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E/M Medical Decision Making

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8801. Improving outcomes in urological cancers

to clinical decision-making, which then becomes a collective process. Another common strand is the importance of defining the natural sequence of events in the organisation and delivery of care. The processes from first referral through to arrangements to manage recurrent and advanced disease have to reflect the needs of the patient at various stages. This is a major driver to shape the way services are organised and delivered. Such ideas are not by any means the sole province of this guidance. There has (...) ; 12 this difference could reflect other, unmeasured, criteria which GPs consider when they make the decision to refer. Whilst the most common presenting symptom of kidney cancer is haematuria, this disease is often asymptomatic until it reaches a late stage. It is diagnosed increasingly frequently when imaging, carried out for some other reason, reveals a mass in the kidney. A recent (unpublished) audit in north west England reported that in 37% of patients with kidney cancer, the tumour

2002 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

8802. Improving outcomes in breast cancer

clinical decision-making takes place throughout a patient’s experience of breast cancer, from the earliest diagnostic steps to the management of advanced disease. This extended and updated guidance makes revised recommendations for services to secure that objective. There has been a great deal of progress since the original breast guidance was published, so much so that it may seem to some that implementation of that guidance is largely achieved, that modern multidisciplinary breast cancer care (...) /nhsplan-e.pdf 3. A Policy Framework for Commissioning Cancer Services: A Report by the Expert Advisory Group on Cancer to the Chief Medical Officers of England and Wales (1995). Available from: http://www.doh.gov.uk/cancer/pdfs/calman-hine.pdf Related NICE publications: Completed appraisals • National Institute for Clinical Excellence (2001) Guidance on the use of taxanes for the treatment of breast cancer. NICE Technology Appraisal Guidance No. 30. London: National Institute for Clinical Excellence

2002 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

8803. Multidisciplinary meetings for cancer care

… it’s a self-perpetuating activity … ”18 M u lt i d i s c i p l i n a r y M E E t i n G s F O r c a n c E r c a r E : a G u i d E F O r h E a lt h s E r v i c E p r O v i d E r s PLANNING A MULTIDISCIPLINARY MEETING Setting up a new meeting When establishing regular multidisciplinary meetings for a new team, it is important to gain consensus from all team members on the team responsibilities, meeting aims and frequencies and local protocols for issues such as decision making, documentation processes (...) IS MULTIDISCIPLINARY CARE? Multidisciplinary care (MDC) is an integrated team approach to health care in which medical and allied health care professionals consider all relevant treatment options and develop collaboratively an individual treatment plan for each patient. That is, MDC is about all relevant health professionals discussing options and making joint decisions about treatment and supportive care plans, taking into account the personal preferences of the patient. The need to develop strategies

2005 Cancer Australia

8804. Breast fine needle aspiration cytology and core biopsy - a guide for practice

www.nbcc.org.au Email: directorate@nbcc.org.au This document provides recommendations regarding appropriate practice, to be followed subject to the clinician’s judgement and the patient’s preference in each individual case. The information contained in this document is designed to assist decision making and is based on the best evidence available at the time of production. The suggested citation for the document is: National Breast Cancer Centre. 2004. Breast fine needle aspiration cytology and core biopsy (...) for Ultrasound in Medicine BIRG Breast Imaging Reference Group DCIS ductal carcinoma in situ ER oestrogen receptor FNA fine needle aspiration H&E haematoxylin and eosin IBUS International Breast Ultrasound School LCIS lobular carcinoma in situ NBCC National Breast Cancer Centre NHMRC National Health and Medical Research Council PPV positive predictive value PR progesterone receptor QA quality assurance RANZCR Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists RCPA Royal College of Pathologists

2004 Cancer Australia

8805. The clinical management of ductal carcinoma in situ, lobular carcinoma in situ and atypical hyperplasia of the breast

should be addressed to the Copyright Office, National Breast Cancer Centre, Locked Bag 16 Camperdown NSW 1450 Australia.Website www.nbcc.org.au Email directorate@nbcc.org.au This document provides recommendations regarding appropriate practice, to be followed subject to the clinician’s judgement and the patient’s preference in each individual case. The information contained in this document is designed to assist decision making and is based on the best evidence available at the time of production (...) The clinical management of ductal carcinoma in situ, lobular carcinoma in situ and atypical hyperplasia of the breast viiIMPORTANT NOTICE This document provides recommendations regarding appropriate practice, to be followed subject to the clinician’s judgement and the woman’s preference in each individual case.The information contained in this document is designed to assist decision making and is based on the best evidence available at the time of production. Research evidence was reviewed up until late

