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Elbow Anatomy

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101. Flexor Tendon Anatomy (Diagnosis)

Flexor Tendon Anatomy (Diagnosis) Flexor Tendon Anatomy: Flexor Tendon System, Flexor Muscles of the Digits, Flexor Tendons of the Digits Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTI0NTIzNi1vdmVydmlldw (...) == processing > Flexor Tendon Anatomy Updated: Apr 09, 2013 Author: Steven Bates, MD; Chief Editor: Harris Gellman, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Flexor Tendon Anatomy Flexor Tendon System The flexor tendon system of the hand consists of the flexor muscles of the forearm, their tendinous extensions, and the specialized digital flexor sheaths. These components work in concert to produce smooth and efficient flexion of the individual digits of the hand. Injury to the flexor tendon

2014 eMedicine Surgery

102. Hand, Anatomy

Hand, Anatomy Hand Anatomy: Overview, Bones, Skin Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTI4NTA2MC1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Hand Anatomy Updated: Jun 29, 2016 Author: Bradon J Wilhelmi, MD; Chief Editor (...) : Thomas R Gest, PhD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Hand Anatomy Overview Overview The anatomy of the is complex, intricate, and fascinating. Its integrity is absolutely essential for our everyday functional living. Our hands may be affected by many disorders, most commonly traumatic injury. For any physician or therapist treating hand problems, the mastery of such anatomy is fundamental in order to provide the best quality of care. (See the image below.) [ , , , , , , ] Surface

2014 eMedicine Surgery

103. Flexor Tendon Anatomy (Treatment)

Flexor Tendon Anatomy (Treatment) Flexor Tendon Anatomy: Flexor Tendon System, Flexor Muscles of the Digits, Flexor Tendons of the Digits Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTI0NTIzNi1vdmVydmlldw (...) == processing > Flexor Tendon Anatomy Updated: Apr 09, 2013 Author: Steven Bates, MD; Chief Editor: Harris Gellman, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Flexor Tendon Anatomy Flexor Tendon System The flexor tendon system of the hand consists of the flexor muscles of the forearm, their tendinous extensions, and the specialized digital flexor sheaths. These components work in concert to produce smooth and efficient flexion of the individual digits of the hand. Injury to the flexor tendon

2014 eMedicine Surgery

104. Flexor Tendon Anatomy (Overview)

Flexor Tendon Anatomy (Overview) Flexor Tendon Anatomy: Flexor Tendon System, Flexor Muscles of the Digits, Flexor Tendons of the Digits Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTI0NTIzNi1vdmVydmlldw (...) == processing > Flexor Tendon Anatomy Updated: Apr 09, 2013 Author: Steven Bates, MD; Chief Editor: Harris Gellman, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Flexor Tendon Anatomy Flexor Tendon System The flexor tendon system of the hand consists of the flexor muscles of the forearm, their tendinous extensions, and the specialized digital flexor sheaths. These components work in concert to produce smooth and efficient flexion of the individual digits of the hand. Injury to the flexor tendon

2014 eMedicine Surgery

105. Ultrasound-guided Arthrocentesis of the Elbow: A Posterior Approach. (PubMed)

Ultrasound-guided Arthrocentesis of the Elbow: A Posterior Approach. Identification of fluid in the elbow joint by physical examination alone can be challenging. Ultrasound can assist in the diagnosis of elbow effusion, and guide aspiration of the effusion.We illustrate the anatomy and ultrasound guidance technique of a posterior approach to elbow arthrocentesis using examples of normal and pathologic elbow joint ultrasound images.The posterior distal humerus at the level of the olecranon fossa (...) provides an excellent acoustic window into the joint space. This location also provides a safe path for the performance of ultrasound-guided arthrocentesis.Ultrasound-guided arthrocentesis of the elbow from a posterior approach is a helpful technique to guide the aspiration of the painful swollen elbow.Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2013 Journal of Emergency Medicine

106. Current concepts of elbow-joint disorders and their treatment (PubMed)

Current concepts of elbow-joint disorders and their treatment Recently, many studies have emphasized the importance of the comprehension of detailed functional anatomy and biomechanics of the elbow and its significant contribution in facilitating good functional outcomes of conservative and surgical treatment in the field of elbow disorders.The most common disease of elbow disorders and their treatment was reviewed.Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow, is defined as a microscopic tear of extensor (...) , and elderly patients with comminuted distal humeral fractures and the salvage of distal humeral nonunion. Proper selection and implantation of prostheses are also important to achieve good functional outcome and longevity.The success of treatment of elbow disorders depends greatly on surgical design and technique, both of which require comprehensive knowledge of detailed anatomy and biomechanics of the elbow.

