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Emergency Medicine Treatment and Labor Act

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221. Health literacy: what lessons can be learned from the experiences of other countries?

that people with low health literacy are at risk for inadequate health- related behaviour, health service use, treatment and medication adherence, and self-care management. 20 , and that they have higher mortality rates, are less likely to use preventive health services, and have difficulty navigating the healthcare system. A Belgian study also showed that low health literacy is associated with greater use of health care services, particularly the more specialised services. 21 A systematic review showed (...) skills. Communicating clearly helps people feel more involved in their health care and increases the chances of following through on their treatment plans. All patients appreciate receiving information that is clear and easy to act on. 20 Health literacy KCE Report 322 1.5.3 Organisational and institutional capacity “Organisational capacity refers to the degree to which structures, systems, procedures and practices of organisations within a community are in place to attain their mission

2020 Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre

222. Child abuse and neglect

, and follow up if this does happen explain what will happen next and when. 1.1.4 Make sure that conversations take place somewhere private and where the child or young person feels comfortable. T ake account of any sensory issues the child or young person may have. 1.1.5 If your interaction with a child or young person involves touching them (for example, a medical examination) explain what you are going to do and ask for consent: from them if they are over 16 (follow the Mental Capacity Act 2005 (...) ) or under 16 but Gillick competent or or from their parent or carer if they are under 16 and not Gillick competent. If the child, young person or parent does not agree, respect their wishes unless touching them is essential to their treatment (seek legal advice first unless the need for treatment is immediate). For more guidance on seeking consent for medical examination in children and young people see the General Medical Council's 0-18 years: guidance for all doctors. 1.1.6 Produce a record

2017 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

223. Antimicrobial stewardship: changing risk-related behaviours in the general population

caused by coughs, colds and flu and other infectious diseases (Sickness absence in the labour market: February 2014 Office for National Statistics). The incidence of infectious disease tends to be higher in groups with lower socioeconomic status and outcomes tend to be poorer. For example, they are more likely to have tuberculosis, transmit it to others and to have a drug-resistant strain (Annual report of the Chief Medical Officer 2011: volume one Department of Health). Although viruses (such as HIV (...) to track antimicrobial use and resistance in microbes the development of new drugs, treatments and diagnostics antimicrobial use in animal husbandry political commitment to prioritise antimicrobial resistance as a major area of concern for the UK and globally. Changing when and how people use antimicrobials and changing their behaviour to prevent infection helps to keep current medicines effective for as long as possible. But action is also needed by prescribers, dispensers and regulators

2017 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

224. Supporting Rapid Learning and Improvement Across Ontario’s Health System

Unit, which has enabled the local implementation of the pan-Canadian strategy in Ontario by funding patient- oriented research and building capacity among patients, providers, policymakers and researchers to support the conduct and use of patient-oriented research.(5) Yet, Ontario’s health system still faces complex challenges, such as reducing emergency-room wait times, ending ‘hallway medicine,’ improving support for people with mental health and substance-use problems, and providing optimal care (...) ); • occupation or labour-market experiences more generally (e.g., those in “precarious work” arrangements); • gender; • religion; • educational level (e.g., health literacy); • socio-economic status (e.g., economically disadvantaged populations); and • social capital/social exclusion. • The evidence brief strives to address all Ontarians, but (where possible) it also gives particular attention to people working in local areas and specific sectors (or working on specific conditions, treatments and populations

2019 McMaster Health Forum

225. Guidelines on Supraventricular Tachycardia (for the management of patients with) Full Text available with Trip Pro

12.3.1 Atrial septal defect 42 12.3.2 Ebstein's anomaly 42 12.3.3 Transposition of the great arteries (dextro-transposition of the great arteries) after atrial switch operation (Mustard or Senning) 42 12.3.4 Tetralogy of Fallot 43 12.3.5 Fontan repairs 43 13 Supraventricular tachycardia in the paediatric population 43 13.1 Foetal arrhythmias 43 14 Supraventricular tachycardia in pregnancy 43 14.1 Maternal, obstetric, and offspring risk 44 14.2 Therapy 44 14.2.1 Antiarrhythmic drugs 44 14.2.2 (...) tachycardia in pregnancy 44 Recommendations for the therapy of supraventricular tachycardia in patients with suspected or established heart failure due to tachycardiomyopathy 45 Recommendations for the acute management of narrow QRS tachycardia in the absence of an established diagnosis 48 List of tables Table 1 Classes of recommendations 6 Table 2 Levels of evidence 6 Table 3 Changes in drug recommendations since 2003 7 Table 4 New recommendations in 2019 8 Table 5 Conventional classification

