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Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale

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1. Paternal Perinatal Depression Assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Gotland Male Depression Scale: Prevalence and Possible Risk Factors (PubMed)

Paternal Perinatal Depression Assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Gotland Male Depression Scale: Prevalence and Possible Risk Factors Several studies have used the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), developed to screen new mothers, also for new fathers. This study aimed to further contribute to this knowledge by comparing assessment of possible depression in fathers and associated demographic factors by the EPDS and the Gotland Male Depression Scale (GMDS (...) were analyzed for fathers detected by one or both scales. A low income was associated with depression in all groups. Fathers detected by EPDS alone were at higher risk if they had three or more children, or lower education. Fathers detected by EPDS alone at score ≥10, or by both scales at EPDS score ≥12, more often were born in a foreign country. Seemingly, the EPDS and the GMDS are associated with different demographic risk factors. The EPDS score appears critical since 5% of possibly depressed

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2018 American journal of men's health

2. Study protocol on criterion validation of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) screening tools among rural postnatal women; a cross-sectional study. (PubMed)

Study protocol on criterion validation of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) screening tools among rural postnatal women; a cross-sectional study. Screening women for postnatal depression (PND) provides an opportunity to reach undetected cases and enhance pregnancy outcomes. In Zimbabwe, no validation of depression screening tools has been done on postnatal women in rural settings.This study (...) aims to determine criterion validity of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria as the reference standard.Women (n=462) attending postnatal care at 7 or 42 days at two rural district hospitals in Zimbabwe will be assessed for depressive symptoms using the EPDS, PHQ-9 and CES-D. The women

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2018 BMJ open

3. Self-reported perinatal depressive symptoms and postnatal symptom severity after treatment with antidepressants in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study across 12 European countries using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (PubMed)

Self-reported perinatal depressive symptoms and postnatal symptom severity after treatment with antidepressants in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study across 12 European countries using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale This study aimed at exploring the prevalence of self-reported antenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms by severity across multiple countries and the association between antidepressant treatment in pregnancy and postnatal symptom severity.This was a multinational web (...) -based study conducted across 12 European countries (n=8069). Uniform data collection was ensured via an electronic questionnaire. Pregnant women at any gestational week and mothers of children with <1 year of age could participate. We used the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to measure the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms according to severity, which were corrected by survey weight adjustment (descriptive analysis). Within mothers with a psychiatric disorder (n

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2018 Clinical epidemiology

4. Thirty years with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: voices from the past and recommendations for the future. (PubMed)

Thirty years with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: voices from the past and recommendations for the future. SummaryThe Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was published over 30 years ago as a ten-item self-report questionnaire to facilitate the detection of perinatal depression - and for use in research. It is widely used at the present time in many regions of the world and has been translated into over 60 languages. It is occasionally misused. In this editorial, updated

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2019 British Journal of Psychiatry

5. Re-examination of perinatal mental health policy frameworks for women signalling distress on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) completed during their antenatal booking-in consultation: a call for population health intervention. (PubMed)

Re-examination of perinatal mental health policy frameworks for women signalling distress on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) completed during their antenatal booking-in consultation: a call for population health intervention. Globally, anxiety and depression are the most common complications of the perinatal period (conception to 1 year postpartum). It is now recognised that anxiety and depression are more commonly found antenatally than postnatally and represent the greatest (...) risk factor for developing postnatal depression. Research in this space has focused on treatment of postnatal depression, with limited attention paid to preventative strategies for women signalling distress, who are subthreshold for diagnosable illness.The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was introduced in 1987 and has since been validated as a depression screening tool in the Australian and international setting. The EPDS has been embedded as a depression screening tool within a broader

2019 BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

6. Validation of the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale as a screening tool for depression in Spanish pregnant women. (PubMed)

Validation of the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale as a screening tool for depression in Spanish pregnant women. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a self-reported scale designed to detect postnatal depression, and also has been validated in multiple countries for its use during pregnancy, but not in Spain. The objective of this study was to validate the EPDS as a screening instrument to detect depression during different trimesters of pregnancy in Spanish women.Longitudinal (...) study of a large, unselected sample of 569 pregnant women who were assessed in the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy by using the EPDS and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). We evaluated the area under the ROC curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and overall accuracy (OA).The optimal cut-off point score of the EPDS for screening current SCID diagnosis of combined depression was 9 or more in the first

2018 Journal of Affective Disorders

7. Accuracy of the Whooley questions and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in identifying depression and other mental disorders in early pregnancy. (PubMed)

Accuracy of the Whooley questions and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in identifying depression and other mental disorders in early pregnancy. There is limited evidence on the prevalence and identification of antenatal mental disorders. Aims To investigate the prevalence of mental disorders in early pregnancy and the diagnostic accuracy of depression-screening (Whooley) questions compared with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), against the Structured Clinical Interview (...) DSM-IV-TR.Cross-sectional survey of women responding to Whooley questions asked at their first antenatal appointment. Women responding positively and a random sample of women responding negatively were invited to participate.Population prevalence was 27% (95% CI 22-32): 11% (95% CI 8-14) depression; 15% (95% CI 11-19) anxiety disorders; 2% (95% CI 1-4) obsessive-compulsive disorder; 0.8% (95% CI 0-1) post-traumatic stress disorder; 2% (95% CI 0.4-3) eating disorders; 0.3% (95% CI 0.1-1) bipolar

