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Elbow Anatomy

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81. Dislocation, Elbow (Diagnosis)

the normal anatomy. Lateral radiograph of the elbow demonstrates the normal anatomy. Next: Pathophysiology Both posterior dislocations and anterior dislocations can occur. Posterior dislocations A fall onto an extended abducted arm is the mechanism of injury seen in posterior dislocations of the elbow. An example of this is someone rollerblading who, falling backward, extends an arm behind to break the fall. Posterior dislocations account for most elbow dislocations. Closed posterior dislocations (...) M. Terrible triad of the elbow. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) . 2009 Dec. 17(3):335-9. . . Shearman CM, el-Khoury GY. Pitfalls in the radiologic evaluation of extremity trauma: Part I. The upper extremity. Am Fam Physician . 1998 Mar 1. 57(5):995-1002. . Sugimoto M, Yoshida T, Kitano K, Hosoya T, Tada K. Voluntary dislocation of the radial head. J Shoulder Elbow Surg . 1996 May-Jun. 5(3):228-30. . Media Gallery Anteroposterior radiograph of the elbow demonstrates the normal anatomy. Lateral

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

82. Fracture, Elbow (Diagnosis)

fractures. Intra-articular fractures include trochlea and capitellum fractures, radial head, proximal ulnar fractures. The examining physician must perform a thorough neurovascular examination with all suspected elbow fractures; recognize subtle fracture patterns; provide adequate immobilization; and assess whether fractures require admission, immediate orthopedic evaluation, or less urgent referral. [ , , ] Anatomy The elbow is a hinge joint composed of 3 bones: the ulna, the radius, and the humerus (...) Fracture, Elbow (Diagnosis) Elbow Fracture: Background, Pathophysiology, Extra-articular Fracture Patterns Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvODI0NjU0LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Elbow Fracture Updated

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

83. Pediatrics, Nursemaid Elbow (Diagnosis)

have the greatest risk of recurrence. [ ] Previous Next: Patient Education Most parents appreciate knowing that reoccurrence can occur in 1/5-1/4 of patients. Previous References Schutzman SA, Teach S. Upper-extremity impairment in young children. Ann Emerg Med . 1995 Oct. 26 (4):474-9. . Salter RB, Zaltz C. Anatomic investigations of the mechanism of injury and pathologic anatomy of "pulled elbow" in young children. Clin Orthop Relat Res . 1971. 77:134-43. . Eismann EA, Cosco ED, Wall EJ. Absence (...) Pediatrics, Nursemaid Elbow (Diagnosis) Nursemaid Elbow: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvODAzMDI2LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Nursemaid Elbow Updated: Dec 18

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

84. Floating Elbow (Follow-up)

, Basmajian J. Grant's Method of Anatomy: a Clinical Problem-Solving Approach. 11th ed. Baltimore, Md: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 1989:387-406. Hoppenfeld S, deBoer P, Buckley R. Surgical Exposures in Orthopaedics: The Anatomic Approach . 5th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer; 2016. Chaps 2 & 3. Bhuller GS, Hardy AE. Ipsilateral elbow and forearm injuries in children. Aust N Z J Surg . 1981 Feb. 51(1):65-8. . Harrington P, Sharif I, Fogarty EE, et al. Management of the floating elbow injury (...) Floating Elbow (Follow-up) Floating Elbow Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Nonoperative Therapy, Surgical Therapy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTIzMTEwMy10cmVhdG1lbnQ= processing

2014 eMedicine Surgery

85. Fracture, Elbow (Overview)

fractures. Intra-articular fractures include trochlea and capitellum fractures, radial head, proximal ulnar fractures. The examining physician must perform a thorough neurovascular examination with all suspected elbow fractures; recognize subtle fracture patterns; provide adequate immobilization; and assess whether fractures require admission, immediate orthopedic evaluation, or less urgent referral. [ , , ] Anatomy The elbow is a hinge joint composed of 3 bones: the ulna, the radius, and the humerus (...) Fracture, Elbow (Overview) Elbow Fracture: Background, Pathophysiology, Extra-articular Fracture Patterns Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvODI0NjU0LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Elbow Fracture Updated