2019 European Society of Cardiology

226. Diagnosis and Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism Full Text available with Trip Pro

CYP3A4 Cytochrome 3A4 DAMOVES D-dimer, Age, Mutation, Obesity, Varicose veins, Eight [coagulation factor VIII], Sex DASH D-dimer, Age, Sex, Hormonal therapy DVT Deep vein thrombosis ECMO Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation ELISA Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay EMA European Medicines Agency ERS European Respiratory Society ESC European Society of Cardiology FAST H-FABP, Syncope, Tachycardia (prognostic score) FDA US Food and Drug Administration GUSTO Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue (...) Integration of aggravating conditions and comorbidity into risk assessment of acute pulmonary embolism 20 5.6 Prognostic assessment strategy 20 6 Treatment in the acute phase 22 6.1 Haemodynamic and respiratory support 22 6.1.1 Oxygen therapy and ventilation 22 6.1.2 Pharmacological treatment of acute right ventricular failure 22 6.1.3 Mechanical circulatory support and oxygenation 23 6.1.4 Advanced life support in cardiac arrest 23 6.2 Initial anticoagulation 23 6.2.1 Parenteral anticoagulation 23 6.2.2

2019 European Society of Cardiology

227. International Review – consent models for health information

, medical diagnosis, the provision of health or social care or treatment or the management of health or social care systems and services on the basis of Union or Member State law or pursuant to contract with a health professional ? processing is necessary for reasons of public interest in the area of public health. 2.2.4 The Health Identifiers Act 2014 The Health Identifiers Act 2014 provides for the assignment of unique health service identifiers to individuals to whom a health service is being, has (...) with a disability, and children’s special care units. ? Regulating health services — Regulating medical exposure to ionising radiation. ? Monitoring services — Monitoring the safety and quality of health services and children’s social services, and investigating as necessary serious concerns about the health and welfare of people who use these services. ? Health technology assessment — Evaluating the clinical and cost- effectiveness of health programmes, policies, medicines, medical equipment, diagnostic

2020 HIQA Health Information

228. A palliative approach to care in the last 12 months of life

Competency Framework—Nursing Competencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Appendix L: Resources Related to Medical Assistance in Dying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Appendix M: Supporting Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Appendix N: Description of the Toolkit (...) and Hours (2011) (2); ? conducted a search for published guidelines in this topic area and identified gaps in guidance; ? conducted a scoping review G to determine the breadth and depth of peer-reviewed studies in the area of Medical Assistance in Dying (MAiD) G , with a specific focus on nursing practice; ? interviewed 24 key informants with experience and expertise in the field, including health providers G in direct care, administrators, researchers and family caregivers; and ? consulted

2020 Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario

229. Management of glucocorticoids during the peri-operative period for patients with adrenal insufficiency

Database of Systematic Reviews 2013; 10: CD005367. 3. HusebyeES,AllolioB,ArltW,et al.Consensusstatementonthe diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with primary adrenal insuf?ciency. Journal of Internal Medicine 2014; 275: 104–15. 4. Bancos I, Hahner S, Tomlinson J, Arlt W. Diagnosis and management of adrenal insuf?ciency. Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology2015;3:216–26. 5. Arlt W, The Society for Endocrinology Clinical Committee. Society for Endocrinology Endocrine Emergency Guidance: Emergency (...) ).Patientstakingphysiologicalreplacementdosesofcorticosteroidsforeither primaryorsecondaryadrenalinsuf?ciencyareatsigni?cantriskofadrenalcrisisandmustbegivenstressdoses of hydrocortisone during the peri-operative period. Many more patients other than those with adrenal and hypothalamic–pituitary causes of adrenal failure are receiving glucocorticoids as treatment for other medical conditions. Daily doses of prednisolone of 5 mg or greater in adults and 10–15 mg.m 2 hydrocortisone equivalentorgreaterinchildrenmayresultinhypothalamo–pituitary

2020 Association of Anaesthetists of GB and Ireland

230. Sexual Misconduct

examination of patients without a chaper- one (85%), and practice in nonacademic medical set- tings (94%) (14). Sexual misconduct by clinicians during labor and delivery may be more prevalent than previously thought. A large survey of U.S. and Canadian obstetric support personnel raised concern that clinicians may at times use sexually degrading language with laboring women or perform genital examinations or procedures without appropriate consent or despite the patient’s refusal (15). Again, although (...) Sexual intercourse, genital-to-genital contact c Oral-to-genital contact c Oral-to-anal contact, genital-to-anal contact c Kissing in a romantic or sexual manner c Touching breasts, genitals, or any sexualized body part for any purpose other than appropriate exami- nation or treatment, or when the patient has refused or has withdrawn consent c Encouraging the patient to masturbate in the pres- ence of the physician* Box 1. Examples of Physician Sexual Misconduct From the Federation of State Medical

