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Elbow Anatomy

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81. Dislocation, Elbow (Follow-up)

Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) . 2009 Dec. 17(3):335-9. . . Shearman CM, el-Khoury GY. Pitfalls in the radiologic evaluation of extremity trauma: Part I. The upper extremity. Am Fam Physician . 1998 Mar 1. 57(5):995-1002. . Sugimoto M, Yoshida T, Kitano K, Hosoya T, Tada K. Voluntary dislocation of the radial head. J Shoulder Elbow Surg . 1996 May-Jun. 5(3):228-30. . Media Gallery Anteroposterior radiograph of the elbow demonstrates the normal anatomy. Lateral radiograph of the elbow demonstrates the normal (...) anatomy. Lateral view of the elbow demonstrates a posterior dislocation of the elbow. The patient also had a nondisplaced radial head fracture. of 3 Tables Contributor Information and Disclosures Author James E Keany, MD, FACEP Associate Medical Director, Emergency Services, Mission Hospital Regional Medical Center, Children's Hospital of Orange County at Mission James E Keany, MD, FACEP is a member of the following medical societies: , , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Coauthor(s) Dekker McKeever

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

82. Pediatrics, Nursemaid Elbow (Follow-up)

of recurrence is approximately 20-25%. [ , ] Those 24 months and younger may have the greatest risk of recurrence. [ ] Previous References Schutzman SA, Teach S. Upper-extremity impairment in young children. Ann Emerg Med . 1995 Oct. 26 (4):474-9. . Salter RB, Zaltz C. Anatomic investigations of the mechanism of injury and pathologic anatomy of "pulled elbow" in young children. Clin Orthop Relat Res . 1971. 77:134-43. . Eismann EA, Cosco ED, Wall EJ. Absence of Radiographic Abnormalities in Nursemaid’s (...) Pediatrics, Nursemaid Elbow (Follow-up) Nursemaid Elbow Follow-up: Deterrence/Prevention, Prognosis Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvODAzMDI2LWZvbGxvd3Vw processing > Nursemaid Elbow Follow-up

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

83. Pediatrics, Nursemaid Elbow (Diagnosis)

have the greatest risk of recurrence. [ ] Previous Next: Patient Education Most parents appreciate knowing that reoccurrence can occur in 1/5-1/4 of patients. Previous References Schutzman SA, Teach S. Upper-extremity impairment in young children. Ann Emerg Med . 1995 Oct. 26 (4):474-9. . Salter RB, Zaltz C. Anatomic investigations of the mechanism of injury and pathologic anatomy of "pulled elbow" in young children. Clin Orthop Relat Res . 1971. 77:134-43. . Eismann EA, Cosco ED, Wall EJ. Absence (...) Pediatrics, Nursemaid Elbow (Diagnosis) Nursemaid Elbow: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvODAzMDI2LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Nursemaid Elbow Updated: Dec 18

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

84. Elbow, MRI

Elbow, MRI Elbow MRI: MRI Technique, Gross Anatomy, Tendinous, Ligamentous, and Muscle Abnormalities Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvNDAxMTYxLW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Elbow MRI Updated: Oct 30, 2015 (...) the arms, hands, legs, or feet; pain deep in the hip bones or ribs; and muscle weakness. Next: Gross Anatomy Formed by the , , and proximal , the elbow is a hinge-type synovial joint that provides both stability and function. The distal aspect of the humerus is a wide, flattened structure. The medial third of its articular surface, the trochlea, articulates with the ulna, whereas its lateral articulates with the radius. A hollow area on the posterior surface of the humerus, above the trochlea

2014 eMedicine Radiology

85. Elbow, Fractures and Dislocations - Adult

of negative radiographs. [ ] The majority of acute elbow conditions encountered in the emergency setting can be diagnosed on conventional radiographs. The minimal radiographic series includes anteroposterior (AP) and lateral images, while an oblique radial head–capitellar view can help detect subtle fractures by removing osseous overlap of the radial head and coronoid. [ ] Examples of all 3 views, with anatomy labeled, are shown in the 3 images below. The radial head–capitellar view may be acquired only (...) when a radial head fracture is suspected, or it may be performed routinely for acute elbow pain or trauma. Normal elbow. Normal anteroposterior (AP) radiograph of the elbow with labeling of relevant anatomy. Normal elbow. Normal lateral radiograph of the elbow with labeling of relevant anatomy. Normal elbow. Normal oblique radiograph of the elbow with labeling of relevant anatomy. Radiographs of the elbow and wrist can exclude malalignment of the elbow joint and distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ