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2013 Journal of Orthopaedic Science

107. Elbow arthroscopy: the basics. (PubMed)

Elbow arthroscopy: the basics. Elbow arthroscopy has become an accepted surgical option for treating numerous conditions of the elbow, including septic, degenerative, or traumatic arthritis; capsular release; removal of loose bodies; synovectomy or plica excision; and chondral lesions of the capitellum. Surgeon experience, knowledge of elbow anatomy, patient positioning, and portal selection and placement are important factors for successful arthroscopy and avoiding complications. This article (...) describes the basic surgical setup and technique for elbow arthroscopy.Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2013 Journal of Hand Surgery - American

108. Elbow lateral collateral ligament injuries. (PubMed)

Elbow lateral collateral ligament injuries. The lateral collateral ligament (LCL) of the elbow is a complex capsuloligamentous structure critical in stabilizing the ulnohumeral and radiocapitellar articulations. LCL injury can result in elbow instability, allowing the proximal radius and ulna to externally rotate away from the humerus as a supination stress is applied to the forearm. Elbow dislocation is the most common cause of LCL injury, followed by iatrogenic injury. LCL pathology resulting (...) in late recurrent instability is rare but disabling. The diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion, detailed history, and focused physical examination maneuvers. Stress radiographs are often the most useful imaging modality. Despite controversy over the anatomy of the LCL complex and the relative importance of its component structures, treatment of late instability is focused on lateral ligament reconstruction from the humerus to the ulna using tendon grafts with reasonably good outcomes.Copyright

2013 Journal of Hand Surgery - American

109. CORR Insights®: Is Premorbid Glenoid Anatomy Altered in Patients with Glenohumeral Osteoarthritis? (PubMed)

CORR Insights®: Is Premorbid Glenoid Anatomy Altered in Patients with Glenohumeral Osteoarthritis? 23733592 2013 10 29 2018 12 02 1528-1132 471 9 2013 Sep Clinical orthopaedics and related research Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. CORR Insights ®: Is premorbid glenoid anatomy altered in patients with glenohumeral osteoarthritis? 2940-1 10.1007/s11999-013-3091-7 Edwards T Bradley TB Fondren Orthopaedic Group, 7401 South Main Street, Houston, TX 77030-4509, USA. bemd@fondren.com eng Journal Article (...) Comment 2013 06 04 United States Clin Orthop Relat Res 0075674 0009-921X AIM IM Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2013 Sep;471(9):2932-9 23686428 Female Humans Male Osteoarthritis pathology Scapula pathology Shoulder Joint pathology 2013 05 21 2013 05 24 2013 6 5 6 0 2013 6 5 6 0 2013 10 30 6 0 ppublish 23733592 10.1007/s11999-013-3091-7 PMC3734388 J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2002 Jul-Aug;11(4):309-14 12195246

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2013 Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research

110. Vascularized groin lymph node flap transfer for postmastectomy upper limb lymphedema: flap anatomy, recipient sites, and outcomes. (PubMed)

Vascularized groin lymph node flap transfer for postmastectomy upper limb lymphedema: flap anatomy, recipient sites, and outcomes. Vascularized groin lymph node flap transfer is an emerging approach to the treatment of postmastectomy upper limb lymphedema. The authors describe the pertinent flap anatomy, surgical technique including different recipient sites, and outcome of this technique.Ten cadaveric dissections were performed to clarify the vascular supply of the superficial groin lymph (...) nodes. Ten patients underwent vascularized groin lymph node flap transfer for postmastectomy upper limb lymphedema using the wrist (n=8) or elbow (n=2) as a recipient site. Ten patients who chose to undergo physical therapy were used as controls. Intraoperatively, indocyanine green was injected subcutaneously on the flap margin to observe the lymph drainage. Outcomes were assessed using improvement of circumferential differentiation, reduction rate, and decreased number of episodes of cellulitis.A

2013 Plastic and reconstructive surgery

111. Accuracy and reliability of postoperative radiographic measurements of glenoid anatomy and relationships in patients with total shoulder arthroplasty. (PubMed)

