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Elbow Anatomy

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21. Safety of Anteromedial Portals in Elbow Arthroscopy: A Systematic Review of Cadaveric Studies. (PubMed)

Safety of Anteromedial Portals in Elbow Arthroscopy: A Systematic Review of Cadaveric Studies. To systematically review available literature comparing location and safety of 2 common anteromedial portals with nearby neurovascular structures in cadaveric models and to determine the correct positioning and preparation of the joint before elbow arthroscopy.The review was devised in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Inclusion criteria (...) consisted of original, cadaveric studies performed by experienced surgeons on male or female elbows evaluating anteromedial portal placement with regard to proximity of the arthroscope to neurovascular structures. Exclusion criteria consisted of case reports, clinical series, non-English language studies, and noncadaveric studies. Statistical analysis was done to measure reviewer reliability after scoring of each study.During screening, 2,596 studies were identified, and 10 studies met final inclusion

2019 Arthroscopy

22. Three-dimensional analysis of elbow soft tissue footprints and anatomy. (PubMed)

Three-dimensional analysis of elbow soft tissue footprints and anatomy. Tendinous and ligamentous injuries commonly occur in the elbow. This study characterized the location, surface areas, and origin and insertional footprints of major elbow capsuloligamentous and tendinous structures in relation to bony landmarks with the use of a precision 3-dimensional modeling system.Nine unpaired cadaveric elbow specimens were dissected and mounted on a custom jig. Mapping of the medial collateral (...) ). Of the tendons, the triceps maintained the largest insertional footprint, followed by the brachialis and the biceps (P < .001-.03). The MCL, LUCL, and biceps footprint locations were consistent, with little variability. The surface areas of the anterior (1251 mm(2)) and posterior (1147 mm(2)) capsular reflections were similar (P = .82), and the anterior capsule extended farther proximally.Restoring the normal anatomy of key elbow capsuloligamentous and tendinous structures is crucial for effective

2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery

23. Neurovascular anatomy of the adult female medial arm in relationship to potential sites for insertion of the etonogestrel contraceptive implant. (PubMed)

Neurovascular anatomy of the adult female medial arm in relationship to potential sites for insertion of the etonogestrel contraceptive implant. Anatomic assessment of the medial upper arm to identify potential sites for insertion of the etonogestrel (ENG) implant.Forty female cadaveric arms were dissected. Two rows of 1 x 2cm dissection windows were created in the inner arm overlying the triceps approximately 2-3 and 4-5cm posterior to the bicipital sulcus (sulcus). The primary window was 8 (...) cutaneous, ulnar, and medial antebrachial cutaneous nerves were located in 40%, 58%, 40%, and 18% of the primary windows, respectively. No major neurovascular structures were located 3-5cm posterior to the sulcus. More neurovascular structures were identified overlying the biceps than triceps. Elbow flexion with the hand underneath the head displaced the ulnar nerve anteriorly towards the sulcus.As no major neurovascular structures were identified overlying the triceps 8-10cm proximal to the medial

2019 Contraception

24. "Forearm Based Turnover Muscle Flaps for Elbow Soft Tissue Reconstruction: A Comparison of Regional Coverage Based on Distal Flap Perfusion." (PubMed)

"Forearm Based Turnover Muscle Flaps for Elbow Soft Tissue Reconstruction: A Comparison of Regional Coverage Based on Distal Flap Perfusion." Elbow wounds pose a reconstructive challenge. Prior studies have described the vascular anatomy of both the brachioradialis and flexor carpi ulnaris muscle flaps. The goal of this study was to describe the distal flap perfusion of the flexor carpi radialis, with a direct comparison of the brachioradialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, and flexor carpi radialis (...) muscle flaps for coverage around the elbow.Six fresh-frozen upper extremity specimens were dissected for brachioradialis, flexor carpi radialis, and flexor carpi ulnaris flaps. Vascular data from prior studies were combined with our anatomical measurements to determine the area of perfused coverage around the elbow for the brachioradialis and flexor carpi ulnaris. The flexor carpi radialis flap distal vascular perfusion was examined separately with transverse sections at 1-cm intervals after India