2014 eMedicine Radiology

86. Elbow Trauma, Pediatric

Elbow Trauma, Pediatric Imaging in Pediatric Elbow Trauma: Practice Essentials, Anatomy, Fractures of the Distal Humerus Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvNDE1ODIyLW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Imaging (...) radiographs in the setting of acute trauma may be challenging for many emergency department physicians, orthopedic surgeons, and radiologists. Diagnostic difficulties stem both from the complex developmental anatomy of the elbow and from significant differences between children and adults in the patterns of injury after elbow trauma. [ , , , ] Standard radiographic evaluation of the elbow includes imaging in the anteroposterior (AP) and lateral views. Other views may also be helpful, such as the internal

2014 eMedicine Radiology

87. Pediatrics, Nursemaid Elbow (Treatment)

-extremity impairment in young children. Ann Emerg Med . 1995 Oct. 26 (4):474-9. . Salter RB, Zaltz C. Anatomic investigations of the mechanism of injury and pathologic anatomy of "pulled elbow" in young children. Clin Orthop Relat Res . 1971. 77:134-43. . Eismann EA, Cosco ED, Wall EJ. Absence of Radiographic Abnormalities in Nursemaid’s Elbow. J Pediatr Orthop . 2014. 34(4):426-31. Schunk JE. Radial head subluxation: epidemiology and treatment of 87 episodes. Ann Emerg Med . 1990 Sep. 19(9):1019-23 (...) Pediatrics, Nursemaid Elbow (Treatment) Nursemaid Elbow Treatment & Management: Prehospital Care, Emergency Department Care, Consultations Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvODAzMDI2LXRyZWF0bWVudA

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

88. Dislocation, Elbow (Treatment)

Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) . 2009 Dec. 17(3):335-9. . . Shearman CM, el-Khoury GY. Pitfalls in the radiologic evaluation of extremity trauma: Part I. The upper extremity. Am Fam Physician . 1998 Mar 1. 57(5):995-1002. . Sugimoto M, Yoshida T, Kitano K, Hosoya T, Tada K. Voluntary dislocation of the radial head. J Shoulder Elbow Surg . 1996 May-Jun. 5(3):228-30. . Media Gallery Anteroposterior radiograph of the elbow demonstrates the normal anatomy. Lateral radiograph of the elbow demonstrates the normal (...) anatomy. Lateral view of the elbow demonstrates a posterior dislocation of the elbow. The patient also had a nondisplaced radial head fracture. of 3 Tables Contributor Information and Disclosures Author James E Keany, MD, FACEP Associate Medical Director, Emergency Services, Mission Hospital Regional Medical Center, Children's Hospital of Orange County at Mission James E Keany, MD, FACEP is a member of the following medical societies: , , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Coauthor(s) Dekker McKeever

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

89. Floating Elbow (Treatment)

, Basmajian J. Grant's Method of Anatomy: a Clinical Problem-Solving Approach. 11th ed. Baltimore, Md: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 1989:387-406. Hoppenfeld S, deBoer P, Buckley R. Surgical Exposures in Orthopaedics: The Anatomic Approach . 5th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer; 2016. Chaps 2 & 3. Bhuller GS, Hardy AE. Ipsilateral elbow and forearm injuries in children. Aust N Z J Surg . 1981 Feb. 51(1):65-8. . Harrington P, Sharif I, Fogarty EE, et al. Management of the floating elbow injury (...) Floating Elbow (Treatment) Floating Elbow Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Nonoperative Therapy, Surgical Therapy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTIzMTEwMy10cmVhdG1lbnQ= processing

