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Eagles Cardiac Risk Assessment

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1. Eagle's Cardiac Risk Assessment

Assessment Eagle's Cardiac Risk Assessment Aka: Eagle's Cardiac Risk Assessment II. Risk Factors: Major Cardiovascular Risks - Unstable Coronary Syndromes Recent (Within 30 days) or severe ( 3-4) Decompensated Severe valvular disease Severe (mean gradient >40 mm Hg, area <1 cm) Symptomatic Significant arrhythmia High grade Mobitz II Symptomatic ventricular arrhythmia Uncontrolled rate in supraventricular arrhythmia with >100 III. Risk Factors: Intermediate Cardiovascular Risks Mild ( 1-2) Prior (...) Eagle's Cardiac Risk Assessment Eagles Cardiac Risk Assessment Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Eagle's Cardiac Risk

2018 FP Notebook

2. ESC/ESA Guidelines on non-cardiac surgery: cardiovascular assessment and management Full Text available with Trip Pro

. .2390 3.3 Functional capacity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2390 3.4 Risk indices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2391 3.5 Biomarkers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2392 3.6 Non-invasive testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2392 3.6.1 Non-invasive testing of cardiac disease . . . . . . . . .2393 3.6.2 Non-invasive testing of ischaemic heart disease. . . .2393 3.7 Invasive coronary angiography (...) -stage renal disease SPECT single photon emission computed tomography SVT supraventricular tachycardia SYNTAX Synergy between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery TAVI transcatheter aortic valve implantation TdP torsades de pointes TIA transient ischaemic attack TOE transoesophageal echocardiography TOD transoesophageal doppler TTE transthoracic echocardiography UFH unfractionated heparin VATS video-assisted thoracic surgery VHD valvular heart disease VISION Vascular

2014 European Society of Cardiology

3. ACP Preoperative Cardiac Risk Assessment

Preoperative Cardiac Risk Assessment ACP Preoperative Cardiac Risk Assessment Aka: ACP Preoperative Cardiac Risk Assessment II. Background Replaced by Listed for historical reasons only III. Criteria: Eagle and Vanzetto Age over 70 years Q waves on ECG History of History of History of ventricular ectopy History of ST segment abnormalities on EKG with IV. Protocol Indications for surgery without further evaluation Young healthy patient undergoing minor surgery Noncardiac emergency surgery Class I Risk Index (...) ACP Preoperative Cardiac Risk Assessment ACP Preoperative Cardiac Risk Assessment Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 ACP

2018 FP Notebook

4. Eagle's Cardiac Risk Assessment

Assessment Eagle's Cardiac Risk Assessment Aka: Eagle's Cardiac Risk Assessment II. Risk Factors: Major Cardiovascular Risks - Unstable Coronary Syndromes Recent (Within 30 days) or severe ( 3-4) Decompensated Severe valvular disease Severe (mean gradient >40 mm Hg, area <1 cm) Symptomatic Significant arrhythmia High grade Mobitz II Symptomatic ventricular arrhythmia Uncontrolled rate in supraventricular arrhythmia with >100 III. Risk Factors: Intermediate Cardiovascular Risks Mild ( 1-2) Prior (...) Eagle's Cardiac Risk Assessment Eagles Cardiac Risk Assessment Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Eagle's Cardiac Risk

2015 FP Notebook

5. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: Current State of the Science: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association Full Text available with Trip Pro

death. , When SCAD is suspected to be the cause, especially in young women, histopathological assessment of the coronary arteries should include distal segments of the epicardial arteries because of the predilection of SCAD for middistal coronary arteries. Pathogenesis of SCAD and SCAD-Associated Conditions Because of the unique demographic and risk factor profile and the low prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors of SCAD, , , , , its cause is hypothesized to be multifactorial (...) is emerging as an efficient tool for coronary assessment in low- and intermediate-risk patients presenting with ACS. Although the role of CCTA in patients with uncertain ACS diagnoses is promising, no dedicated study has addressed CCTA in the setting of acute SCAD. CCTA is generally contraindicated in patients presenting with high-risk ACS and is not recommended as the first-line investigation for suspected acute SCAD. , , Moreover, normal results on CCTA do not exclude SCAD. Coronary dissection seen

