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E/M Medical Decision Making

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8801. Mental health professional

difference between mental health professionals are the laws regarding across the various professions. However, the most significant change has been the Supreme Court Olmstead Decision on the most integrated setting which should further reduce state hospital utilization; yet with new professionals seeking right for community treatment orders and rights to administer medications (original community programs, residents taught to self-administer medications, 1970s). In 2013, new mental health practitioners (...) (LTSS). Termed functional or competency-based programs, these service also stressed decision making and self-determination or empowerment as critical aspects. Community mental health professionals may also serve children which have different needs, as do families, including family therapy, financial assistance and support services. Community mental health professionals serve people of all ages from young children with autism, to children with emotional (or behavioral) needs, to grandma who has

2012 Wikipedia

8802. Methamphetamine

et al., 1998, 2008; Sekine et al., 2003; Volkow et al., 2001a, 2001c). The density of serotonin transporters (5-HTT) is also decreased in the midbrain, caudate, putamen, hypothalamus, thalamus, the orbitofrontal, temporal, and cingulate cortices of METH-dependent individuals (Sekine et al., 2006) ... Neuropsychological studies have detected deficits in attention, working memory, and decision-making in chronic METH addicts ... There is compelling evidence that the negative neuropsychiatric (...) Methamphetamine Methamphetamine - Wikipedia Methamphetamine From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the free base and salts of methamphetamine, a recreational drug. "Meth" and "crystal meth" redirect here. For other uses, see . Methamphetamine Clinical data Pronunciation Desoxyn, Methedrine Synonyms N - , N ,α- , desoxyephedrine / : (Risk not ruled out) : none : high High Medical: , , , Recreational: , , , , , , , ( ) Legal status (Controlled) (Authorized trade only

2012 Wikipedia

8803. Mental disorder

Mental disorder Mental disorder - Wikipedia Mental disorder From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Mental disorder Other names Psychiatric disorder, psychological disorder, mental illness, mental disease, mental breakdown, nervous breakdown , Symptoms , , , , , Cognitive impairment, social problems, suicide Types , , , , , , Causes and factors Treatment , medications Medication , , , , Frequency 18% per year (United States) A mental disorder , also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder (...) , or thinks. This may be associated with particular regions or functions of the brain, often in a . A mental disorder is one aspect of . Cultural and religious beliefs, as well as , should be taken into account when making a diagnosis. are based in or in the , and assessments are carried out by mental health professionals such as psychiatrists, psychologists, and , using various methods such as but often relying on observation and questioning. Treatments are provided by various mental health professionals

2012 Wikipedia

8804. Melatonin

influence the circadian rhythm. [ ] Occurrence [ ] Dietary supplement [ ] Melatonin is categorized by the US (FDA) as a dietary supplement, and is sold over-the-counter in both the US and Canada. The FDA regulations applying to medications are not applicable to melatonin. As melatonin may cause harm in combination with certain medications or in the case of certain disorders, a doctor or pharmacist should be consulted before making a decision to take melatonin. In many countries, melatonin is recognized (...) . 55 (15): PL271–76. : . . ^ Sharafati-Chaleshtori R, Shirzad H, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Soltani A (2017). . Journal of Research in Medical Sciences . 22 : 2. : . . . ^ Jockers R, Delagrange P, Dubocovich ML, Markus RP, Renault N, Tosini G, Cecon E, Zlotos DP (September 2016). . British Journal of Pharmacology . 173 (18): 2702–25. : . . . Hence, one melatonin molecule and its associated metabolites could scavenge a large number of reactive species, and thus, the overall antioxidant capacity of melatonin