2018 Plastic and reconstructive surgery

25. Avoiding Neurological Complications of Elbow Arthroscopy (PubMed)

intervention. A recent report of major nerve injuries after elbow arthroscopy demonstrated that these injuries are likely under-reported in literature. Because of the surrounding neurovascular structures, familiarity with normal elbow anatomy and portals will decrease the risk of damaging important structures. The purpose of this Technical Note is to review important steps in performing elbow arthroscopy with an emphasis on avoiding neurovascular injury. With a sound understanding of the important bony (...) Avoiding Neurological Complications of Elbow Arthroscopy Elbow arthroscopy is an increasingly common procedure performed in orthopaedic surgery. However, because of the presence of several major neurovascular structures in close proximity to the operative portals, it can have potentially devastating complications. The largest series of elbow arthroscopies to date described a 2.5% rate of postoperative neurological injury. All of these injuries were transient nerve injuries resolved without

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2018 Arthroscopy techniques

26. Ulnar collateral ligament injuries of the elbow in female division I collegiate gymnasts: a report of five cases (PubMed)

using PubMed to review articles from 1980 to 2016 that addressed the biomechanics of UCL injury in baseball and gymnastics, the anatomy of the elbow, injury rates, surgical vs non-surgical management, rehabilitation, and return to play recommendations for the sport of gymnastics. Five female collegiate gymnasts sustained UCL injury over a 3-year period. Electronic medical records for each case were thoroughly reviewed including imaging, surgical and non-surgical management, rehabilitation (...) Ulnar collateral ligament injuries of the elbow in female division I collegiate gymnasts: a report of five cases Elbow ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries in gymnastics have not been well documented in the literature, in comparison to UCL injuries in baseball. Few studies have examined the mechanism and nonoperative management of this injury, and no studies to date have been published on incidence of injury and return to play recommendations in gymnastics.A literature search was performed

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2018 Open access journal of sports medicine

27. Quantitative Anatomic Analysis of the Medial Ulnar Collateral Ligament Complex of the Elbow (PubMed)

Quantitative Anatomic Analysis of the Medial Ulnar Collateral Ligament Complex of the Elbow A more detailed assessment of the anatomy of the entire medial ulnar collateral ligament complex (MUCLC) is desired as the rate of medial elbow reconstruction surgery continues to rise.To quantify the anatomy of the MUCLC, including the anterior bundle (AB), posterior bundle (PB), and transverse ligament (TL).Descriptive laboratory study.Ten unpaired, fresh-frozen cadaveric elbows underwent 3-dimensional

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2018 Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine

28. Arthroscopic Management of Elbow Osteoarthritis. (PubMed)

instrumentation and techniques have led to a growing interest in the arthroscopic treatment of elbow osteoarthritis. This article provides a review of basic arthroscopic elbow anatomy and the most common procedures, including diagnostic arthroscopy, loose body removal, and arthroscopic osteocapsular and ulnohumeral arthroplasty. As techniques advance, there might be interest in further procedures including arthroscopic-assisted interpositional arthroplasty. Although complications such as persistent drainage (...) Arthroscopic Management of Elbow Osteoarthritis. The incidence of osteoarthritis in the general population is low, but it can be seen in manual laborers, throwing athletes, and people dependent on crutches and wheelchairs. Patients often complain of pain at the terminal extents of motion, and imaging shows osteophyte formation at the tips of the coronoid and olecranon processes as well as thickening of the bone between the coronoid and the olecranon fossae. Recent advances in arthroscopic

2017 Journal of Hand Surgery - American

29. Common Paediatric Elbow Injuries (PubMed)

head and neck fractures; radial head subluxation.Understanding of the ossification centres around the paediatric elbow is essential to correctly assessing and managing the common injuries that we have discussed in the review. Outcomes after these injuries are usually favourable with restoration of normal anatomy. (...) Common Paediatric Elbow Injuries Paediatric elbow injuries account for a large proportion of childrens' fractures. Knowledge of common injuries is essential to understanding their assessment and correct management.A selective literature search was performed and personal surgical experiences are reported.We have described the assessment and management of the five most common paediatric elbow injuries: supracondylar humeral fractures; lateral condyle fractures; medial epicondyle fractures; radial

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2017 The open orthopaedics journal