2018 American Heart Association

6. 2018 ACC/AHA Clinical Performance and Quality Measures for Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures

With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction 4. 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure 5. 2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk 6. 2012 ACCF/AHA/ACP/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease 7. Effectiveness-Based Guidelines for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Women—2011 Update: a guideline from the American Heart Association 8. AHA/ACCF Secondary Prevention and Risk Reduction (...) RJ, Phillips MH, et al. . Changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, psychological wellbeing, quality of life, and vocational status following a 12 month cardiac exercise rehabilitation programme. Heart . 1999 ; 81 :359–66. Shepherd CW, While AE . Cardiac rehabilitation and quality of life: a systematic review. Int J Nurs Stud . 2012 ; 49 :755–71. Pack QR, Goel K, Lahr BD, et al. . Participation in cardiac rehabilitation and survival after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a community-based study

2018 American Heart Association

7. Management of Cardiac Involvement Associated With Neuromuscular Diseases: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association Full Text available with Trip Pro

. In this statement, we provide background on several NMDs in which there is cardiac involvement, highlighting unique features of NMD-associated myocardial disease that require clinicians to tailor their approach to prevention and treatment of heart failure. Undoubtedly, further investigations are required to best inform future guidelines on NMD-specific cardiovascular health risks, treatments, and outcomes. Neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) encompass a broad spectrum of diagnoses with overlapping but distinct (...) manifestations among NMDs. Some NMDs increase the risk of cardiomyopathy and HF (eg, DMD, BMD, FA), others elevate the risk of arrhythmia and sudden death (eg, EDMD, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy [LGMD]1B, and DM1), others increase risk of both (eg, BTHS, MFM), and still others do not involve the heart (eg, LGMD1D, oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy). Thus, although at present a definitive diagnosis determines the timing and modes of cardiovascular assessment and follow-up, it is expected that definitive

2017 American Heart Association

8. Diagnosis and Management of Noncardiac Complications in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association Full Text available with Trip Pro

factors can be targeted for preventive intervention. A s survival to adulthood in individuals with congenital heart disease (CHD) has improved, adults with CHD are increasingly at risk for noncardiac com- plications. 1,2 The median age of adults with CHD has increased to 40 years, and the number of adults with CHD >65 years of age is steadily growing. 3–5 As pa- tients age, common adult comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus (DM), coronary artery disease, and hypertension may have an impact on long (...) conditions with congestive heart failure states (im- paired cardiac output and increased central venous pressure) but also likely causes the same neurohor- monal dysregulation that has untoward effects on the kidney. 36,37 Patients with CHD also have unique risk fac- tors for developing renal dysfunction that occur with cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass. 38–40 Car- diovascular surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass may limit renal blood flow, causing hypoxemic-ischemic injury, and are known

2017 American Heart Association

9. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cardiac Arrest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e468 19. Subclinical Atherosclerosis . . . . . . . . . . . . e487 20. Coronary Heart Disease, Acute Coronary Syndrome, and Angina Pectoris. . . . . . . . . . e505 21. Cardiomyopathy and Heart Failure . . . . . . . . e523 22. Valvular Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e539 23. Venous Thromboembolism (Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism), Chronic Venous Insufficiency, Pulmonary Hypertension. . . e548 24. Peripheral Artery Disease and Aortic (...) Cardiac Arrest (Chapter 18) • In the 2015 CARES (Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival) National Survival Report for emergency medical services–treated nontrau- matic cardiac arrest, the survival rate to hospital discharge was 10.6% for adults >18 years old, 23.5% for children 13 to 18 years old, 16.6% for children >1 to 12 years old, and 6.2% for children 0. • Coronary artery calcium scores >400 versus 0 are associated with an increased risk for can- cer, chronic kidney disease, pneumonia

2017 American Heart Association

10. Appropriate Use Criteria for Coronary Revascularization in Patients With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease Full Text available with Trip Pro

