How to Trip Rapid Review

Step 1: Select articles relevant to your search (remember the system is only optimised for single intervention studies)

Step 2: press

Step 3: review the result, and maybe amend the or if you know better! If we're unsure of the overall sentiment of the trial we will display the conclusion under the article title. We then require you to tell us what the correct sentiment is.

690 results for

Dysuria in Children

by
...
Latest & greatest
Alerts

Export results

Use check boxes to select individual results below

SmartSearch available

Trip's SmartSearch engine has discovered connected searches & results. Click to show

441. Candidiasis (Diagnosis)

):2816-23. . Maródi L, Johnston RB Jr. Invasive Candida species disease in infants and children: occurrence, risk factors, management, and innate host defense mechanisms. Curr Opin Pediatr . 2007 Dec. 19(6):693-7. . Malani AN, Kauffman CA. Candida urinary tract infections: treatment options. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther . 2007 Apr. 5(2):277-84. . Guery BP, Arendrup MC, Auzinger G, Azoulay E, Borges Sá M, Johnson EM, et al. Management of invasive candidiasis and candidemia in adult non-neutropenic (...) : Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) - Erythematous vagina and labia; a thick, curdlike discharge; and a normal cervix upon speculum examination [ ] Candida balanitis - Penile pruritus and whitish patches on the penis Candida cystitis - Many patients are asymptomatic, but bladder invasion may result in frequency, urgency, dysuria, hematuria, and suprapubic pain Asymptomatic candiduria - Most catheterized patients with persistent candiduria are asymptomatic Ascending pyelonephritis - Flank pain, abdominal cramps

2014 eMedicine.com

442. Cervical Cancer (Diagnosis)

cancer is an abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) test result. Physical symptoms of cervical cancer may include the following: Abnormal vaginal bleeding Vaginal discomfort Malodorous discharge Dysuria See for more detail. Diagnosis ( ) infection must be present for cervical cancer to occur. Complete evaluation starts with . Screening recommendations Current screening recommendations for specific age groups, based on guidelines from the American Cancer Society (ACS), the American Society for Colposcopy (...) at the -308-promoter position of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene and cervical cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer . 2003 Mar-Apr. 13(2):148-53. . Govan VA, Constant D, Hoffman M, Williamson AL. The allelic distribution of -308 Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha gene polymorphism in South African women with cervical cancer and control women. BMC Cancer . 2006 Jan 26. 6:24. . . Abrahamsson J, Carlsson B, Mellander L. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha in malignant disease. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol . 1993 Nov

2014 eMedicine.com

443. Colovesical Fistula (Diagnosis)

. Although rare, fistulae due to cytotoxic therapy have been reported. One case involved a patient undergoing a CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone) regimen for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. [ ] Another involved enterovesical fistula as a result of neutropenic enterocolitis (a complication of chemotherapy) in a pediatric patient with acute leukemia. [ ] Traumatic pathophysiology Urethral disruption caused by blunt trauma or a penetrating injury can result in fistulae (...) laparoscopic cholecystectomy) have been reported as a cause of colovesical fistulae. [ , , , , ] Previous Next: Presentation The presenting symptoms and signs of enterovesical fistulae occur primarily in the urinary tract. Symptoms include suprapubic pain, irritative voiding symptoms, and symptoms associated with chronic urinary tract infection (UTI). The hallmark of enterovesical fistulae may be described as Gouverneur syndrome, namely, suprapubic pain, frequency, dysuria, and tenesmus. Other signs

2014 eMedicine.com

444. Dermatologic Diseases of the Male Genitalia: Nonmalignant (Diagnosis)

with human papillomavirus (HPV) and Zoon balanitis has been identified. Clinical presentation/diagnosis Although the mean age at presentation is 53 years, patients aged 18-88 years are described in two series, and presentation in children as young as 12 years has been described. The men are uncircumcised in most series. Patients present with a solitary, glistening, sharply demarcated, large (2-3 cm), erythematous, speckled patch on the glans or inner prepuce. Rarely, multiple patches can erode (...) and outcome (5%) cream is recommended, with application to the entire skin surface below the chin. The cream should be left on for 8-14 hours (overnight) and then washed off. Second-line therapy includes the use of 1% lotion/cream or oral . Ivermectin may be repeated in 2 weeks. Lindane is not recommended for pregnant women or children younger than 2 years. Use lindane as a single dose (do not repeat). [ ] Antipruritic agents may be helpful in reducing discomfort related to pruritus. All household members