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2012 Wikipedia

8805. Medicaid

as requiring states to implement a program to sue the estate of decedents for medical care costs paid by Medicaid. Medicaid also offers a Fee for Service (Direct Service) Program to schools throughout the United States for the reimbursement of costs associated with the services delivered to special education students. Federal law mandates that every disabled child in America receive a "free appropriate public education." Decisions by the United States Supreme Court and subsequent changes in federal law (...) Medicaid Medicaid - Wikipedia Medicaid From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Not to be confused with . (Medicaid administrator) logo Medicaid in the United States is a federal and state program that helps with medical costs for some people with limited income and resources. Medicaid also offers benefits not normally covered by , including nursing home care and personal care services. The Health Insurance Association of America describes Medicaid as "a government insurance program for persons

2012 Wikipedia

8806. Measles

Part II . Handbook of Clinical Neurology. 112 . pp. 1183–89. : . . . Semba RD, Bloem MW (March 2004). "Measles blindness". Survey of Ophthalmology . 49 (2): 243–55. : . . Gupta, Piyush; Menon, P. S. N.; Ramji, Siddarth; Lodha, Rakesh (2015). . JP Medical Ltd. p. 1158. . Griffin, DE (July 2010). . Immunological Reviews . 236 : 176–89. : . . . Rota, Paul A.; Moss, William J.; Takeda, Makoto; de Swart, Rik L.; Thompson, Kimberly M.; Goodson, James L. (14 July 2016). "Measles". Nature Reviews Disease (...) April 2018 . Retrieved 6 May 2018 . Gowda VK, Sukanya V (2012). "Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome with Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis". Pediatric Neurology . 47 (5): 379–81. : . . Waggoner JJ, Soda EA, Deresinski S (October 2013). . Clinical Infectious Diseases . 57 (8): 1182–88. : . . ^ Leuridan E, Sabbe M, Van Damme P (September 2012). "Measles outbreak in Europe: susceptibility of infants too young to be immunized". Vaccine . 30 (41): 5905–13. : . . ^ Moss, WJ; Griffin, DE (14 January 2012

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2012 Wikipedia

8807. Mechanical ventilation

[ ] Exhalation in mechanical ventilation is almost always completely passive. The ventilator's expiratory valve is opened, and expiratory flow is allowed until the baseline pressure ( ) is reached. Expiratory flow is determined by patient factors such as compliance and resistance. Dead space [ ] Mechanical dead space is defined as the volume of gas breathed again as the result of use in a mechanical device. [ ] Example of calculation for mechanical dead space V D m e c h = V T − V D p h y s − P a C O 2 ( V T (...) − V D − V D m e c h ) P A C O 2 ] Main article: Mechanical ventilation utilizes several separate systems for ventilation referred to as the mode. Modes come in many different delivery concepts but all modes fall into one of three categories; volume-cycled, pressure-cycled, spontaneously cycled. In general, the selection of which mode of mechanical ventilation to use for a given patient is based on the familiarity of with modes and the equipment availability at a particular institution

2012 Wikipedia

8808. Bhopal disaster

petitions that challenged the original decision. The Court ordered the Indian government "to purchase, out of settlement fund, a group medical insurance policy to cover 100,000 persons who may later develop symptoms" and cover any shortfall in the settlement fund. It also requested UCC and its subsidiary UCIL "voluntarily" fund a hospital in Bhopal, at an estimated $17 million , to specifically treat victims of the Bhopal disaster. The company agreed to this. Post-settlement activity In 1991, the local (...) employees assumed the reading was instrumentation malfunction. By 11:30 p.m., workers in the MIC area were feeling the effects of minor exposure to MIC gas, and began to look for a leak. One was found by 11:45 p.m., and reported to the MIC supervisor on duty at the time. The decision was made to address the problem after a 12:15 a.m. tea break, and in the meantime, employees were instructed to continue looking for leaks. The incident was discussed by MIC area employees during the break. In the five