Figure 1 AUC Development Process 2217 3. Assumptions 2218 General Assumptions 2218 Assumptions for Rating Multiple Treatment Options 2219 4. Definitions 2219 Table A. Revascularization to Improve Survival Compared With Medical Therapy 2220 Table B. Noninvasive Risk Stratification 2222 5. Abbreviations 2223 6. Coronary Revascularization in Patients With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease: Appropriate Use Criteria (By Indication) 2223 Section 1. SIHD Without Prior CABG 2223 Table 1.1 One-Vessel Disease 2224 (...) SIHD and acute coronary syndromes individually. This document presents the AUC for SIHD. Clinical scenarios were developed to mimic patient presentations encountered in everyday practice. These scenarios included information on symptom status; risk level as assessed by noninvasive testing; coronary disease burden; and, in some scenarios, fractional flow reserve testing, presence or absence of diabetes, and SYNTAX score. This update provides a reassessment of clinical scenarios that the writing

2017 Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions

11. Guidelines on Chronic Coronary Syndromes Full Text available with Trip Pro

test 18 3.1.5.6 Invasive testing 19 3.1.6 Step 6: assess event risk 21 3.1.6.1 Definition of levels of risk 22 3.2 Lifestyle management 23 3.2.1 General management of patients with coronary artery disease 23 3.2.2 Lifestyle modification and control of risk factors 23 3.2.2.1 Smoking 23 3.2.2.2 Diet and alcohol 24 3.2.2.3 Weight management 24 3.2.2.4 Physical activity 24 3.2.2.5 Cardiac rehabilitation 24 3.2.2.6 Psychosocial factors 24 3.2.2.7 Environmental factors 25 3.2.2.8 Sexual activity 25 (...) Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain PTP Pre-test probability RAS Renin−angiotensin system RCT Randomized clinical trial REACH Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health RIVER-PCI Ranolazine for Incomplete Vessel Revascularization Post‐Percutaneous Coronary Intervention SCORE Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation SCOT- HEART Scottish Computed Tomography of the HEART SIGNIFY Study Assessing the Morbidity–Mortality Benefits of the If Inhibitor Ivabradine in Patients

2019 European Society of Cardiology

12. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cardiac Arrest, Ventricular Arrhythmias, and Inherited Channelopathies e377 18. Subclinical Atherosclerosis e401 19. Coronary Heart Disease, Acute Coronary Syndrome, and Angina Pectoris e415 20. Cardiomyopathy and Heart Failure e438 21. Valvular Diseases e455 22. Venous Thromboembolism (Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism), Chronic Venous Insufficiency, Pulmonary Hypertension e472 23. Peripheral Artery Disease and Aortic Diseases e481 Outcomes 24. Quality of Care e497 25. Medical Procedures (...) of the United States (325 193 000 as of June 9, 2017). Survival of hospitalization after cardiac arrest varied between academic medical centers and was higher in hospitals with higher cardiac arrest volume, higher surgical volume, greater availability of invasive cardiac services, and more affluent catchment areas. Subclinical Atherosclerosis (Chapter 18) Coronary computed tomographic angiography, which includes assessment of the severity of coronary artery stenosis, plaque composition, and coronary segment

2019 American Heart Association

13. AIM Clinical Appropriateness Guidelines for Advanced Imaging of the Heart.

in the standard methods of risk assessment but are thought to contribute to coronary artery disease risk. ? Selection of the optimal diagnostic work-up for evaluation or exclusion of coronary artery disease should be made within the context of available studies (which include treadmill stress test, stress myocardial perfusion imaging, stress echocardiography, cardiac PET imaging and invasive cardiac/coronary angiography), so that the resulting information facilitates patient management decisions and does (...) of risk assessment, such as the SCORE (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation) or the Framingham risk score calculation. These risk calculation systems include consideration of the following factors: Age Sex Abnormal Lipid Profile Hypertension Diabetes Mellitus (always = high risk) Cigarette Smoking Other coronary risk factors such as family history of premature CAD, coronary artery calcification, C reactive protein levels, obesity, etc., are not included in the standard methods of risk assessment

