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Dysuria in Children

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61. Paediatric Urology

of undescended testes: European Association of Urology/European Society for Paediatric Urology Guidelines. J Pediatr Urol, 2016. 2. Stein, R., et al. Urinary tract infections in children: EAU/ESPU guidelines. Eur Urol, 2015. 67: 546. 3. Tekgul, S., et al. EAU guidelines on vesicoureteral reflux in children. Eur Urol, 2012. 62: 534. 4. Riedmiller, H., et al. EAU Guidelines on Paediatric Urology. Eur Urol, 2001. Nov; 40 (5): 589. 5. Guyatt, G.H., et al. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality (...) . Incidence of balanitis xerotica obliterans in boys younger than 10 years presenting with phimosis. Urol Int, 2013. 90: 439. 11. Celis, S., et al. Balanitis xerotica obliterans in children and adolescents: a literature review and clinical series. J Pediatr Urol, 2014. 10: 34. 12. Oster, J. Further fate of the foreskin. Incidence of preputial adhesions, phimosis, and smegma among Danish schoolboys. Arch Dis Child, 1968. 43: 200. 13. Palmer, L.S., et al., Management of abnormalities of the external

2019 European Association of Urology

62. Neuro-urology

, 2008. Dev Med Child Neurol, 2014. 56: 59. 27. Samijn, B., et al. Lower urinary tract symptoms and urodynamic findings in children and adults with cerebral palsy: A systematic review. Neurourol Urodyn, 2017. 36: 541. 28. Tagliaferri, F., et al. A systematic review of brain injury epidemiology in Europe. Acta Neurochir (Wien), 2006. 148: 255. 29. Kulakli, F., et al. Relationship between urinary dysfunction and clinical factors in patients with traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj, 2014. 28: 323. 30 (...) in children with neurogenic bladder-sphincter dysfunction? BJU Int, 2006. 98: 1295. 112. Musco, S., et al. Value of urodynamic findings in predicting upper urinary tract damage in neuro-urological patients: A systematic review. Neurourol Urodyn, 2018. 113. Linsenmeyer, T.A., et al. The impact of urodynamic parameters on the upper tracts of spinal cord injured men who void reflexly. J Spinal Cord Med, 1998. 21: 15. 114. McGuire, E.J., et al. Prognostic value of urodynamic testing in myelodysplastic

2019 European Association of Urology

63. Urological Infections

. Immunoactive prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections: a meta-analysis. Int J Antimicrob Agents, 2009. 33: 111. 128. Bauer, H.W., et al. A long-term, multicenter, double-blind study of an Escherichia coli extract (OM-89) in female patients with recurrent urinary tract infections. Eur Urol, 2005. 47: 542. 129. Schwenger, E.M., et al. Probiotics for preventing urinary tract infections in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2015: CD008772. 130. Kontiokari, T., et al. Randomised trial

2019 European Association of Urology

65. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) in Children

, failure to thrive, vomiting, mild jaundice (which is usually direct bilirubin elevation), lethargy, fever, and hypothermia. may develop. Infants and children < 2=""> with UTI may also present with poorly localizing signs, such as fever, GI symptoms (eg, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain), or foul-smelling urine. About 4 to 10% of febrile infants without localizing signs have UTI. In children > 2 yr, the more classic picture of cystitis or pyelonephritis can occur. Symptoms of cystitis include dysuria (...) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) in Children Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) in Children - Pediatrics - MSD Manual Professional Edition Brought to you by The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases / / / / IN THIS TOPIC OTHER TOPICS IN THIS CHAPTER Test your

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

66. Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children

Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children - Pediatrics - MSD Manual Professional Edition Brought to you by The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases / / / / IN THIS TOPIC OTHER TOPICS IN THIS CHAPTER Test (...) with an increased risk for autism, including in children with autism risk factors, according... 3D Model Cystic Fibrosis: Defective Chloride Transport Video Overview of Rheumatic Fever SOCIAL MEDIA Add to Any Platform Loading , MD, Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University Click here for Patient Education NOTE: This is the Professional Version. CONSUMERS: Topic Resources Nausea is the sensation of impending emesis and is frequently accompanied by autonomic changes, such as increased heart

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

67. Urinary Incontinence In Children

Structural abnormality (eg, ectopic ureter, posterior urethral valves) In children, full diurnal continence never achieved Nocturnal and diurnal incontinence in girls, history of normal voiding but with continually wet underwear, vaginal discharge Possible history of UTIs, history of other urinary tract abnormalities Ultrasonography of the kidneys Nuclear renal flow scan or IV urography CT of abdomen and pelvis or MRI urography Dysuria, hematuria, frequency, urgency Fever Abdominal pain Urinalysis Urine (...) . Important associated symptoms include polydipsia, dysuria, urgency, frequency, dribbling, and straining. Position during voiding and strength of urine steam should be noted. To prevent leakage, children with incontinence may use holding maneuvers, such as crossing their legs or squatting (sometimes with their hand or heel pushed against their perineum). In some children, holding maneuvers can increase their risk of UTIs. Similar to the voiding diary, a stooling diary can help identify constipation