2003 Cancer Australia

8806. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of women with epithelial ovarian cancer

ovarian cancer. The Clinical practice guidelines for the management of women with epithelial ovarian cancer are based on the best available evidence, and readers can judge the level of the evidence on which assertions are based. The process employed to develop the guidelines is described in Appendix 6. These guidelines are not rigid procedural paths. They are one element of good medical decision-making, which takes account of patients’ preferences and values, clinicians’ experience (...) subject to the clinician’s judgement and the patient’s preference in each individual case. The guidelines are designed to provide information to assist decision-making and are based on the best evidence available at the time of publication. This is the ?rst edition of the Clinical practice guidelines for the management of women with epithelial ovarian cancer. It is planned to review this Clinical Practice Guideline in 2009. For further information regarding the status of this document, please refer

2004 Cancer Australia

8807. Recommendations for Aromatase inhibitors as adjuvant endocrine therapy for post-menopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer

?recurrence: Decisions?about?whether?to?use?an?aromatase?inhibitor?or?tamoxifen?should be?based?on?an?assessment?of?the?risks?and?benefits?of?treatment?for?that individual II For?post-menopausal?women?with?hormone?receptor-positive?early?breast?cancer?who?are?at?LOW risk?of?breast?cancer?recurrence: Adjuvant?endocrine?therapy?with?tamoxifen?is?recommended?(rather?than with?an?aromatase?inhibitor)?for?most?low-risk?women?as?described?in?the NBCC*? Clinical?Practice?Guidelines?for?the?Management?of?Early (...) ?of?the?results?and?subsequent?substantial?crossover?from?placebo?to?aromatase?inhibitor?make?it unlikely?that?a?statistically?significant?survival?difference?will?be?seen?in?MA.17?overall. 7 Adverse?eventsAromatase?inhibitors?and?tamoxifen?were?generally?well?tolerated?in?all?six?trials.?Serious?adverse?events?were?rare and?withdrawals?due?to?adverse?events?were?generally?less?frequent?with?aromatase?inhibitors?than?with?tamoxifen, and?equally?frequent?with?an?aromatase?inhibitor?(letrozole)?and?placebo

2006 Cancer Australia

8808. Evidence relevent to guidelines for the investigation of breast symptoms

were sought, or whether the guidelines were piloted in targeted users. The development of the guidelines was likewise poorly described. There was no information about the methods used to search for evidence, the criteria used to select evidence or the methods used to formulate recommendations, making decisions about its external validity difficult. The different options for management were clearly presented, but not supported by tools for its application. Guidelines published by the Institute (...) ” or “malignant”); C, clinical examination; F, fine needle aspiration cytology; M, mammography The accuracy of combined results for mammography and fine needle aspiration cytology If the results of the clinical examination and medical history were incorporated into the pre-test probabilities prior to the application of imaging modalities and invasive procedures, all information would serve as a new pre-test probability that is modified by the results of mammography and fine needle aspiration cytology

2006 Cancer Australia

8809. Clinical practice guidelines for the psychosocial care of adults with cancer

in the treatment unit and evidence to support their implementation 38 3.1 General interactional skills 42 3.2.1 Recommended steps for telling a person they have cancer, a recurrence or metastases 45 3.2.2 Recommended steps for discussing prognosis with individuals with cancer 50 3.2.3 Recommended steps for discussing treatment options and encouraging involvement in decision-making 62 3.2.4 Recommended steps involved in adequately preparing a patient for a potentially threatening medical procedure 64 3.2.5 (...) are only able to participate as they wish in clinical decision-making if they have access to appropriate information. For people from rural areas, and those from particular cultural groups, access to such information and services represents a major unmet need. In an era of evidence-based medical practice, health professionals desire accurate information about the emotional impact of cancer on patients and their families, and clear recommendations about strategies to reduce the emotional burden.The

2003 National Breast and Ovarian Cancer Centre

8810. Children and physical activity: a systematic review of barriers and facilitators

on children’s and parents’ views 100 BIBLIOGRAPHY 102 APPENDIX A: Search strategies 113 APPENDIX B: Details of sound outcome evaluations: methodology and findings 120 APPENDIX C: Details of sound outcome evaluations: study characteristics 123 APPENDIX D: Details of studies of children’s views: methodology 127 APPENDIX E: Details of studies of children’s views: aims, sample, findings and quality 130 APPENDIX F: Synthesis matrix 135 iiiPREFACE Scope of this report This systematic review describes the number (...) , types and quality attributes of existing research studies on the barriers to, and facilitators of, physical activity amongst children aged 4 to 10. It synthesises the findings of a sub-set of these studies to assess what helps and what stops children taking part in physical activity over and above what they do in school physical education (PE) lessons. The review goes on to make suggestions as to how physical activity can be promoted and for future research. There are many useful messages