2012 Wikipedia

8809. Bevacizumab

Genentech announced that counterfeit Avastin had been distributed in the United States. The investigation is ongoing, but differences in the outer packaging make identification of the bogus drugs simple for medical providers. Roche analyzed three bogus vials of Avastin and found they contained , , , , , , , di-fluorinated benzene ring, and moiety, but no active ingredients of the cancer drug. According to Roche, the levels of the chemicals were not consistent; whether the chemicals were at harmful (...) , author reply 320. : . . Moja L, Lucenteforte E, Kwag KH, Bertele V, Campomori A, Chakravarthy U, D'Amico R, Dickersin K, Kodjikian L, Lindsley K, Loke Y, Maguire M, Martin DF, Mugelli A, Mühlbauer B, Püntmann I, Reeves B, Rogers C, Schmucker C, Subramanian ML, Virgili G (September 2014). . The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews . 9 (9): CD011230. : . . . Scott LJ, Chakravarthy U, Reeves BC, Rogers CA (March 2015). "Systemic safety of anti-VEGF drugs: a commentary". Expert Opinion on Drug Safety

2012 Wikipedia

8810. B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia

.; Arber, Daniel A.; Glader, Bertil; List, Alan F.; Means Jr., Robert T.; Paraskevas, Frixos; Rodgers, George M.; Foerster, John, eds. (2014). Wintrobe's clinical hematology (Thirteenth ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. . Bain, Barbara J. (2006). Blood Cells: A Practical Guide . Blackwell Publishing Limited. p. 439. . Matutes E, Owusu-Ankomah K, Morilla R, Garcia Marco J, Houlihan A, Que TH, Catovsky D (1994). "The immunological profile of B-cell disorders and proposal of a scoring system (...) maint: Uses authors parameter ( ) Zare H, Bashashati A, Kridel R, Aghaeepour N, Haffari G, Connors JM, Gascoyne RD, Gupta A, Brinkman RR, Weng AP (2012). . Am. J. Clin. Pathol . 137 (1): 75–85. : . . . CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter ( ) ^ National Cancer Institute (January 1980). . from the original on 17 October 2007 . Retrieved 2007-09-04 . ^ Kaushansky, K; Lichtman, M; Beutler, E; Kipps, T; Prchal, J; Seligsohn, U. (2010). Williams Hematology (8th ed.). McGraw-Hill. . Gale, Robert Peter; Rai

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2012 Wikipedia

8811. Basal ganglia

and human electrophysiology studies that other basal ganglia structures including the globus pallidus internus and subthalamic nucleus are involved in reward processing. Decision making [ ] Two models have been proposed for the basal ganglia, one being that actions are generated by a "critic" in the ventral striatum and estimates value, and the actions are carried out by an "actor" in the dorsal striatum. Another model proposes the basal ganglia acts as a selection mechanism, where actions are generated (...) , Remarkable Journey: Tangential Migration in the Telencephalon. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2. Regina Bailey. . about.com. from the original on 2 December 2010 . Retrieved 2010-11-30 . Hall, John (2011). Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology (12th ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders/Elsevier. p. 690. . Voorn, Pieter; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; Groenewegen, Henk J.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Pennartz, Cyriel M. A. (1 August 2004). "Putting a spin on the dorsal-ventral divide of the striatum". Trends

2012 Wikipedia

8812. Bariatric surgery

and its related diseases. Difficulties and ethical issues arise when making decisions related to obesity treatments for those that are too young or otherwise unable to give consent without adult guidance. Children and adolescents are still developing, both physically and mentally. This makes it difficult for them to make an informed decision and give consent to move forward with a treatment. These patients may also be experiencing severe depression or other psychological disorders related (...) in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Aug 8;8:CD003641. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003641.pub4. Flum DR, Belle SH, King WC, Wahed AS, Berk P, Chapman W, Pories W, Courcoulas A, McCloskey C, Mitchell J, Patterson E, Pomp A, Staten MA, Yanovski SZ, Thirlby R, Wolfe B (July 2009). . The New England Journal of Medicine . 361 (5): 445–54. : . . . Nguyen NT, Silver M, Robinson M, Needleman B, Hartley G, Cooney R, Catalano R, Dostal J, Sama D, Blankenship J, Burg K, Stemmer E, Wilson SE (May 2006). "Result