Accuracy and reliability of postoperative radiographic measurements of glenoid anatomy and relationships in patients with total shoulder arthroplasty. Radiographic imaging is the follow-up imaging modality most widely used for patients who have undergone total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). However, its accuracy of measurement of component position has not been validated against a gold standard in a clinical series.Thirty-two x-ray images and computed tomography scans were taken within 1 month (...) °, was found.This validation study has defined the ability and limitation for these measurements using high-quality axillary and AP radiographs.Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery

112. Laxity of the Ulnar Nerve During Elbow Flexion and Extension. (PubMed)

Laxity of the Ulnar Nerve During Elbow Flexion and Extension. To evaluate the dynamic anatomy of the ulnar nerve at the elbow.We studied 11 fresh cadavers. We placed metal clips on the ulnar nerve at three locations: at the medial epicondyle (point A), 3 cm proximal to the epicondyle (point B), and 14 cm proximal to the epicondyle (point C). The distances from the medial epicondyle to points A, B, and C on the ulnar nerve and between each pair of points were measured in full elbow extension (...) and flexion.With full elbow flexion, there was no movement of the ulnar nerve at point A (adjacent to the medial epicondyle). Point A and the adjacent distal ulnar nerve moved as a unit with the forearm around the medial epicondyle. Proximal to the cubital tunnel, there was significant ulnar nerve excursion (P < .01) at points B (0.7 ± 0.3 cm) and C (0.2 ± 0.2 cm). There was differential excursion of the ulnar nerve at points B and C relative to the medial epicondyle. The distances between the markers revealed

2012 Journal of Hand Surgery - American

113. Elbow Ossification Centers

sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Elbow Ossification Centers." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related Studies (from Trip Database) Related Topics in Anatomy About FPnotebook.com is a rapid access, point-of-care medical reference for primary care and emergency clinicians. Started in 1995, this collection now contains 6656 interlinked topic pages divided into a tree of 31 specialty books and 728 (...) Elbow Ossification Centers Elbow Ossification Centers Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Elbow Ossification Centers Elbow

2015 FP Notebook

114. Topsy-turvy locomotion: biomechanical specializations of the elbow in suspended quadrupeds reflect inverted gravitational constraints (PubMed)

Topsy-turvy locomotion: biomechanical specializations of the elbow in suspended quadrupeds reflect inverted gravitational constraints Some tetrapods hang upside down from tree branches when moving horizontally. The ability to walk in quadrupedal suspension has been acquired independently in at least 14 mammalian lineages. During the stance (supportive) phase of quadrupedal suspension, the elbow joint flexor muscles (not the extensors as in upright vertebrates moving overground) are expected (...) to contract to maintain the flexed limb posture. Therefore muscular control in inverted, suspended quadrupeds may require changes of muscle control, and even morphologies, to conditions opposite to those in upright animals. However, the relationships between musculoskeletal morphologies and elbow joint postures during the stance phase in suspended quadrupeds have not been investigated. Our analysis comparing postures and skeletal morphologies in Choloepus (Pilosa), Pteropus (Chiroptera), Nycticebus

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2011 Journal of anatomy

115. Solitary paralysis of the flexor pollicis longus muscle after minimally invasive elbow procedures: anatomical and clinical study of the anterior interosseous nerve. (PubMed)

nerve supplying the flexor pollicis longus, the flexor digitorum profundus, and the pronator quadratus. Unusual etiologic conditions can occasionally cause isolated neuropathy of the flexor pollicis longus branch from the anterior interosseous nerve.Six patients presented with isolated paralysis of the flexor pollicis longus, four following venipuncture in the cubital fossa and two following arthroscopy of the elbow joint. Cadaveric dissections were performed to examine any anatomy clinically (...) Solitary paralysis of the flexor pollicis longus muscle after minimally invasive elbow procedures: anatomical and clinical study of the anterior interosseous nerve. The origin of the flexor pollicis longus muscle can vary, causing compression of the anterior interosseous nerve in the forearm. The topographic relationship of the flexor pollicis longus to the median and anterior interosseous nerves must be considered when these nerves are decompressed. The anterior interosseous nerve is a motor

2011 Plastic and reconstructive surgery

116. Clavicle anatomy and the applicability of intramedullary midshaft fracture fixation. (PubMed)

Clavicle anatomy and the applicability of intramedullary midshaft fracture fixation. This study investigated the morphologic safety and applicability of intramedullary fixation of midshaft clavicle fractures by analyzing the pertinent clavicle anatomy using 3-dimensional computer simulation.Computed tomography was used to scan 22 skeletonized clavicles. Computer software was used to simulate middle-segment fracture fixation by fitting a cylindrical corridor within the clavicle in the area (...) to the acromioclavicular end.In most clavicles, straight intramedullary fixation appears to be a morphologically safe and effective method of fixation.Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. All rights reserved.