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

86. Dislocation, Elbow (Treatment)

Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) . 2009 Dec. 17(3):335-9. . . Shearman CM, el-Khoury GY. Pitfalls in the radiologic evaluation of extremity trauma: Part I. The upper extremity. Am Fam Physician . 1998 Mar 1. 57(5):995-1002. . Sugimoto M, Yoshida T, Kitano K, Hosoya T, Tada K. Voluntary dislocation of the radial head. J Shoulder Elbow Surg . 1996 May-Jun. 5(3):228-30. . Media Gallery Anteroposterior radiograph of the elbow demonstrates the normal anatomy. Lateral radiograph of the elbow demonstrates the normal (...) anatomy. Lateral view of the elbow demonstrates a posterior dislocation of the elbow. The patient also had a nondisplaced radial head fracture. of 3 Tables Contributor Information and Disclosures Author James E Keany, MD, FACEP Associate Medical Director, Emergency Services, Mission Hospital Regional Medical Center, Children's Hospital of Orange County at Mission James E Keany, MD, FACEP is a member of the following medical societies: , , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Coauthor(s) Dekker McKeever

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

87. Dislocation, Elbow (Overview)

the normal anatomy. Lateral radiograph of the elbow demonstrates the normal anatomy. Next: Pathophysiology Both posterior dislocations and anterior dislocations can occur. Posterior dislocations A fall onto an extended abducted arm is the mechanism of injury seen in posterior dislocations of the elbow. An example of this is someone rollerblading who, falling backward, extends an arm behind to break the fall. Posterior dislocations account for most elbow dislocations. Closed posterior dislocations (...) M. Terrible triad of the elbow. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) . 2009 Dec. 17(3):335-9. . . Shearman CM, el-Khoury GY. Pitfalls in the radiologic evaluation of extremity trauma: Part I. The upper extremity. Am Fam Physician . 1998 Mar 1. 57(5):995-1002. . Sugimoto M, Yoshida T, Kitano K, Hosoya T, Tada K. Voluntary dislocation of the radial head. J Shoulder Elbow Surg . 1996 May-Jun. 5(3):228-30. . Media Gallery Anteroposterior radiograph of the elbow demonstrates the normal anatomy. Lateral

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

88. Dislocation, Elbow (Follow-up)

Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) . 2009 Dec. 17(3):335-9. . . Shearman CM, el-Khoury GY. Pitfalls in the radiologic evaluation of extremity trauma: Part I. The upper extremity. Am Fam Physician . 1998 Mar 1. 57(5):995-1002. . Sugimoto M, Yoshida T, Kitano K, Hosoya T, Tada K. Voluntary dislocation of the radial head. J Shoulder Elbow Surg . 1996 May-Jun. 5(3):228-30. . Media Gallery Anteroposterior radiograph of the elbow demonstrates the normal anatomy. Lateral radiograph of the elbow demonstrates the normal (...) anatomy. Lateral view of the elbow demonstrates a posterior dislocation of the elbow. The patient also had a nondisplaced radial head fracture. of 3 Tables Contributor Information and Disclosures Author James E Keany, MD, FACEP Associate Medical Director, Emergency Services, Mission Hospital Regional Medical Center, Children's Hospital of Orange County at Mission James E Keany, MD, FACEP is a member of the following medical societies: , , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Coauthor(s) Dekker McKeever

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

89. Pediatrics, Nursemaid Elbow (Overview)

have the greatest risk of recurrence. [ ] Previous Next: Patient Education Most parents appreciate knowing that reoccurrence can occur in 1/5-1/4 of patients. Previous References Schutzman SA, Teach S. Upper-extremity impairment in young children. Ann Emerg Med . 1995 Oct. 26 (4):474-9. . Salter RB, Zaltz C. Anatomic investigations of the mechanism of injury and pathologic anatomy of "pulled elbow" in young children. Clin Orthop Relat Res . 1971. 77:134-43. . Eismann EA, Cosco ED, Wall EJ. Absence (...) Pediatrics, Nursemaid Elbow (Overview) Nursemaid Elbow: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvODAzMDI2LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Nursemaid Elbow Updated: Dec 18