30. Role of MRI in Evaluation of Non-traumatic Causes of Painful Elbow

initial test in the evaluation of the elbow and its disorders. One must be familiar with the pertinent anatomy, early developmental changes, and the biomechanics of this complex joint to appreciate subtle injury patterns and articular disorders. In some cases, radiographic imaging will point to the need for further evaluation with CT, MR, or sonographic imaging High-resolution ultrasound is well suited for evaluating the elbow. Ultrasound is growing in popularity and fast becoming another modality (...) Role of MRI in Evaluation of Non-traumatic Causes of Painful Elbow Role of MRI in Evaluation of Non-traumatic Causes of Painful Elbow - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Role of MRI

2017 Clinical Trials

31. Total Elbow Arthroplasty: Why and How (PubMed)

with the technique that is described for the prosthesis and take care to restore the anatomical flexion-extension axis of the elbow.When all trial components are in place, reduce the joint to test the stability of the elbow.When all of the definitive components of the total elbow arthroplasty are in place, close the surgical wound in layers as the anatomy is restored.After surgery, a wound dressing is applied and physical rehabilitation is started to maximize the functional outcome.In our study of the mid-term (...) Total Elbow Arthroplasty: Why and How Elbow arthroplasty is a relatively infrequent orthopaedic procedure that can be performed in multiple ways according to the type of prosthesis that is used and the needs of the individual patient.Place the patient in the lateral decubitus position or in the supine position with the arm draped, allowing for easy manipulation of the elbow during the procedure.Palpate and mark the local osseous landmarks, ulnar nerve, and incision, and then make a posterior

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2017 JBJS Essential Surgical Techniques

32. Radiographic Evaluation of Common Pediatric Elbow Injuries (PubMed)

Radiographic Evaluation of Common Pediatric Elbow Injuries Normal variations in anatomy in the skeletally immature patient may be mistaken for fracture or injury due to the presence of secondary centers of ossification. Variations in imaging exist from patient to patient based on sex, age, and may even vary from one extremity to the other on the same patient. Despite differences in the appearance of the bony anatomy of the elbow there are certain landmarks and relationships, which can help (...) , distinguish normal from abnormal. We review common radiographic parameters and pitfalls associated in the evaluation of pediatric elbow imaging. We also review common clinical diagnoses in this population.

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2017 Orthopedic reviews

33. Visualization of the Capitellum During Elbow Arthroscopy: A Comparison of 3 Portal Techniques (PubMed)

Visualization of the Capitellum During Elbow Arthroscopy: A Comparison of 3 Portal Techniques Capitellar osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is a debilitating condition of unknown etiology for which various arthroscopic treatments are available. Prior data suggest that greater than 75% of the capitellum can be visualized arthroscopically through a dual lateral portal approach. However, there is no literature assessing arthroscopic visualization of the capitellum via alternative portals.To determine (...) the percentage of capitellum visualized using the dual lateral, distal ulnar and soft spot, and posterolateral and soft spot portal configurations in a cadaver model.Descriptive laboratory study.Arthroscopy was performed on 12 fresh-frozen cadaver elbows, 4 for each of the following approaches: dual lateral, distal ulna, and posterolateral. Electrocautery was used to mark the most anterior, posterior, medial, and lateral points seen on the capitellum. The radiocapitellar joint was subsequently exposed

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2017 Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine

34. Simple elbow dislocation (PubMed)

Simple elbow dislocation The elbow is the second most commonly dislocated major joint in adults. Good long-term outcomes have been reported after non-operative management; however, a small proportion (<10%) of patients have a poor outcome and some do require surgical intervention. A review of the anatomy, pathoanatomy, management and outcomes of simple elbow dislocations is presented. Emphasis is placed on emerging concepts regarding the soft tissue injury, the stabilising structures (...) that are injured, the sequence and mechanism of injury and the relationship to elbow stability. The benefits of nonsurgical and surgical management are discussed and a treatment algorithm based on the pathoanatomy is proposed.