2019 AIM Specialty Health

14. 2019 AHA/ACC Clinical Performance and Quality Measures for Adults With High Blood Pressure: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures Full Text available with Trip Pro

Adherence to Drug Therapy for ACC/AHA Stage 1 With ASCVD Risk ≥10% or ACC/AHA Stage 2 HBP 29 Short Title: QM-5: Use of HBPM for Management of ACC/AHA Stage 1 HBP 30 Short Title: QM-6: Use of HBPM for Management of ACC/AHA Stage 1 HBP or ACC/AHA Stage 2 HBP (Composite Measure Combining PM-5 and QM-5) 31 Structural Quality Measures 32 Diagnosis, Assessment and Accurate Measurement 32 SM-1: Use of a Standard Protocol to Consistently and Correctly Measure BP in the Ambulatory Setting 32 SM-2: Use (...) of a Standard Process for Assessing ASCVD Risk 34 SM-3: Use of a Standard Process for Properly Screening All Adults 18 Years and Older for HBP (USPSTF) 35 SM-4: Use of an EHR to Accurately Diagnose and Assess HBP Control 36 A Patient-Centered Approach for Controlling HBP 37 SM-5: Use of a Standard Process to Engage Patients in Shared Decision-Making, Tailored to Their Personal Benefits, Goals and Values for Evidence-Based Interventions to Improve Control of HBP 37 SM-6: Demonstration of Infrastructure

2019 American Heart Association

15. Heart Failure Full Text available with Trip Pro

receptor neprilysin inhibitor; AV, atrioventricular; BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; BP, blood pressure; bpm, beats per minute; CABG, coronary artery bypass graft; CMR, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging; CRT, cardiac resynchronisation therapy; CT, computed tomography; ECG, electrocardiogram; DCM, dilated cardiomyopathy; GRADE, Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation; HFrEF, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; ICD, implantable cardioverter defibrillator; LGE, late (...) in patients with either a suspected diagnosis or new diagnosis of heart failure, to assess cardiac rhythm, QRS duration, and the presence of underlying conditions such as myocardial ischaemia or LV hypertrophy. Strong FOR Low A chest X-ray is recommended in patients with either a suspected diagnosis or new diagnosis of heart failure, to detect signs of pulmonary congestion and to identify alternative cardiac or non-cardiac causes for the patient’s symptoms. Strong FOR Very low Plasma B-type natriuretic

2018 Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand

16. Cardiovascular Health in Turner Syndrome: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association Full Text available with Trip Pro

from Gravholt et al. Copyright ©2017, European Society of Endocrinology. Because of the high prevalence of congenital and acquired cardiovascular disease in TS, noninvasive cardiac imaging is critical for diagnosis, management, and risk assessment. , , The most common modalities include TTE, CMR, and CT. , , TTE is useful in the diagnosis of a BAV and other congenital heart defects, as well as in the surveillance of aortic dilatation. However, the high prevalence of undiagnosed abnormalities (...) on a case-by-case basis, balancing the benefits of these drugs against their potential risks. Because the arrhythmia torsades de pointes is the cause of sudden cardiac death in those with prolonged QTc in the setting of long-QT syndrome, postmortem assessment of women with TS who die suddenly would indicate that prolonged QTc may be the cause by excluding more common causes such AoD, stroke, myocardial infarction, or coronary malformations. Suggestions for Clinical Practice Resting electrocardiographic