2020 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

231. Transcatheter Mitral Valve Intervention: Operator and Institutional Requirements

of conditions previously correctable only with open-heart surgery. Demonstration of the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of transcatheter valve therapies in randomized controlled trials and large prospective registries has generated tremendous interest in these treatments and led to their widespread dissemination. Whereas there are established criteria for training and board certification for the performance of adult cardiothoracic surgery and percutaneous coronary interventions, training standards (...) ). It is recognized, however, that there are significant differences not only between aortic valve and MV pathologies, but also between the respective pathways for patient evaluation, treatment options, and interventional/surgical skill sets. The emergence of transcatheter interventions for VHD has been facilitated by technological innovations, advances in multimodality imaging, improved patient selection, and standardized management pathways (3,4). A cohesive and highly functional multidisciplinary team (MDT

2020 American College of Cardiology

232. Guidelines for the management of pregnant and breastfeeding women in the context of Ebola virus disease

Dissemination, adaptation, implementation and evaluation 8 Recommendations 9 1 Treatment of pregnant women with acute Ebola virus disease 9 2 Induced abortion and induction of labour in women with acute Ebola virus disease 11 3 Infection prevention and control measures for pregnant women with Ebola virus disease 13 4 Infection prevention and control measures for breastfeeding women in the context of Ebola virus disease 14 5 Use of the rVSV-ZEBOV-GP Ebola vaccine in pregnant women 18 Considerations (...) therapies REGN-EB3 and mAb 114 may be offered to pregnant women with EVD (6,12,51). Recommended in the context of rigorous research or specific contexts Strong Very low quality evidence Induced abortion and induction of labour in women with acute EVD or following recovery 3. Labour should not be induced for foetal indications in pregnant women with acute EVD. Recommended Strong Very low quality evidence Infection prevention and control measures for pregnant women with EVD 4. Invasive procedures should

2020 World Health Organisation Guidelines

233. What works to improve early grade literacy in Latin America and the Caribbean? A systematic review and meta?analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

(Cristia, Ibarrarán, Cueto, Santiago, & Severín, ). The findings of the quantitative nonintervention studies indicate that phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, and comprehension are associated with reading ability. The research also indicates that poverty and child labor are negatively correlated with EGL outcomes. This finding on the importance of poverty and socioeconomic factors for EGL outcomes supports the quantitative intervention result that nutrition programs may be effective in improving EGL (...) to training workshops delivered outside of the classroom. Emerging evidence suggests that teacher training models that emphasize sustained in‐class coaching may produce larger effects on learning outcomes than short‐term training models in developing countries (Kraft, Blazar, & Hogan, ). For instance, a study from South Africa showed that monthly visits from specialized training coaches resulted in statistically significant effects on reading outcomes (0.25 standard deviations), while two 2‐day training

2019 Campbell Collaboration

234. The promotion of well?being among children exposed to intimate partner violence: A systematic review of interventions Full Text available with Trip Pro

, performance bias is also typically assessed—although predominately in medical or pharmaceutical trials—by blinding personnel to the allocated conditions. In psychosocial interventions, it is often not desirable to blind the individual delivering the intervention. On the contrary, interventionists are often trained in the specific psychosocial therapy and expected to adhere to the program manual or intervention components (treatment fidelity). Risk of bias in observational studies was assessed using (...) , trauma‐focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF‐CBT; Cohen, Mannarino, & Deblinger, ) is a clinic‐based intervention—rooted in learning and cognitive theories—addresses distorted beliefs and attributions related to the traumatic experiences and provides a supportive environment in which the child can talk about the traumatic experience or abuse. The treatment focuses on individual therapy sessions with children ages 3–18 years with parallel parent sessions that focus on the same elements

2019 Campbell Collaboration

235. Citizen engagement in public services in low? and middle?income countries: A mixed?methods systematic review of participation, inclusion, transparency and accountability (PITA) initiatives Full Text available with Trip Pro

and Tropical Medicine, London International Development Centre, 20 Bloomsbury Square, London WC1A 2NS, UK. Email: International Initiative for Impact Evaluation, London, UK International Initiative for Impact Evaluation, London, UK International Initiative for Impact Evaluation, Norway Campbell Collaboration, New Delhi, India Education Endowment Foundation, London, UK Corresponding Author E-mail address: International Initiative for Impact Evaluation, London, UK Correspondence Hugh Waddington (...) , International Initiative for Impact Evaluation and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London International Development Centre, 20 Bloomsbury Square, London WC1A 2NS, UK. Email: International Initiative for Impact Evaluation, London, UK International Initiative for Impact Evaluation, London, UK International Initiative for Impact Evaluation, Norway Campbell Collaboration, New Delhi, India Education Endowment Foundation, London, UK First published: 02 August 2019 Linked Article: Give access Share