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

68. Canadian Urological Association guideline on the care of the normal foreskin and neonatal circumcision in Canadian infants (Full Version)

with a diagnosis of phimosis. 18 Long-term success is maintained in over 75% of the boys following initial success with steroid therapy. 19,20 Ku et al noted that success rates were higher in boys 1-year group was not statistically significant (OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.01?3.7). The rate of asymptomatic positive urine cultures (bag specimens confirmed with suprapubic aspiration) was sig - nificantly lower in a study by Simforoosh et al. 41 None of the 3000 circumcised children followed up to 15 months age had (...) of post- operative UTI. 45 In a small RCT conducted on children 9 years of age) with good evidence (Level 1, Grade A) of its effectiveness and safety (National Advisory Committee on Immunization, HPV guide- line 2007). A prospective cohort study showed that correct and consistent condom usage also decreased risk of HPV trans- mission by 70% in young, newly sexually active women. 103 Recommendations (MC and HPV infections) 1. HPV prevalence in men: Current evidence suggests a modest decrease in HPV

2018 Canadian Urological Association

69. British Association for Sexual Health and HIV national guideline for the management of infection with Mycoplasma genitalium

sexual contact and risk of reinfection) of individuals with disease caused by M. genitalium infection should be tested and/or offered epidemiological treatment (using the same antimicrobial regimen as used in the index patient). This is to reduce the risk of re-infection in the index case. 8 3. Clinical Features 3.1 Signs and symptoms in males: [3] None – the majority are asymptomatic [27] Urethral discharge Dysuria Penile irritation Urethral discomfort Urethritis (acute, persistent, recurrent (...) (e.g. expert opinions, letters to the editor, editorials (unless include original data), comments, not referring to M. genitalium) Study quality Study duration (no minimum) Number of subjects (no minimum) Study population Adults (aged >15 years or above) in Europe, N America, Australasia Children (=15 years) Adults (aged >15 years or above) outside Europe, N America, Australasia Study comparison Not applicable Specific outcomes of interest Sensitivity/specificity Inhibitory results Ability to test

2018 British Association for Sexual Health and HIV

70. Sexually Transmitted Infections

are present, as friction may delay healing. • Oral to genital transmission of HSV-1 is very common through oral sex. This can happen when ‘cold sores’ are not causing symptoms. • Genital herpes does not affect your fertility or stop you having children. Vaginal delivery is usual for most women with a history of genital herpes. • Genital herpes does not stop you having sex. • Anybody with genital herpes, whether they get symptoms or have never had symptoms, may shed the virus from time to time (...) status unknown and risk factors present e.g. Maori, Pasifika, areas of high endemicity, IDU or incarceration www.hepatitisfoundation.org.nz/ Symptomatic Examination is required for clinical assessment if symptomatic of vaginal discharge, dysuria, lower abdominal pain, abnormal bleeding, anal pain or discharge, or a contact of gonorrhoea: • Examine the inguinal nodes, vulval and perianal skin, vestibule and introitus. • Vulvovaginal NAAT swab for chlamydia & gonorrhoea testing prior to speculum

2017 New Zealand Sexual Health Society

71. Lichen Sclerosus

), especially in children, causing constipation.(Marren 2005) Soft stools after a fiber rich diet may help. Lichen sclerosus in men and boys usually occurs on the glans penis and/or foreskin, with a predilection in the perifrenular aerea, and may cause phimosis in a previously retractable foreskin or adhesions of the foreskin to the glans causing dysuria or painful erection. Perineal involvement in men is rarely observed. Meatal stenosis may lead to problems passing urine and urinary obstruction; urethral (...) of application and not necessarily potency to avoid the use of multiple preparations which can cause confusion. However, some may prefer weaker steroids instead, in particular in children. Patients should be instructed to use emollients and avoid any irritation of the genital skin (cleansing products, frequent exposure to water, incontinence , cloths, some may find that sports such as cycling / riding a horse etc. may exacerbate their symptoms). Oral contraceptive pills with anti-androgenic properties may

2018 European Dermatology Forum

73. CRACKCast E174 – Genitourinary and Renal Tract Disorders

in real life if the dx is highly suspected). See Box 173.1: Cause of Dysuria in Children Infection Urinary tract infection, including cystitis and pyelonephritis Vaginitis resulting from Gardnerella, Trichomonas, Candida, or sexually transmitted organisms Pinworms Balanitis Irritation Bubble bath, new soaps, or douches Vaginal foreign body, such as retained toilet paper Trauma Sexual or physical abuse Straddle injury (unintentional) Self-stimulation or masturbation Other Labial adhesions Renal stones (...) ; eg, human papillomavirus [HPV], herpes), or nummular eczema may cause inflammation. Infectious organisms are gram-negative and gram-positive, including group A beta hemolytic streptococci and, rarely, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia. Canadia – is the most common fungal cause. Bacterial causes: In a study of uncircumcised children, the most common organisms found by age were E. coli (ages 0 to 2 years), enterococci (ages 3 to 6 years), and Staphylococcus aureus and group A beta-hemolytic