2003 EPPI Centre

8811. A systematic review of the evidence for incentive schemes to encourage positive health and other social behaviours in young people

research in this area should prioritise the use of randomised controlled trials, as this approach to evaluation makes it easiest to attribute any observed differences in outcomes to intervention effects. Where a cluster trial design is used, researchers should present intra-cluster correlations. All evaluations should be accompanied by well designed process evaluations. Those conducting publicly funded incentive schemes should be encouraged to conduct reliable evaluations of the interventions (...) behaviours and the factors shaping their adoption are complex; it has been clear for many years that simply telling people what is good for their health is not an effective strategy for producing sustainable behaviour change. While individuals can make choices, factors working at the community and societal levels contribute both to individual health status and to people’s ability to effect health behaviour change. This is particularly the case for children and young people (Roberts, 2000

2006 EPPI Centre

8812. Scoping review on evaluation of Healthy Start

of the project that none of the potential options for evaluation would be ideal. Identifying suitable comparison groups with which to compare outcomes was seen as a fundamental issue. Final decisions about the design of a national evaluation will be dependent on the Department of Health’s views on the primary purpose of such an evaluation, and on decisions about budget and timeframe. Key criteria: assessing priority outcomes (Objective 1) A two-stage assessment of relevant and potentially plausible outcomes (...) comparison groups with which to compare outcomes was seen as a fundamental issue. It is understood by the research team that the findings of this work will be used to inform discussion, and we do not therefore offer one definitive design. Our approach has been to outline possible options for evaluation. Final decisions about the design of a national evaluation will be dependent on the Department of Health’s views on the primary purpose of such an evaluation, and on decisions about budget and timeframe

2007 Public Health Research Consortium

8813. Optical devices for adults with low vision: a systematic review of published studies of effectiveness

. To inform the task force, this systematic review identified: 1) the existing evidence of effectiveness of optical low vision devices from the peer-reviewed published literature; 2) knowledge gaps, and; 3) evidence-based tools for assisting data collection and clinical decision-making. - This review reveals a paucity of high quality evidence in the peer-reviewed published literature to inform choices about provision of optical low vision devices in VA. The best evidence consisted of seven small (...) United States Address for correspondence VA Medical Center (152-M), 150 South Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02130 USA. Tel: +1 617 278 4469; Fax: +1 617 232 6140 Email: karen.flynn@med.va.gov AccessionNumber 32003000163 Date bibliographic record published 12/08/2003 Date abstract record published 12/08/2003 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) database Copyright © 2019 Technology Assessment Unit, Office of Patient Care Services, US Department of Veterans Affairs (VATAP) Homepage Options Print PubMed

2003 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

8814. Assessing the challenges of applying standard methods of economic evaluation to public health programmes

), in a cost-consequences analysis, in the way that makes the most sense for each sector. Ideally each sector would use a well- understood generic measure of outcome, in reference to which the shadow price of the budget constraint in the sector could be expressed. Although public sector decision makers are mostly concerned with the impacts of interventions on public sector budgets, there should be more consideration of impacts on the voluntary sector and private individuals, since taking this broader view (...) suitable for the evaluation of public health interventions having a wide range of intersectoral costs and consequences. 12 Section 1: Introduction 1.1 Background to the project The second Wanless Report highlighted the need to consider the cost-effectiveness of public health interventions.(1) The generation of good quality evidence on cost- effectiveness is essential if those commissioning services are to make informed decisions. Public health interventions comprise a wide range, from screening

2006 Public Health Research Consortium

8815. Shiftwork and health: a systematic review

, but shift work also involves significant social desynchronisation, involving working at times and on days that may make it difficult to maintain a balanced domestic and social life.[20] 9 Previous studies suggest that cardiovascular problems such as hypertension and heart disease may be related to the physiological and psychological aspects of long term exposure to shift work.[21-23] A study of the epidemiological literature funded by the Health and Safety Executive, the Medical Research Council (...) on hobbies; Time spent on family matters; Time spent with spouse; Time spent socialising with friends. Work environment Tensions due to job; Tensions due to people; Tensions due to job characteristics; Satisfaction with hours; Workload; Work pace control; Managerial control; Staff innovation; Staff autonomy; Role clarity; Opportunity to use skills; Opportunity to make decisions; Relations with co-workers and supervisors; Work pressure; Peer cohesion; Job involvement; Supervisor support; Autonomy; Task