2012 Wikipedia

8813. Body shaping

Medical uses [ ] Biliopancreatic Diversion. A by the concluded: "Surgery should be considered as a treatment option for patients with a of 40 kg/m 2 or greater who instituted but failed an adequate exercise and program (with or without adjunctive drug therapy) and who present with obesity-related comorbid conditions, such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and obstructive sleep apnea. A doctor–patient discussion of surgical options should include the long (...) and its related diseases. Difficulties and ethical issues arise when making decisions related to obesity treatments for those that are too young or otherwise unable to give consent without adult guidance. Children and adolescents are still developing, both physically and mentally. This makes it difficult for them to make an informed decision and give consent to move forward with a treatment. These patients may also be experiencing severe depression or other psychological disorders related

2012 Wikipedia

8814. Borderline personality disorder

effective decision-making in daily life. Disability [ ] Many people with BPD are able to work if they find appropriate jobs and their condition is not too severe. People with BPD may be found to have a disability in the workplace, if the condition is severe enough that the behaviors of sabotaging relationships, engaging in risky behaviors or intense anger prevent the person from functioning in their job role. Causes [ ] As is the case with other mental disorders, the causes of BPD are complex (...) . , , and are commonly associated with BPD. Up to 10% of people affected die by . BPD's causes are unclear but seem to involve genetic, brain, environmental and social factors. It occurs about five times more often in a person who has an affected close relative. Adverse life events also appear to play a role. The underlying mechanism appears to involve the network of . BPD is recognized by the (DSM) as a , along with nine other such disorders. Diagnosis is based on the symptoms, while a medical examination may

2012 Wikipedia

8815. Blastocystosis

found to be elevated in patients with . One paper noted the diffuse symptoms of Blastocystis infection correlate with 's role in the body, and suggested a similar mechanism may be present in Blastocystis infection. Diagnosis [ ] Clinically available [ ] Diagnosis is performed by determining if the infection is present, and then making a decision as to whether the infection is responsible for the symptoms. Diagnostic methods in clinical use have been reported to be of poor quality and more reliable (...) to Blastocystis hominis ". Australasian Journal of Dermatology . 47 (2): 117–9. : . . ^ Amin O. . Research Journal of Parasitology . 1 (1): 1–10. Archived from on 2008-02-26 . Retrieved 2007-09-13 . Biedermann T, Hartmann K, Sing A, Przybilla B (2002). "Hypersensitivity to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and chronic urticaria cured by treatment of Blastocystis hominis infection". Br. J. Dermatol . 146 (6): 1113–4. : . . Pasqui AL, Savini E, Saletti M, Guzzo C, Puccetti L, Auteri A (2004). "Chronic

2012 Wikipedia

8816. Birth control

the original on May 6, 2016. Moore, David S. (2010). (5th ed.). New York: Freeman. p. 25. . from the original on April 27, 2016. ^ Deffieux, X; Morin Surroca, M; Faivre, E; Pages, F; Fernandez, H; Gervaise, A (May 2011). "Tubal anastomosis after tubal sterilization: a review". Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics . 283 (5): 1149–58. : . . ^ Shridharani, A; Sandlow, JI (November 2010). "Vasectomy reversal versus IVF with sperm retrieval: which is better?". Current Opinion in Urology . 20 (6): 503–09 (...) Birth control Birth control - Wikipedia Birth control From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For other uses, see . Birth control A package of Other names Contraception, fertility control [ ] Birth control , also known as contraception and fertility control , is a method or device used to prevent . Birth control has been used since ancient times, but effective and safe methods of birth control only became available in the 20th century. Planning, making available, and using birth control is called

