recommended for medication management, close monitoring, and further investigation of the possible cause. Consult an ICU specialist for ICU monitoring and treatment of the hypertension. Physicians specializing in physical

2014 eMedicine.com

56. Hemostatic Disorders, Nonplatelet (Treatment)

for emergent treatment. ADAMTS13 deficiency can be caused by a genetic mutation or the action of autoimmune inhibitors. Several drugs have been implicated in the development of inhibitors and clinical TTP, including cyclosporine A, mitomycin-C, ticlopidine, simvastatin, atorvastatin (Lipitor), and clopidogrel (Plavix). Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has also been associated with TTP. Therapeutic plasma exchange with 40 mL fresh frozen plasma (FFP)/kg of body weight is the treatment (...) Hemostatic Disorders, Nonplatelet (Treatment) Nonplatelet Hemostatic Disorders: Overview, Fibrinogen Disorders, Vascular and Nonvascular Hemostatic Disorders Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache

2014 eMedicine.com

57. Impairment Rating of Neuromusculoskeletal Conditions (Treatment)

Impairment Rating of Neuromusculoskeletal Conditions (Treatment) Impairment Rating of Neuromusculoskeletal Conditions: Introduction to Impairment and Disability Evaluation, Concepts in Disability Evaluation, Impairment Rating Guides Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method (...) and eliminate bias. For purposes of evaluation, the patient's medical condition should be stable and unlikely to change in the future despite further treatment. Treatment at this point is palliative rather than restorative. Obtain clinical information from the patient's medical records and from physical examination. Compare clinical information from several sources to check for consistency. Resolve disparities when possible, if the clinical information is inconsistent. Use medically accepted

2014 eMedicine.com

58. Hypothyroidism (Treatment)

to treatment Some patients with subacute or postpartum thyroiditis can develop thyrotoxicosis (or symptoms consistent with hyperthyroidism) before developing hypothyroidism. These patients also may benefit from consultation with an endocrinologist. Suspected myxedema coma is a medical emergency with a high risk of mortality, and it necessitates requires initiation of IV LT4 and glucocorticoid therapy before laboratory confirmation. An urgent endocrinology consultation should be obtained. Rarely (...) Hypothyroidism (Treatment) Hypothyroidism Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy, Subclinical Hypothyroidism Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache

2014 eMedicine.com

59. Corneal Abrasion (Treatment)

of ketorolac in the management of corneal abrasions. Acta Ophthalmol Scand . 2001 Apr. 79(2):177-9. . Salz JJ, Reader AL, Schwartz LJ, Van Le K. Treatment of corneal abrasions with soft contact lenses and topical diclofenac. J Refract Corneal Surg . 1994 Nov-Dec. 10(6):640-6. . Weaver CS, Terrell KM. Evidence-based emergency medicine. Update: do ophthalmic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reduce the pain associated with simple corneal abrasion without delaying healing?. Ann Emerg Med . 2003 Jan. 41(1 (...) in patients with large abrasions until their healing is nearly complete. Emergent ophthalmologic consultation is warranted for suspected retained intraocular foreign bodies. Urgent consultation is needed for suspected corneal ulcerations (microbial keratitis). Treatment considerations Determining the best treatment for a corneal abrasion depends on many factors, such as the severity of the injury and the degree of pain the patient is experiencing. But practitioners also must take into consideration

2014 eMedicine.com

60. Breech Presentation (Treatment)

Breech Presentation (Treatment) Breech Presentation: Overview, Vaginal Breech Delivery, Cesarean Delivery Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMjYyMTU5LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Breech Presentation (...) and no physical evidence of a prolapsed cord is evident, management may be expectant while awaiting full cervical dilation. Technique and tips for assisted vaginal breech delivery The fetal membranes should be left intact as long as possible to act as a dilating wedge and to prevent overt . Oxytocin induction and augmentation are controversial. In many previous studies, oxytocin was used for induction and augmentation, especially for hypotonic uterine dysfunction. However, others are concerned

2014 eMedicine.com

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