2014 eMedicine.com

445. Cystectomy, Radical (Diagnosis)

accumulation of TP53 have been correlated with an increased grade, stage, and recurrence risk. The risk of progression to muscle-invasive disease is associated with tumor grade, stage (Ta vs T1), size, number of lesions (solitary vs multiple lesions), previous tumor recurrence, and presence of CIS. Previous Next: Presentation Gross or microscopic hematuria is the initial presenting sign in 80%-90% of patients. Approximately 20% of patients have irritative symptoms such as urinary urgency, dysuria (...) . 93(1):64-6. . deKernion JB, Trapasso JG. Urinary Diversion and Continent Reservoir. Adult and Pediatric Urology . 1996. 2:1465-97. Dreicer R. Chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the perioperative setting: current standards. Urol Oncol . 2007 Jan-Feb. 25(1):72-5. . El-Gabry EA, Strup SE, Gomella LG. Superficial Bladder Cancer: Current Treatment Modalities and Future Directions: Part II. AUA Update Series . 2000. 20:154-9. El-Gabry EA, Strup SE, Gomella LG. Superficial Bladder Cancer

2014 eMedicine.com

446. Cystectomy, Partial (Diagnosis)

, and dysuria is the second most common symptom. These symptoms rarely occur without hematuria (microscopic or gross). Flank pain due to ureteral obstruction, lower-extremity edema, and pelvic masses are other presenting symptoms. Symptoms of advanced disease, such as weight loss and abdominal or bone pain, are rare because patients usually seek medical attention before these develop. Previous Next: Indications Indications for partial cystectomy in malignancy Urothelial carcinoma (also called transitional (...) consecutive cases. Eur Urol . 2000 Jan. 37(1):85-9. . Dandekar NP, Dalal AV, Tongaonkar HB, Kamat MR. Adenocarcinoma of bladder. Eur J Surg Oncol . 1997 Apr. 23(2):157-60. . Herr HW. Urachal carcinoma: the case for extended partial cystectomy. J Urol . 1994 Feb. 151(2):365-6. . Hays DM, Raney RB, Wharam MD, Wiener E, Lobe TE, Andrassy RJ, et al. Children with vesical rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) treated by partial cystectomy with neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy, with or without radiotherapy. A report from

2014 eMedicine.com

447. Cystitis, Nonbacterial (Diagnosis)

> Nonbacterial and Noninfectious Cystitis Updated: Mar 09, 2018 Author: Lynda A Frassetto, MD; Chief Editor: Edward David Kim, MD, FACS Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Nonbacterial and Noninfectious Cystitis Overview Practice Essentials Nonbacterial is a catchall term that encompasses various medical disorders, including infectious and , as well as painful bladder syndrome/ (PBS/IC). PBS/IC describes a syndrome of pain and genitourinary symptoms (eg, frequency, urgency, pain, dysuria (...) the following forms of the disease: Chemical Autoimmune Hypersensitivity General symptoms of cystitis include urgency, frequency, dysuria, and, occasionally, hematuria, dyspareunia, abdominal cramps, and/or bladder pain and spasms. Establishing or excluding a specific diagnosis often requires repeated cultures and various urologic procedures, including cystoscopy with bladder biopsies, various bladder tests, and immune system function examinations. Some conditions, such as , , and urethral foreign bodies

2014 eMedicine.com

448. Cutaneous Tuberculosis (Diagnosis)

to coma over a period of days to weeks Low-grade or absent fever Symptoms of skeletal TB may include the following: Back pain or stiffness Lower-extremity paralysis, in as many as half of patients with undiagnosed Tuberculous arthritis, usually involving only 1 joint (most often the hip or knee, followed by the ankle, elbow, wrist, and shoulder) Symptoms of genitourinary TB may include the following: Flank pain Dysuria Frequent urination In men, a painful scrotal mass, prostatitis, orchitis (...) considerations for drug therapy in children include the following: Most children with TB can be treated with isoniazid and rifampin for 6 months, along with pyrazinamide for the first 2 months if the culture from the source case is fully susceptible. For postnatal TB, the treatment duration may be increased to 9 or 12 months Ethambutol is often avoided in young children Special considerations for drug therapy in HIV-infected patients include the following: Dose adjustments may be necessary [ , ] Rifampin