2018 CandiEM

74. 2018 United Kingdom National Guideline for the Management of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

occurs in most patients with appendicitis but only 50% of those with PID. Cervical movement pain will occur in about a quarter of women with appendicitis 29,30 . ? endometriosis – the relationship between symptoms and the menstrual cycle may be helpful in establishing a diagnosis ? complications of an ovarian cyst e.g. torsion or rupture – symptoms are often of sudden onset 8 ? urinary tract infection – often associated with dysuria and/or urinary frequency ? irritable bowel syndrome – disturbance (...) identified although use of clinical tests in guideline may improve diagnostic accuracy in non verbalising patients Dept of Health Low 21 Age - Older people - Children and young people - Young adults Young woman are disproportionately at greater risk of this condition in common with other sexually transmitted infections Accurate diagnosis and better tolerated treatments should improve the burden of disease in the community. Dept of Health Medium Sexual orientation and gender identity - Lesbians - Gay men

2018 British Association for Sexual Health and HIV

75. Paediatric Urology

testes: European Association of Urology/European Society for Paediatric Urology Guidelines. J Pediatr Urol, 2016. 2. Stein, R., et al. Urinary tract infections in children: EAU/ESPU guidelines. Eur Urol, 2015. 67: 546. 3. Tekgul, S., et al. EAU guidelines on vesicoureteral reflux in children. Eur Urol, 2012. 62: 534. 4. Riedmiller, H., et al. EAU Guidelines on Paediatric Urology. Eur Urol, 2001. Nov; 40 (5): 589. 5. Guyatt, G.H., et al. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence (...) of balanitis xerotica obliterans in boys younger than 10 years presenting with phimosis. Urol Int, 2013. 90: 439. 11. Celis, S., et al. Balanitis xerotica obliterans in children and adolescents: a literature review and clinical series. J Pediatr Urol, 2014. 10: 34. 12. Oster, J. Further fate of the foreskin. Incidence of preputial adhesions, phimosis, and smegma among Danish schoolboys. Arch Dis Child, 1968. 43: 200. 13. Palmer, L.S., et al., Management of abnormalities of the external genitalia in boys

2018 European Association of Urology

76. Neuro-urology

Med Child Neurol, 2014. 56: 59. 27. Samijn, B., et al. Lower urinary tract symptoms and urodynamic findings in children and adults with cerebral palsy: A systematic review. Neurourol Urodyn, 2017. 36: 541. 28. Tagliaferri, F., et al. A systematic review of brain injury epidemiology in Europe. Acta Neurochir (Wien), 2006. 148: 255. 29. Kulakli, F., et al. Relationship between urinary dysfunction and clinical factors in patients with traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj, 2014. 28: 323. 30. Aruga, S (...) . International Continence Society guidelines on urodynamic equipment performance. Neurourol Urodyn, 2014. 33: 370. 109. McGuire, E.J., et al. Leak-point pressures. Urol Clin North Am, 1996. 23: 253. 110. Ozkan, B., et al. Which factors predict upper urinary tract deterioration in overactive neurogenic bladder dysfunction? Urology, 2005. 66: 99. 111. Wang, Q.W., et al. Is it possible to use urodynamic variables to predict upper urinary tract dilatation in children with neurogenic bladder-sphincter dysfunction

2018 European Association of Urology

77. Urological Infections

. Immunoactive prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections: a meta-analysis. Int J Antimicrob Agents, 2009. 33: 111. 128. Bauer, H.W., et al. A long-term, multicenter, double-blind study of an Escherichia coli extract (OM-89) in female patients with recurrent urinary tract infections. Eur Urol, 2005. 47: 542. 129. Schwenger, E.M., et al. Probiotics for preventing urinary tract infections in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2015: CD008772. 130. Kontiokari, T., et al. Randomised trial

2018 European Association of Urology

78. Adult Urodynamics

Quality: Grade C ) 19. Clinicians may perform videourodynamics in properly selected patients to localize the level of obstruction, particularly for the diagnosis of primary bladder neck obstruction. (Expert Opinion) Purpose Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which include urinary incontinence, are a common and significant source of impaired quality of life and comorbidity in large numbers of adults and children. Commonly, patients presenting with LUTS have overlapping symptoms and conditions, making

2018 American Urological Association

79. Hematuria : Child

. o Summary of Literature Review Introduction/Background Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine, either visible to the eye (macroscopic hematuria) or as viewed under the microscope (microscopic hematuria). Detecting blood in the urine of a child may cause alarm to patients, parents, and physicians. The clinical evaluation of children with any form of hematuria begins with a meticulous history. Topics covered in the history commonly include urinary tract infection, strenuous (...) exertion, tropical exposure, recent strep throat, recent trauma, menstruation, bleeding tendency, bloody diarrhea, joint pains, rash, flank pain, frequency, and dysuria. Searching for occult forms of trauma, foreign body insertion, family history of sickle cell disease or hemophilia, stone disease, hearing loss, familial renal disease [1,2], and hypertension should be undertaken. Factitious causes of “hematuria,” such as food substances or medicines coloring the urine without actually having red blood

2018 American College of Radiology

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