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2018 British Journal of Psychiatry

8. Validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale against both DSM-5 and ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for depression. (PubMed)

Validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale against both DSM-5 and ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for depression. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is widely used in many countries to screen women for depression in the perinatal period. However, across studies the psychometric properties and cutoff scores of the EPDS have varied considerably; potentially due to different depression criteria and diagnostic systems being used. Therefore, we validated the Danish EPDS against (...) a depression diagnosis according to both DSM-5 and ICD-10. Furthermore, we examined whether the Danish EPDS is multidimensional, as it has previously been suggested.Women (N = 324) were recruited after routine screenings with the EPDS between 2 and 10 months postpartum (T1). At a subsequent home visit (T2), the EPDS and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5 were administered. Diagnostic interviews were audio recorded to enable subsequent coding for ICD-10 diagnoses and inter-rater reliability

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2018 BMC Psychiatry

9. Establishing a coherent and replicable measurement model of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (PubMed)

Establishing a coherent and replicable measurement model of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale The 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is an established screening tool for postnatal depression. Inconsistent findings in factor structure and replication difficulties have limited the scope of development of the measure as a multi-dimensional tool. The current investigation sought to robustly determine the underlying factor structure of the EPDS and the replicability (...) seven-item model of the EPDS offered an excellent fit to the data, and was observed to be replicable in both datasets and invariant as a function of time point of assessment. Some EPDS sub-scale scores were significantly higher at six months. The EPDS is multi-dimensional and a robust measurement model comprises three factors that are replicable. The potential utility of the sub-scale components identified requires further research to identify a role in contemporary screening practice.Copyright ©

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2018 Psychiatry research

10. Research protocol for the exploration of experiences of Aboriginal Australian mothers and healthcare professionals when using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: a process-oriented validation study using triangulated participatory mixed methods. (PubMed)

Research protocol for the exploration of experiences of Aboriginal Australian mothers and healthcare professionals when using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: a process-oriented validation study using triangulated participatory mixed methods. Adopting a process-oriented framework for test validation can help to establish whether this tool has the potential to be an acceptable, valid and reliable indicator of depression for mothers and mothers-to-be. This mixed-methods research protocol (...) seeks to explore the views and experiences of Aboriginal mothers and healthcare professionals in relation to the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and is intended to highlight potential barriers in perinatal mental health conceptualisation, engagement and response style.Thematic analysis will be applied to interview transcripts of Aboriginal Australian mothers (n=6+) and healthcare professionals (n=6+) to identify key themes. The process-focused validation model will use narratives about

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2018 BMJ open

11. Improving discrimination in antepartum depression screening using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. (PubMed)

Improving discrimination in antepartum depression screening using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Universal screening of pregnant women for postpartum depression has recently been recommended; however, optimal application of depression screening tools in stratifying risk has not been defined. The current study examines new approaches to improve the ability of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to stratify risk for postpartum depression, including alternate cut points, use (...) of a continuous measure, and incorporation of other putative risk factors.An observational cohort study of 4939 women screened both antepartum and postpartum with a negative EPDS screen antepartum(i.e. EPDS<10). The primary outcome was a probable postpartum major depressive episode(EPDS cut-off ≥10). Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve(AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were calculated.287 women(5.8%) screened positive for postpartum depression. An antepartum EPDS cut

2017 Journal of Affective Disorders

12. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 versus Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in screening for major depressive episodes: a cross-sectional population-based study (PubMed)

Patient Health Questionnaire-9 versus Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in screening for major depressive episodes: a cross-sectional population-based study Major depressive episodes (MDE) are frequent at the population level and are generally associated with severe symptoms that impair performance of activities of daily living of individuals suffering from this condition. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of two tests that separately showed suitable properties in screening (...) for MDE: the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS).In a previous study, the sensitivity and specificity of the PHQ-9 and the EPDS in screening for MDE were compared with a structured diagnostic interview conducted by psychiatrics and psychologists using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview as the gold standard. In a sample of adults living in the community in Pelotas, Brazil, the PHQ-9 and EPDS were applied at the same interview

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2017 BMC research notes

13. Identification of depression in women during pregnancy and the early postnatal period using the Whooley questions and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: protocol for the Born and Bred in Yorkshire: PeriNatal Depression Diagnostic Accuracy (BaBY PaN (PubMed)

Identification of depression in women during pregnancy and the early postnatal period using the Whooley questions and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: protocol for the Born and Bred in Yorkshire: PeriNatal Depression Diagnostic Accuracy (BaBY PaN Perinatal depression is well recognised as a mental health condition but <50% of cases are identified by healthcare professionals in routine clinical practice. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is often used to detect symptoms (...) of postnatal depression in maternity and child services. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends 2 'ultra-brief' case-finding questions (the Whooley questions) to aid identification of depression during the perinatal period, but this recommendation was made in the absence of any validation studies in a perinatal population. Limited research exists on the acceptability of these depression case-finding instruments and the cost-effectiveness of routine screening for perinatal