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2012 Wikipedia

8817. Bipolar disorder

, an individual or feels energetic, happy, or irritable. Individuals often make poorly thought out decisions with little regard to the consequences. The need for sleep is usually reduced during manic phases. During periods of depression, there may be crying, a negative outlook on life, and poor eye contact with others. The risk of among those with the illness is high at greater than 6 percent over 20 years, while occurs in 30–40 percent. Other mental health issues such as and are commonly associated (...) Psychiatry Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing. pp. 123–154. . ^ Schmitt A, Malchow B, Hasan A, Falkai P (February 2014). . Front Neurosci . 8 (19): 19. : . . . . from the original on July 31, 2017. Goodwin, Guy M. (2012). "Bipolar disorder". Medicine . 40 (11): 596–598. : . Charney A, Sklar P (2018). . In Charney D, Nestler E, Sklar P, Buxbaum J. Charney & Nestler's Neurobiology of Mental Illness (5th ed.). New

2012 Wikipedia

8818. Ataxia telangiectasia

to the duration of any benefit and its long-term safety. References [ ] Louis-Bar D (1941). "Sur un syndrome progressif cormprenant des télangiectasies capillaires cutanées et conjonctivales symétriques, à disposition naevoïde et des troubles cérébelleux". Confinia Neurologica . 4 (1–2): 32–42. : . Boder E (1985). "Ataxia–telangiectasia: an overview". Kroc Foundation Series . 19 : 1–63. . ^ Savitsky K, Bar-Shira A, Gilad S, Rotman G, Ziv Y, Vanagaite L, Tagle DA, Smith S, Uziel T, Sfez S, Ashkenazi M, Pecker (...) . Retrieved 2018-03-29 . ^ Swift M, Morrell D, Cromartie E, Chamberlin AR, Skolnick MH, Bishop DT (November 1986). . American Journal of Human Genetics . 39 (5): 573–83. . . Cabana MD, Crawford TO, Winkelstein JA, Christensen JR, Lederman HM (July 1998). "Consequences of the delayed diagnosis of ataxia–telangiectasia". Pediatrics . 102 (1 Pt 1): 98–100. : . . ^ Crawford TO (December 1998). "Ataxia telangiectasia". Seminars in Pediatric Neurology . 5 (4): 287–94. : . . Crawford TO, Mandir AS, Lefton-Greif

2012 Wikipedia

8819. Aspirin

formed may consist entirely of acetate and salicylate. Like , factories that make aspirin tablets must pay attention to how much of the powder gets into the air inside the building, because . The (NIOSH) has set a in the United States of 5 mg/m 3 (time-weighted average). In 1989, the (OSHA) set a legal for aspirin of 5 mg/m 3 , but this was vacated by the decision in 1993. Synthesis [ ] The synthesis of aspirin is classified as an reaction. is treated with , an acid derivative, causing a chemical (...) in tablets, which makes them useful for the treatment of . aspirin may be effective for treating some types of . Headache [ ] Aspirin, either by itself or in a combined formulation, effectively treats certain , but its efficacy may be questionable for others. Secondary headaches, meaning those caused by another disorder or trauma, should be promptly treated by a medical provider. Among primary headaches, the distinguishes between (the most common), migraine, and . Aspirin or other over-the-counter

2012 Wikipedia

8820. Ascending cholangitis

into the common bile duct directly, and allows for serial x-ray cholangiograms to be done to identify the improvement of the obstruction. The decision on which of the aforementioned treatments to apply is generally based on the severity of the obstruction, findings on other imaging studies, and whether the patient has improved with antibiotic treatment. Certain treatments may be unsafe if is impaired, as the risk of bleeding (especially from sphincterotomy) is increased in the use of medication such as (which (...) , but the risk has rapidly diminished since the introduction of . Cholangitis may also complicate medical procedures involving the bile duct, especially ERCP. To prevent this, it is recommended that those undergoing ERCP for any indication receive prophylactic (preventative) antibiotics. The presence of a permanent biliary stent (e.g. in pancreatic cancer) slightly increases the risk of cholangitis, but stents of this type are often needed to keep the bile duct patent under outside pressure. Pathogenesis

2012 Wikipedia

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