2014 eMedicine.com

449. Bladder Cancer (Diagnosis)

, uterus, and vagina with squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder infiltrating through the bladder wall into the vaginal wall. Signs and symptoms Clinical manifestations of bladder cancer are as follows: Painless gross hematuria - Approximately 80-90% of patients; classic presentation Irritative bladder symptoms (eg, dysuria, urgency, frequency of urination) - 20-30% of patients Pelvic or bony pain, lower-extremity edema, or flank pain - In patients with advanced disease Palpable mass on physical (...) , rhabdosarcoma, carcinosarcoma, lymphoma, and small cell carcinoma. Leiomyosarcoma is the most common sarcoma of the bladder. most commonly occur in children. Carcinosarcomas are highly malignant tumors that contain a combination of mesenchymal and epithelial elements. Primary bladder lymphomas arise in the submucosa of the bladder. Except for lymphomas, all these rare bladder cancers carry a poor prognosis. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a poorly differentiated, malignant neoplasm

2014 eMedicine.com

450. Benign Vulvar Lesions (Diagnosis)

, diaphragms Fixed drug eruption A fixed drug eruption is a cell-mediated allergic drug reaction typically recurring in the same site upon reexposure. Common causative agents include oral drugs such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, acetaminophen, sulfonamides, tetracycline, and barbiturates. Fluconazole as a possible causative agent has also been recently reported. [ ] Atopic dermatitis Atopic dermatitis usually occurs in patients with a personal or family history of asthma, hay fever, childhood (...) of 180 kd now thought to be collagen XVII), located in the basement membrane of the skin. [ ] Mucosal lesions of the vulva occur less frequently and are less severe than other blistering disorders. [ ] A juvenile localized subtype of immunoglobulin G (IgG)–mediated bullous pemphigoid occurring in children in the first year of life and characterized by a self-limited nonscarring bullous pemphigoid–like process involving only the vulva has been described. [ ] Cicatricial pemphigoid Cicatricial

2014 eMedicine.com

451. Benign Lesions of the Ovaries (Diagnosis)

identification of purulent material from the fimbriated ends of the fallopian tubes (salpingitis) noted during diagnostic laparoscopy. The commonly reported symptoms of TOAs are dyspareunia and rectal discomfort, partial intestinal obstruction, dysuria, urinary frequency, and sterility. Occasionally, fever with the symptoms of pelvic peritonitis develops. Pelvic examination findings are characteristic. The uterus is retroverted, and cervical motion produces pain. Lateral to the uterus, enlarged masses (...) . The updated French guidelines indicate that transvaginal pelvic ultrasonography is the first-line modality for evaluating presumed benign ovarian tumors in adult women. [ ] Transvaginal ultrasonography is limited with regard to its role in assessing masses in neonates, children, and virginal adolescents. Color-coded Doppler ultrasonography improves the diagnostic accuracy of B-mode ultrasonography. Ultrasonography is easy, rapid, and able to provide critical information for the evaluation of an adnexal

2014 eMedicine.com

452. Bacterial Infections and Pregnancy (Diagnosis)

with microabscesses. Twenty-two percent of perinatal infections result in neonatal death or stillbirth. [ ] Among women who have listeriosis during pregnancy, two thirds of surviving infants develop clinical neonatal listeriosis. Early diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment of infected women during pregnancy can lead to the birth of a healthy child. In neonates, the mortality rate is approximately 50%. Mortality is more likely in early-onset neonatal sepsis. Late-onset listeriosis typically manifests as meningitis (...) collection [ ] If the culture result is positive, the woman should be treated during labor If culture results are unknown at the time of delivery, a risk-based approach can be used, in which patients are deemed at high risk and receive treatment if they meet any of the following criteria: Previously delivered infant with invasive GBS infection GBS bacteriuria during current pregnancy Delivery before 37 weeks' gestation Duration of ruptured membranes longer than 18 hours Intrapartum temperature of more

2014 eMedicine.com

453. Augmentation Cystoplasty (Diagnosis)

for an embryologic urinary defect as a child seek a healthier cosmetic and functional state. In other cases, adults have an acquired condition that is causing bladder dysfunction. Adults may present with symptoms very similar to those of children with congenital abnormalities. Again, surgery is indicated for adults with refractory symptoms and those with risk or progression of upper tract deterioration. Previous Next: Contraindications Patients who are unable or unwilling to perform life-long intermittent (...) pressure and improves continence. Adult patients should have good manual dexterity, proven by performing self-catheterization in front of the physician. In pediatric patients, the parents must be committed to catheterizing the child at least every 4-6 hours. Parents must be taught catheterization before surgery. Intermittent catheterization and anticholinergic management are usually used in combination to accomplish symptom-management goals, to create continence, to eliminate vesicoureteral reflux