2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery

117. The anatomy of the proximal radius: implications on fracture implant design. (PubMed)

The anatomy of the proximal radius: implications on fracture implant design. The proximal radius features a complex anatomy. Several studies have been published on the anatomy using different technical approaches; however, most of these studies were conducted with a special focus on parameters relevant to radial prosthetic design. The purpose of our study was to explore the complex geometry of the proximal radius with regard to fracture implant design.Our computed tomography-based measurements (...) of 78 multiplanar reformatted radii allow for exact assessment of its geometry and offer a scientific rationale towards the design of fracture implants. We conducted measurements on the radial head, the radial neck, the radial tuberosity, the radial head-to-neck angle, and the safe zone.A wide range of normal anatomy has been demonstrated for all parameters. Sex differences are statistically significant in all registered parameters, except the radial head-to-neck angle. Although measurements

2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery

118. Resurfacing humeral prosthesis: do we really reconstruct the anatomy? (PubMed)

shoulder arthroplasty reproduces the normal anatomy and compensates glenohumeral wear. However, there was a tendency to position the prosthesis in varus because of technical imperfections. With follow-up, medialization of the humerus with glenoid wear was observed and was correlated in some patients with reappearance of pain.Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved. (...) Resurfacing humeral prosthesis: do we really reconstruct the anatomy? The goal of a resurfacing shoulder arthroplasty is to reproduce the individual's anatomy while preserving the bone stock of the humeral head. This study investigated the hypothesis that resurfacing the humeral prosthesis restores normal glenohumeral relationships and correlates with the final clinical results.A resurfacing shoulder implant was performed in 61 patients (64 shoulders). Indications were primary osteoarthritis

2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery

119. Teres minor muscle and related anatomy. (PubMed)

Teres minor muscle and related anatomy. The purpose of this study was to describe the complex anatomy surrounding the teres minor muscle.Thirty-one cadaveric human shoulders were dissected. Qualitative fascial and neurovascular anatomy were described. Location of motor nerves to teres minor were measured in reference to local anatomy.Fascial anatomy of the posterior shoulder had 2 distinct and equally common variants, 1 of which demonstrated a stout, inflexible fascial compartment enveloping (...) of the accessory motor nerves coursed deep to the fascial sling nor to the distinct teres minor fascial compartment.A stout fascial sling may be the potential site of greatest compression and tethering of the primary motor nerve to teres minor. Additional lateral accessory motor nerves to teres minor remained extra-fascial and took a less angulated path. Half of the shoulders demonstrated a separate teres minor fascial compartment. An improved understanding of the fascial anatomy and innervation pattern

2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery

120. Suprascapular nerve anatomy during shoulder motion: a cadaveric proof of concept study with implications for neurogenic shoulder pain. (PubMed)

Suprascapular nerve anatomy during shoulder motion: a cadaveric proof of concept study with implications for neurogenic shoulder pain. The suprascapular nerve (SSN) carries sensory fibers which may contribute to shoulder pain. Prior anatomic study demonstrated that alteration in SSN course with simulated rotator cuff tendon (RCT) tears cause tethering and potential traction injury to the nerve at the suprascapular notch. Because the SSN has been implicated as a major source of pain with RCT (...) tearing, it is critical to understand nerve anatomy during shoulder motion. We hypothesized that we could evaluate the SSN course with a novel technique to evaluate effects of simulated RCT tears, repair, and/or release of the nerve.The course of the SSN was tracked with a dual fluoroscopic imaging system in a cadaveric model with simulated rotator cuff muscle forces during dynamic shoulder motion.After a simulated full-thickness supraspinatus/infraspinatus tendon tear, the SSN translated medially 3.5

2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery

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