2018 American Heart Association

17. Stable Coronary Artery Disease (2nd Edition)

testing 56 7.5.1 Coronary Calcium (CAC) Score 56 7.5.2 Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) 57 7.5.3 Risk Stratification by Invasive Coronary Angiography (ICA) 58 7.5.4 Risk assessment by Physiological Assessment of the functional severity of coronary lesions 58 7.6 Guidelines for referral to a tertiary cardiac center 60 8. MANAGEMENT (Fig 2, pg 25) 62 8.1 Behavioural modification therapy (BMT) 63 8.1.1 Patient education 63 8.1.2 Diet 63 8.1.3 Physical activity 63 8.1.4 Smoking Cessation 67 8.1.5 (...) of Stable CAD by Anatomic testing 56 7.5.1 Coronary Calcium (CAC) Score 56 7.5.2 Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) 57 7.5.3 Risk Stratification by Invasive Coronary Angiography (ICA) 58 7.5.4 Risk assessment by Physiological Assessment of the functional severity of coronary lesions 58 7.6 Guidelines for referral to a tertiary cardiac center 60 8. MANAGEMENT (Fig 2, pg 25) 62 8.1 Behavioural modification therapy (BMT) 63 8.1.1 Patient education 63 8.1.2 Diet 63 8.1.3 Physical activity 63 8.1.4

2018 Ministry of Health, Malaysia

18. Adults With Congenital Heart Disease

innominate vein, and right upper pulmonary vein(s) connecting high on the superior vena cava. Long-term sequelae of anomalous pulmonary venous connections reflect the impact of right heart volume overload and are similar to the sequelae of ASDs. Surgical repair can be challenging as low-velocity venous flow imparts risk of thrombosis of the surgically operated vein. See Section 3.3 for recommendations on who should perform surgeries, cardiac catheterization, and other procedures in these patients (...) . Congenitally Corrected Transposition of the Great Arteries 99 4.4.2. Fontan Palliation of Single Ventricle Physiology (Including Tricuspid Atresia and Double Inlet Left Ventricle) 101 4.4.3. Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome/Norwood Repair 106 4.4.4. Truncus Arteriosus 106 4.4.5. Double Outlet Right Ventricle 106 4.4.6. Severe PAH and Eisenmenger Syndrome 106 4.4.6.1. Severe PAH 107 4.4.6.2. Eisenmenger Syndrome 109 4.4.7. Coronary Anomalies 111 4.4.7.1 Anomalous Coronary Artery Evaluation 113 4.4.7.2

2018 American College of Cardiology

19. Management of Valvular Heart Disease Full Text available with Trip Pro

3.1.2.1 Stress testing 2744 3.1.2.2 Cardiac magnetic resonance 2745 3.1.2.3 Computed tomography 2745 3.1.2.4 Cinefluoroscopy 2745 3.1.2.5 Biomarkers 2745 3.1.3 Invasive investigations 2745 3.1.3.1 Coronary angiography 2745 3.1.3.2 Cardiac catheterization 2746 3.1.4 Assessment of comorbidity 2746 3.2 Risk stratification 2746 3.3 Special considerations in elderly patients 2746 3.4 Endocarditis prophylaxis 2746 3.5 Prophylaxis for rheumatic fever 2746 3.6 Concept of the Heart Team and heart valve centres (...) ; MSCT = multislice computed tomography; PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention; TAVI = transcatheter aortic valve implantation; VHD = valvular heart disease. a Class of recommendation. b Level of evidence. c MSCT may be used to exclude CAD in patients who are at low risk of atherosclerosis. d Chest pain, abnormal non-invasive testing. e ≥50% can be considered for left main stenosis. 3.1.3.2 Cardiac catheterization The measurement of pressures and cardiac output or the assessment of ventricular

2017 European Society of Cardiology

20. AIM Clinical Appropriateness Guidelines for Advanced Imaging of the Heart

., are not included in the standard methods of risk assessment but are thought to contribute to CAD risk. ? Selection of the optimal diagnostic work-up for evaluation or exclusion of coronary artery disease should be made within the context of available studies (which include treadmill stress test, stress myocardial perfusion imaging, stress echocardiography, cardiac PET imaging and invasive cardiac/coronary angiography), so that the resulting information facilitates patient management decisions and does (...) for Myocardial Perfusion Imaging include standard methods of risk assessment, such as the SCORE (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation) or the Framingham risk score calculation. These risk calculation systems include consideration of the following factors: Age Sex Abnormal Lipid Profile Hypertension Diabetes Mellitus (always = high risk) Cigarette Smoking Other coronary risk factors such as family history of premature CAD, coronary artery calcification, C reactive protein levels, obesity, etc

2018 AIM Specialty Health

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