2014 eMedicine Surgery

90. Floating Elbow (Overview)

Floating Elbow (Overview) Floating Elbow: Background, Anatomy, Etiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTIzMTEwMy1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Floating Elbow Updated: Jul 05, 2018 Author: William (...) . 29(6):886-8. . Grant JCB, Basmajian J. Grant's Method of Anatomy: a Clinical Problem-Solving Approach. 11th ed. Baltimore, Md: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 1989:387-406. Hoppenfeld S, deBoer P, Buckley R. Surgical Exposures in Orthopaedics: The Anatomic Approach . 5th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer; 2016. Chaps 2 & 3. Bhuller GS, Hardy AE. Ipsilateral elbow and forearm injuries in children. Aust N Z J Surg . 1981 Feb. 51(1):65-8. . Harrington P, Sharif I, Fogarty EE, et al. Management

2014 eMedicine Surgery

91. Fracture, Elbow (Diagnosis)

fractures. Intra-articular fractures include trochlea and capitellum fractures, radial head, proximal ulnar fractures. The examining physician must perform a thorough neurovascular examination with all suspected elbow fractures; recognize subtle fracture patterns; provide adequate immobilization; and assess whether fractures require admission, immediate orthopedic evaluation, or less urgent referral. [ , , ] Anatomy The elbow is a hinge joint composed of 3 bones: the ulna, the radius, and the humerus (...) Fracture, Elbow (Diagnosis) Elbow Fracture: Background, Pathophysiology, Extra-articular Fracture Patterns Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvODI0NjU0LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Elbow Fracture Updated

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

92. Dislocation, Elbow (Diagnosis)

the normal anatomy. Lateral radiograph of the elbow demonstrates the normal anatomy. Next: Pathophysiology Both posterior dislocations and anterior dislocations can occur. Posterior dislocations A fall onto an extended abducted arm is the mechanism of injury seen in posterior dislocations of the elbow. An example of this is someone rollerblading who, falling backward, extends an arm behind to break the fall. Posterior dislocations account for most elbow dislocations. Closed posterior dislocations (...) M. Terrible triad of the elbow. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) . 2009 Dec. 17(3):335-9. . . Shearman CM, el-Khoury GY. Pitfalls in the radiologic evaluation of extremity trauma: Part I. The upper extremity. Am Fam Physician . 1998 Mar 1. 57(5):995-1002. . Sugimoto M, Yoshida T, Kitano K, Hosoya T, Tada K. Voluntary dislocation of the radial head. J Shoulder Elbow Surg . 1996 May-Jun. 5(3):228-30. . Media Gallery Anteroposterior radiograph of the elbow demonstrates the normal anatomy. Lateral

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

93. Fracture, Elbow (Overview)

fractures. Intra-articular fractures include trochlea and capitellum fractures, radial head, proximal ulnar fractures. The examining physician must perform a thorough neurovascular examination with all suspected elbow fractures; recognize subtle fracture patterns; provide adequate immobilization; and assess whether fractures require admission, immediate orthopedic evaluation, or less urgent referral. [ , , ] Anatomy The elbow is a hinge joint composed of 3 bones: the ulna, the radius, and the humerus (...) Fracture, Elbow (Overview) Elbow Fracture: Background, Pathophysiology, Extra-articular Fracture Patterns Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvODI0NjU0LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Elbow Fracture Updated

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

94. Dislocation, Elbow (Overview)

the normal anatomy. Lateral radiograph of the elbow demonstrates the normal anatomy. Next: Pathophysiology Both posterior dislocations and anterior dislocations can occur. Posterior dislocations A fall onto an extended abducted arm is the mechanism of injury seen in posterior dislocations of the elbow. An example of this is someone rollerblading who, falling backward, extends an arm behind to break the fall. Posterior dislocations account for most elbow dislocations. Closed posterior dislocations (...) M. Terrible triad of the elbow. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) . 2009 Dec. 17(3):335-9. . . Shearman CM, el-Khoury GY. Pitfalls in the radiologic evaluation of extremity trauma: Part I. The upper extremity. Am Fam Physician . 1998 Mar 1. 57(5):995-1002. . Sugimoto M, Yoshida T, Kitano K, Hosoya T, Tada K. Voluntary dislocation of the radial head. J Shoulder Elbow Surg . 1996 May-Jun. 5(3):228-30. . Media Gallery Anteroposterior radiograph of the elbow demonstrates the normal anatomy. Lateral