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

90. The neurovascular anatomy of the teres major muscle. (Abstract)

The neurovascular anatomy of the teres major muscle. Information in recent literature on the teres major muscle (TM) is limited and, at times, contradictory. Exact information on its neurovascular supply is clinically relevant for its use in a free or pedicled muscle transfer in reconstructive shoulder surgery. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the TM topographically, especially its neurovascular supply and its macroscopic appearance.Thirty upper extremities of 15 human cadavers (...) Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery

91. Relationship of individual scapular anatomy and degenerative rotator cuff tears. (Abstract)

Relationship of individual scapular anatomy and degenerative rotator cuff tears. The etiology of rotator cuff disease is age related, as documented by prevalence data. Despite conflicting results, growing evidence suggests that distinct scapular morphologies may accelerate the underlying degenerative process. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the predictive power of 5 commonly used radiologic parameters of scapular morphology to discriminate between patients with intact rotator (...) morphology according to Bigliani and the acromial slope. With an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.855 and an odds ratio of 10.8, the critical shoulder angle represented the strongest predictor for the presence of a rotator cuff tear.The acromion index, lateral acromion angle, and critical shoulder angle accurately predict the presence of degenerative rotator cuff tears.Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery

92. The anatomy and histology of the bicipital tunnel of the shoulder. (Abstract)

The anatomy and histology of the bicipital tunnel of the shoulder. The bicipital tunnel is the extra-articular, fibro-osseous structure that encloses the long head of the biceps tendon.Twelve cadaveric shoulder specimens underwent in situ casting of the bicipital tunnel with methyl methacrylate cement to demonstrate structural competence (n = 6) and en bloc harvest with gross and histologic evaluation (n = 6). The percentage of empty tunnel was calculated histologically by subtracting (...) produce a bicipital tunnel syndrome. Careful consideration should be given to surgical techniques that decompress both zones 1 and 2 of the bicipital tunnel.Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery

93. The anatomy of the coracohumeral ligament and its relation to the subscapularis muscle. (Abstract)

The anatomy of the coracohumeral ligament and its relation to the subscapularis muscle. Only a few reports describe the extension of the coracohumeral ligament to the subscapularis muscle. The purposes of this study were to histo-anatomically examine the structure between the ligament and subscapularis and to discuss the function of the ligament.Nineteen intact embalmed shoulders were used. In 9 shoulders, the expansion of the ligament was anatomically observed, and in 6 of these 9 (...) to function as a kind of holder for the subscapularis and supraspinatus muscles. The ligament is composed of irregular and sparse fibers and contains relatively rich type III collagen, which would suggest flexibility.Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery

94. Ultrasound-guided Arthrocentesis of the Elbow: A Posterior Approach. (Abstract)

Ultrasound-guided Arthrocentesis of the Elbow: A Posterior Approach. Identification of fluid in the elbow joint by physical examination alone can be challenging. Ultrasound can assist in the diagnosis of elbow effusion, and guide aspiration of the effusion.We illustrate the anatomy and ultrasound guidance technique of a posterior approach to elbow arthrocentesis using examples of normal and pathologic elbow joint ultrasound images.The posterior distal humerus at the level of the olecranon fossa (...) provides an excellent acoustic window into the joint space. This location also provides a safe path for the performance of ultrasound-guided arthrocentesis.Ultrasound-guided arthrocentesis of the elbow from a posterior approach is a helpful technique to guide the aspiration of the painful swollen elbow.Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2013 Journal of Emergency Medicine

95. Current concepts of elbow-joint disorders and their treatment Full Text available with Trip Pro

Current concepts of elbow-joint disorders and their treatment Recently, many studies have emphasized the importance of the comprehension of detailed functional anatomy and biomechanics of the elbow and its significant contribution in facilitating good functional outcomes of conservative and surgical treatment in the field of elbow disorders.The most common disease of elbow disorders and their treatment was reviewed.Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow, is defined as a microscopic tear of extensor (...) , and elderly patients with comminuted distal humeral fractures and the salvage of distal humeral nonunion. Proper selection and implantation of prostheses are also important to achieve good functional outcome and longevity.The success of treatment of elbow disorders depends greatly on surgical design and technique, both of which require comprehensive knowledge of detailed anatomy and biomechanics of the elbow.