2006 Public Health Research Consortium

8816. Tackling inequalities through the social determinants of health: Building the evidence base

on increasing employee participation in workplace decision making,[25, 30] whilst the other examined the effects of increased control over work tasks.[26] Two of the reviews contained information on the effects of the interventions on health inequalities.[26, 30] The review by Aust and Ducki (2004)[25] synthesised 11 studies of “health circle” interventions. Five studies examined the Dusseldorf model (employee discussion groups in which decisions were made about improving harmful working conditions) and six (...) Tackling inequalities through the social determinants of health: Building the evidence base 1 Petticrew M., 1 Bambra C., 2 Gibson M., 3 Sowden A., 4 Whitehead M., 5 Wright K. 4 1. Public and Environmental Health Research Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine 2. Centre for Public Policy & Health, Durham University 3. MRC Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Glasgow 4. Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York 5. Division of Public

2007 Public Health Research Consortium

8817. National tobacco control policies: do they have a differential social impact?

National tobacco control policies: do they have a differential social impact? National Tobacco Control Policies: Do They Have a Differential Social Impact? Project Final Report Gerard Hastings and Louise M Hassan in collaboration with Anne Marie MacKintosh, Christine Godfrey, and Steve Platt August 2007 INSTITUTE FOR SOCIAL MARKETING University of Stirling & The Open University Stirling FK9 4LA Scotland Telephone: +44 (0) 1786 46 7390 Facsimile: +44 (0) 1786 46 6449 Email: ism@stir.ac.uk (...) by grants from the U.S. National Cancer Institute/NIH (from the Roswell Park Transdisciplinary Tobacco Use Research Center (TTURC), P50 CA111236, and from R01 CA100362), the Canadian Institutes for Health Research (#57897), Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (#045734), the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (#265903), Cancer Research UK (#C312/A3726), the Australian Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing, the Centre for Behavioural Research and Program Evaluation of the National

2006 Public Health Research Consortium

8818. Distal Symmetrical Polyneuropathy: Definition for Clinical Research

RESEARCH J. D. ENGLAND, MD, G. S. GRONSETH, MD, G. FRANKLIN, MD, R. G. MILLER, MD, A. K. ASBURY, MD, G. T. CARTER, MD, J. A. COHEN, MD, M. A. FISHER, MD, J. F. HOWARD, MD, L. J. KINSELLA, MD, N. LATOV, MD, R. A. LEWIS, MD, P. A. LOW, MD, and A. J. SUMNER, MD American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine, 421 First Avenue SW, Suite 300E, Rochester, MN 55902, USA The American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AAEM) in conjunction with the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) and the American (...) ,quantitativesensorytesting Key words: case de?nition; clinical research; electrodiagnosis; epidemiol- ogy; polyneuropathy Correspondence to: T. Schmidt; e-mail: tschmidt@aaem.net © 2004 American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Published online 9 November 2004 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience. wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/mus.20233 Distal Symmetrical Polyneuropathy MUSCLE & NERVE January 2005 113Polyneuropathy is a common neurological disor- der with a diverse etiology

2005 American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine

8819. Record Keeping Guidelines

continuity of professional services in case of the psychologist’s injury, disability, or death or with a change of provider; (d) provide for supervision or training if rele- vant; (e) provide documentation required for reimburse- ment or required administratively under contracts or laws; (f) effectively document any decision making, especially in high-risk situations; and (g) allow the psychologist to ef- fectively answer a legal or regulatory complaint. Application In making decisions about the content (...) Record Keeping Guidelines Record Keeping Guidelines American Psychological Association Introduction These guidelines are designed to educate psychologists and provide a framework for making decisions regarding pro- fessional record keeping. State and federal laws, as well as the American Psychological Association’s (APA, 2002b) “Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct” (hereafter referred to as the Ethics Code), generally require maintenance of appropriate records

2007 American Psychological Association

8820. Scalpel safety in the operative setting: a systematic review

This report should be cited in the following manner: Watt A, et al. Scalpel Safety in the Operative Setting. ASERNIP-S Report No. 59. Adelaide, South Australia: ASERNIP-S, July 2007. Copies of these reports can be obtained from: ASERNIP-S PO Box 553, Stepney, SA 5069 AUSTRALIA Ph: 61-8-8363 7513 Fax: 61-8-8362 2077 E-Mail: asernips@surgeons.org http://www.surgeons.org/asernip-s - ASERNIP-S REVIEW OF SCALPEL SAFETY JULY 2007 - The Safety and Efficacy Classification for the systematic review of Scalpel (...) devices (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2006), requiring that individual institutions and practitioners evaluate the effectiveness of each device. This further compounds the difficulty of making recommendations for the use of appropriate safety devices. In order to address this, a number of professional organisations, including the American Association of Perioperative Registered Nurses (2005), The American SECTION 1 zINTRODUCTION 1 - ASERNIP-S REVIEW OF SCALPEL SAFETY JULY 2007

2007 ASERNIP-S

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