2019 Campbell Collaboration

236. Impact of financial inclusion in low? and middle?income countries: A systematic review of reviews Full Text available with Trip Pro

, and have uncovered strengths, gaps and weaknesses of the existing high‐level evidence. We hope that we have reduced the amount of confusion and uncertainty arising from the many different meta‐studies on financial inclusion published in recent years, not least thanks to our systematic assessment of the variations in quality within that field. The (perhaps boring) truth that seems to emerge about financial inclusion is that it is not changing the world. On average, financial services may not even have (...) to be viewed against those of comparable interventions, such as graduation and livelihoods‐enhancement programmes. We note that, fortunately, our findings regarding impact chime in with an emerging realism around microfinance, including in the donor community: recognising that erstwhile claims of transformative impact were unrealistic and that the hype for microfinance, particularly microcredit, was overblown. We welcome this newfound realism and wish to encourage it with the help of this review, in which

2019 Campbell Collaboration

237. 2020-2023 Value Assessment Framework

to the ICER Value Assessment Framework, including refinements of its conceptual structure and modifications to the specific methods used to gather and assess evidence of different types. Separate documents describing adaptations to this framework for treatments for ultra-rare diseases and single- or short-term transformative therapies can be found on ICER’s website. This update to the ICER value assessment framework builds upon ICER’s experience using the 2017- 2019 framework in the evaluation of drugs (...) or harms. These different subgroups are highlighted in the ICER report. • Interventions: Interventions may include drug therapies, medical tests, devices, and delivery system innovations, among others. When relevant, ICER may focus its review on specific attributes of an intervention (e.g., mode of administration, line of therapy, etc.). ICER’s process for selecting which interventions to review is described in Section 6 of this document. • Comparators: Appropriate comparators represent alternative

2020 California Technology Assessment Forum

238. Staff and associate specialist (SAS) grade handbook

, approximately 10% will develop an addiction. Figures are unreliable as no large study has ever been conducted in the UK and most rely on postal surveys. The majority of us (even most of the heavy drinkers or drug users) in Medical School were able to ‘settle down’ and never developed a serious problem. A minority, however, will go onto develop full-blown addictive states. This transition from heavy use to addiction is consequent on several factors. Evidence from DNA and biochemical testing shows (...) anaesthetists.5 Association of Anaesthetists | The SAS Handbook 2020 Back to contents The Committee includes the SAS Chair, Association Officers ex officio, elected Association Board members and co-opted SAS members. These include representatives from the British Medical Association (BMA), the Royal College of Anaesthetists (RCoA), the devolved nations and Ireland. As a membership organisation, the Association exists to represent the views of its members, and as such, the role of the SAS Committee

2020 Association of Anaesthetists of GB and Ireland

239. Improving outdoor air quality and health: review of interventions

benefits to public health 67 Limitations 69 Further work emerging from the assessment 70 Results: Planning/structural design interventions 71 Key messages 71 Research questions 72 Principles: maximising benefits to public health 81 Limitations 84 Further work emerging from the assessment 85 Results: Industrial interventions 86 Key messages 86 Research questions 87 Strategies emerging from the rapid evidence assessment 96 Limitations 98 Further work emerging from the assessment 99 Results: Agricultural (...) interventions 101 Key messages 101 Review of interventions to improve outdoor air quality and public health 4 Principles: maximising benefits to public health 113 Limitations 114 Further work emerging from the rapid evidence assessment 115 Results: Behavioural interventions 116 Key messages 116 Research questions 117 Principles: maximising benefits to public health 128 Strategies emerging from the rapid evidence assessment 128 Limitations 129 Further work emerging from the rapid evidence assessment 130

2019 Public Health England

240. Safeguarding in general dental practice

with a need for care and support, as a result of which they are unable to protect themselves from either the risk of, or the experience of, abuse or neglect. Serious Medical Treatment • • Treatment which involves providing, withdrawing or withholding treatment in circumstances where one of the following applies: • where a single treatment is being proposed, there is a fine balance between its benefits to the patient and the risks it is likely to entail for them • where there is a choice of treatments (...) • ensuring access to appropriate medical/dental care or treatment • responding to basic emotional needs Self-neglect: this covers a wide range of behaviour neglecting to care for one’s personal hygiene, health or surrounding and includes behaviour such as hoarding. It is important to consider capacity when self-neglect is suspected. Also consider how it may impact on other family members and whether this gives rise to a safeguarding concern. Extremism Vocal or active opposition to fundamental British

2019 Public Health England

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