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2017 Shoulder & elbow

35. Fungal periprosthetic joint infection following total elbow arthroplasty: a case report and review of the literature (PubMed)

. Eradication of the fungal and bacterial agents involved resection arthroplasty, serial debridement, and multiple courses of intravenous and oral antimicrobial therapy. Two attempts at reimplantation arthroplasty failed to eliminate the infection and our patient ultimately required definitive resection arthroplasty.Arthroplasty in the rheumatoid elbow confers with it a high complication rate. Inflammatory disease and immunosuppressive drugs combined with the subcutaneous anatomy of the elbow contribute (...) Fungal periprosthetic joint infection following total elbow arthroplasty: a case report and review of the literature With improving surgical techniques for total elbow arthroplasty clinical outcomes have improved and its utilization continues to increase. Despite these advances, complication rates remain as high as 24%. Of these complications periprosthetic joint infection is one of the most common and morbid. The rheumatoid elbow remains a leading indication for total elbow arthroplasty

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2017 Journal of medical case reports

36. Vertical infraclavicular brachial plexus block: needle redirection after elicitation of elbow flexion. (PubMed)

Vertical infraclavicular brachial plexus block: needle redirection after elicitation of elbow flexion. In vertical infraclavicular brachial plexus block, success depends on distal flexion or extension response. Initially, elbow flexion (lateral cord) is generally observed. However, specific knowledge about how to reach the medial or posterior cord is lacking. We investigated the mid-infraclavicular area in undisturbed anatomy and tested the findings in a clinical setting.Along a length of 35 mm (...) around the mid-infraclavicular point, cryomicrotomy sections of 5 shoulders from cadavers were used to determine the topography of the cords in relation to one another and the axillary artery. Based on the findings, the anesthesiologists were instructed on how to elicit a distal motor response after an initial elbow flexion response in single-shot, Doppler-aided, vertical infraclavicular block in a series of 50 consecutive patients.In the mid-infraclavicular area, the lateral cord always lies

2017 Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

37. The natural course of nonoperatively treated rotator cuff tears: an 8.8-year follow-up of tear anatomy and clinical outcome in 49 patients. (PubMed)

The natural course of nonoperatively treated rotator cuff tears: an 8.8-year follow-up of tear anatomy and clinical outcome in 49 patients. The natural course of nonoperatively treated rotator cuff tears is not fully understood. We explored the long-term development of tear anatomy and assessed functional outcomes.Eighty-nine small to medium-sized full-thickness tears of the rotator cuff, all primarily treated by physiotherapy, were identified retrospectively. Twenty-three tears needed surgical (...) was found in the majority of patients, but it was often moderate. Large tear size increases and progression of muscle atrophy were correlated to a poorer functional outcome.Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery

38. Forearm Instability: Anatomy, Biomechanics, and Treatment Options. (PubMed)

Forearm Instability: Anatomy, Biomechanics, and Treatment Options. The forearm unit consists of the radius and ulna, a complex and interrelated set of joints (distal radioulnar joint, proximal radioulnar joint) and the soft tissue stabilizers between the 3 bones. Distally, this is represented by the triangular fibrocartilage complex at the wrist, proximally by the annular ligament at the elbow, and in the forearm by the interosseous membrane. Disruptions in any of these structures may lead

2017 Journal of Hand Surgery - American

39. Cadaveric Study of Insertional Anatomy of Distal Biceps Tendon and its Relationship to the Dynamic Proximal Radioulnar Space. (PubMed)

Cadaveric Study of Insertional Anatomy of Distal Biceps Tendon and its Relationship to the Dynamic Proximal Radioulnar Space. To quantify and assess the relationship between the insertional dimensions of the distal biceps tendon (DBT) and radioulnar space (RUS) in 3 rotational positions. We hypothesized that in all positions RUS would be adequate for the DBT and would remain adequate even after an incremental increase (1 to 3 mm) in tendon thickness.Eleven fresh-frozen cadaveric elbows were

2017 Journal of Hand Surgery - American

40. Surgical anatomy of the radial nerve in the deltopectoral approach for revision shoulder arthroplasty and periprosthetic fracture fixation: a cadaveric study. (PubMed)

Surgical anatomy of the radial nerve in the deltopectoral approach for revision shoulder arthroplasty and periprosthetic fracture fixation: a cadaveric study. Radial nerve injury is a rare but clinically significant complication of revision shoulder arthroplasty and fixation of native and periprosthetic proximal humeral fractures. Understanding of the anatomic relationship between the radial nerve as it enters the humeral spiral groove and anterior shoulder landmarks in a deltopectoral approach (...) proper identification and protection or avoidance of circumferential fixation. However, if encircling fixation with cerclage cables is necessary, instrumentation proximal to the inferior edge of the latissimus dorsi insertion may reduce the risk of radial nerve injury.Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery

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