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

95. Pediatrics, Nursemaid Elbow (Overview)

have the greatest risk of recurrence. [ ] Previous Next: Patient Education Most parents appreciate knowing that reoccurrence can occur in 1/5-1/4 of patients. Previous References Schutzman SA, Teach S. Upper-extremity impairment in young children. Ann Emerg Med . 1995 Oct. 26 (4):474-9. . Salter RB, Zaltz C. Anatomic investigations of the mechanism of injury and pathologic anatomy of "pulled elbow" in young children. Clin Orthop Relat Res . 1971. 77:134-43. . Eismann EA, Cosco ED, Wall EJ. Absence (...) Pediatrics, Nursemaid Elbow (Overview) Nursemaid Elbow: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvODAzMDI2LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Nursemaid Elbow Updated: Dec 18

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

96. The neurovascular anatomy of the teres major muscle. (PubMed)

The neurovascular anatomy of the teres major muscle. Information in recent literature on the teres major muscle (TM) is limited and, at times, contradictory. Exact information on its neurovascular supply is clinically relevant for its use in a free or pedicled muscle transfer in reconstructive shoulder surgery. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the TM topographically, especially its neurovascular supply and its macroscopic appearance.Thirty upper extremities of 15 human cadavers (...) Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery

97. The anatomy of the coracohumeral ligament and its relation to the subscapularis muscle. (PubMed)

The anatomy of the coracohumeral ligament and its relation to the subscapularis muscle. Only a few reports describe the extension of the coracohumeral ligament to the subscapularis muscle. The purposes of this study were to histo-anatomically examine the structure between the ligament and subscapularis and to discuss the function of the ligament.Nineteen intact embalmed shoulders were used. In 9 shoulders, the expansion of the ligament was anatomically observed, and in 6 of these 9 (...) to function as a kind of holder for the subscapularis and supraspinatus muscles. The ligament is composed of irregular and sparse fibers and contains relatively rich type III collagen, which would suggest flexibility.Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery

98. Relationship of individual scapular anatomy and degenerative rotator cuff tears. (PubMed)

Relationship of individual scapular anatomy and degenerative rotator cuff tears. The etiology of rotator cuff disease is age related, as documented by prevalence data. Despite conflicting results, growing evidence suggests that distinct scapular morphologies may accelerate the underlying degenerative process. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the predictive power of 5 commonly used radiologic parameters of scapular morphology to discriminate between patients with intact rotator (...) morphology according to Bigliani and the acromial slope. With an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.855 and an odds ratio of 10.8, the critical shoulder angle represented the strongest predictor for the presence of a rotator cuff tear.The acromion index, lateral acromion angle, and critical shoulder angle accurately predict the presence of degenerative rotator cuff tears.Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery

99. The anatomy and histology of the bicipital tunnel of the shoulder. (PubMed)

The anatomy and histology of the bicipital tunnel of the shoulder. The bicipital tunnel is the extra-articular, fibro-osseous structure that encloses the long head of the biceps tendon.Twelve cadaveric shoulder specimens underwent in situ casting of the bicipital tunnel with methyl methacrylate cement to demonstrate structural competence (n = 6) and en bloc harvest with gross and histologic evaluation (n = 6). The percentage of empty tunnel was calculated histologically by subtracting (...) produce a bicipital tunnel syndrome. Careful consideration should be given to surgical techniques that decompress both zones 1 and 2 of the bicipital tunnel.Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery

100. Flexor Tendon Anatomy (Follow-up)

Flexor Tendon Anatomy (Follow-up) Flexor Tendon Anatomy: Flexor Tendon System, Flexor Muscles of the Digits, Flexor Tendons of the Digits Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTI0NTIzNi1vdmVydmlldw (...) == processing > Flexor Tendon Anatomy Updated: Apr 09, 2013 Author: Steven Bates, MD; Chief Editor: Harris Gellman, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Flexor Tendon Anatomy Flexor Tendon System The flexor tendon system of the hand consists of the flexor muscles of the forearm, their tendinous extensions, and the specialized digital flexor sheaths. These components work in concert to produce smooth and efficient flexion of the individual digits of the hand. Injury to the flexor tendon

2014 eMedicine Surgery

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