2013 Journal of Orthopaedic Science

96. Elbow arthroscopy: the basics. (Abstract)

Elbow arthroscopy: the basics. Elbow arthroscopy has become an accepted surgical option for treating numerous conditions of the elbow, including septic, degenerative, or traumatic arthritis; capsular release; removal of loose bodies; synovectomy or plica excision; and chondral lesions of the capitellum. Surgeon experience, knowledge of elbow anatomy, patient positioning, and portal selection and placement are important factors for successful arthroscopy and avoiding complications. This article (...) describes the basic surgical setup and technique for elbow arthroscopy.Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2013 Journal of Hand Surgery - American

97. Elbow lateral collateral ligament injuries. (Abstract)

Elbow lateral collateral ligament injuries. The lateral collateral ligament (LCL) of the elbow is a complex capsuloligamentous structure critical in stabilizing the ulnohumeral and radiocapitellar articulations. LCL injury can result in elbow instability, allowing the proximal radius and ulna to externally rotate away from the humerus as a supination stress is applied to the forearm. Elbow dislocation is the most common cause of LCL injury, followed by iatrogenic injury. LCL pathology resulting (...) in late recurrent instability is rare but disabling. The diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion, detailed history, and focused physical examination maneuvers. Stress radiographs are often the most useful imaging modality. Despite controversy over the anatomy of the LCL complex and the relative importance of its component structures, treatment of late instability is focused on lateral ligament reconstruction from the humerus to the ulna using tendon grafts with reasonably good outcomes.Copyright

2013 Journal of Hand Surgery - American

98. Hand, Anatomy

Hand, Anatomy Hand Anatomy: Overview, Bones, Skin Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTI4NTA2MC1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Hand Anatomy Updated: Jun 29, 2016 Author: Bradon J Wilhelmi, MD; Chief Editor (...) : Thomas R Gest, PhD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Hand Anatomy Overview Overview The anatomy of the is complex, intricate, and fascinating. Its integrity is absolutely essential for our everyday functional living. Our hands may be affected by many disorders, most commonly traumatic injury. For any physician or therapist treating hand problems, the mastery of such anatomy is fundamental in order to provide the best quality of care. (See the image below.) [ , , , , , , ] Surface

2014 eMedicine Surgery

99. Flexor Tendon Anatomy (Diagnosis)

Flexor Tendon Anatomy (Diagnosis) Flexor Tendon Anatomy: Flexor Tendon System, Flexor Muscles of the Digits, Flexor Tendons of the Digits Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTI0NTIzNi1vdmVydmlldw (...) == processing > Flexor Tendon Anatomy Updated: Apr 09, 2013 Author: Steven Bates, MD; Chief Editor: Harris Gellman, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Flexor Tendon Anatomy Flexor Tendon System The flexor tendon system of the hand consists of the flexor muscles of the forearm, their tendinous extensions, and the specialized digital flexor sheaths. These components work in concert to produce smooth and efficient flexion of the individual digits of the hand. Injury to the flexor tendon

2014 eMedicine Surgery

100. Flexor Tendon Anatomy (Overview)

Flexor Tendon Anatomy (Overview) Flexor Tendon Anatomy: Flexor Tendon System, Flexor Muscles of the Digits, Flexor Tendons of the Digits Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTI0NTIzNi1vdmVydmlldw (...) == processing > Flexor Tendon Anatomy Updated: Apr 09, 2013 Author: Steven Bates, MD; Chief Editor: Harris Gellman, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Flexor Tendon Anatomy Flexor Tendon System The flexor tendon system of the hand consists of the flexor muscles of the forearm, their tendinous extensions, and the specialized digital flexor sheaths. These components work in concert to produce smooth and efficient flexion of the individual digits of the hand. Injury to the flexor tendon

2014 eMedicine Surgery

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