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2016 BMJ open

14. Validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) on the Thai-Myanmar border. (PubMed)

Validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) on the Thai-Myanmar border. Postnatal depression is common and may have severe consequences for women and their children. Locally validated screening tools are required to identify at-risk women in marginalised populations. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is one of the most frequently used tools globally. This cross-sectional study assessed the validity and acceptability of the EPDS in Karen and Burmese among (...) to identify a tool that is acceptable and sensitive to cultural manifestations of depression in this vulnerable population.

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2017 Tropical Doctor

15. Patient health questionnaire-9 versus Edinburgh postnatal depression scale in screening for major depressive episodes: a cross-sectional population-based study (PubMed)

Patient health questionnaire-9 versus Edinburgh postnatal depression scale in screening for major depressive episodes: a cross-sectional population-based study Major depressive episodes (MDE) are frequent at the population level and are generally associated with severe symptoms that impair performance of activities of daily living of individuals suffering from this condition. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of two tests that separately showed suitable properties in screening (...) for MDE: the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS).In a previous study, the sensitivity and specificity of the PHQ-9 and the EPDS in screening for MDE were compared with a structured diagnostic interview conducted by psychiatrics and psychologists using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview as the gold standard. In a sample of adults living in the community in Pelotas, Brazil, the PHQ-9 and EPDS were applied at the same interview

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2016 BMC research notes

16. Detection of Mental Disorders Other Than Depression with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in a Sample of Pregnant Women in Northern Mexico (PubMed)

Detection of Mental Disorders Other Than Depression with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in a Sample of Pregnant Women in Northern Mexico We sought to evaluate the capacity of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in discriminating mental disorders other than depression in pregnant women in northern Mexico. Three hundred pregnant women attending prenatal consultations in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico submitted a validated EPDS and were examined for mental (...) disorders other than depression using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 4(th) Ed. (DSM-IV) criteria. Sensitivity and specificity of cut-off points of the EPDS, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Of the 300 pregnant women studied, 21 had mental disorders other than depression by the DSM-IV criteria. The best EPDS score for screening mental disorders other than depression was 8/9. This threshold showed a sensitivity of 52.4%, a specificity of 67.0

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2016 Mental illness

17. Validating the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale as a screening tool for postpartum depression in Kathmandu, Nepal (PubMed)

Validating the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale as a screening tool for postpartum depression in Kathmandu, Nepal Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is considered well accepted screening tool for postpartum depression (PPD). The objective of the study was to validate the EPDS as a screening tool for postpartum depression in Kathmandu, Nepal.A hospital based cross sectional study using EPDS was conducted among 346 mothers between 4 and 14 weeks of postpartum period. All

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2016 International journal of mental health systems

18. The impact of education, country, race and ethnicity on the self-report of postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. (PubMed)

The impact of education, country, race and ethnicity on the self-report of postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Universal screening for postpartum depression is recommended in many countries. Knowledge of whether the disclosure of depressive symptoms in the postpartum period differs across cultures could improve detection and provide new insights into the pathogenesis. Moreover, it is a necessary step to evaluate the universal use of screening instruments (...) in research and clinical practice. In the current study we sought to assess whether the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the most widely used screening tool for postpartum depression, measures the same underlying construct across cultural groups in a large international dataset.Ordinal regression and measurement invariance were used to explore the association between culture, operationalized as education, ethnicity/race and continent, and endorsement of depressive symptoms using the EPDS

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2016 Psychological Medicine

19. Impact of a high Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score on obstetric and perinatal outcomes (PubMed)

Impact of a high Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score on obstetric and perinatal outcomes The aim of this retrospective study was to characterise intrapartum and neonatal outcomes in women with an antenatally recorded Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Score (EPDS) ≤ 9 compared with women with a score of ≥12 at a major Australian tertiary maternity hospital. Women with scores ≥12 are at particularly high risk of major depressive symptomatology. There were 20512 (78.6%) women with a score ≤ 9

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2016 Scientific reports

20. Generating an efficient version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in an urban obstetrical population. (PubMed)

Generating an efficient version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in an urban obstetrical population. Postpartum depression incurs significant burden and suffering.We investigated the latent structure of the most commonly used screening measure, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in women (N=15,172) and tested its predictive validity for the diagnosis of depression as determined with a structured clinical interview. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, Receiver (...) -item EPDS showed a similar ability to predict a diagnoses of depression (area under the ROC curve=.795 for the 10-item, .770 for the seven-item EPDS). Logistic regression analyses showed similar predictive ability between the seven- and 10-item scales in predicting scores higher than 18 on the clinical interview LIMITATIONS: The sample represents women from one Midwest medical center and the EPDS was measured via phone.The seven-item one factor version of the EPDS is an efficient and effective

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2016 Journal of Affective Disorders

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