2014 eMedicine.com

454. Genital Herpes in Pregnancy (Diagnosis)

of Obstetrics and Gynecologists (Washington, DC) for speaking and teaching; Received honoraria from National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology Research Thi. Chief Editor Ronald M Ramus, MD Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Director, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine Ronald M Ramus, MD is a member of the following medical societies: , , , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Additional Contributors (...) to herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). Approximately 22% of pregnant women are infected with HSV-2 and 2% of women acquire genital herpes in pregnancy. Approximately 1500-2000 new cases of neonatal HSV infection are diagnosed each year. The incidence of neonatal herpes varies considerably in international studies (about 1:3,200 births in the US and 1:60,000 in the UK). Approximately 80% of infected infants are born to mothers with no reported history of HSV infection. [ ] Untreated neonatal HSV infection

2014 eMedicine.com

455. Epididymal Tuberculosis (Diagnosis)

appearance) with . Severe cases involve the entire bladder wall, where deep layers of muscle are eventually replaced by fibrous tissue, thus producing a thick fibrous bladder. Tubercles are rare in the bladder; if present, they usually appear at the ureteral orifice. Malignancy should be considered with any isolated tubercles away from the ureteral orifices. Epididymal and testicular TB The higher frequency of isolated epididymal TB lesions in children favors the possibility of hematologic spread (...) increased frequency of urination (during the day initially but at night later in the disease course), dysuria, frank pain, suprapubic pain, blood or pus in the urine, and fever. Urinary urgency is relatively uncommon unless the bladder is extensively involved. Patients with GUTB may also present with a painful testicular swelling, perianal sinus, or genital ulcer. Unexplained infertility in both men and women is sometimes attributable to GUTB. [ ] Physicians have also diagnosed endometrial TB while

2014 eMedicine.com

456. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (Diagnosis)

hampered by small numbers. [ ] Patients treated with chemotherapy alone have achieved remission, but overall survival has been poor. [ , ] In a comparison allogeneic transplant versus chemotherapy in children with Phl + ALL (UK Medical Research Council trial for childhood ALL [MRC ALL 97] program from 1997-2002), 3-year survival was reported as 60% compared with 36%, respectively. [ ] Children with induction failure (M2 or M3 bone marrow status at the end of 1 mo of therapy) were found to have very (...) Leukocyte adhesion deficiency Indications for HSCT in specific diseases Acute myeloid leukemia Allogeneic HSCT is the treatment of choice for all children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ̶ matched sibling in their first complete remission (CR1). In adults, this is reserved for those with high-risk features in their CR1. In adults with standard or good risk features, stem cell transplantation is reserved for their second complete remission (CR2). HSCT is the only

2014 eMedicine.com

457. Gonococcus (Diagnosis)

partners frequently enough to sustain the infection in a community are defined as core transmitters. Neonatal and pediatric gonococcal infection Neonatal gonococcal infection may follow conjunctival infection, which is obtained during passage through the birth canal. In addition, direct infection may occur through the scalp at the sites of fetal monitoring electrodes. In children, infection may occur from sexual abuse by an infected individual or possibly nonsexual contact in the child's household (...) of reported gonorrhea cases by age group and sex, United States, 2016. Courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Infection in children is a marker for child sexual abuse and should be reported as such, although a 2007 review provided some support for nonsexual transmission between children and for transmission from adults to children related to poor hand hygiene. [ , ] Gonococcemia remains an important disease in the adolescent and young adult population, with a peak incidence

2014 eMedicine.com

458. Gonococcemia (Diagnosis)

partners frequently enough to sustain the infection in a community are defined as core transmitters. Neonatal and pediatric gonococcal infection Neonatal gonococcal infection may follow conjunctival infection, which is obtained during passage through the birth canal. In addition, direct infection may occur through the scalp at the sites of fetal monitoring electrodes. In children, infection may occur from sexual abuse by an infected individual or possibly nonsexual contact in the child's household (...) of reported gonorrhea cases by age group and sex, United States, 2016. Courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Infection in children is a marker for child sexual abuse and should be reported as such, although a 2007 review provided some support for nonsexual transmission between children and for transmission from adults to children related to poor hand hygiene. [ , ] Gonococcemia remains an important disease in the adolescent and young adult population, with a peak incidence

2014 eMedicine.com

459. Gonococcal Infections (Diagnosis)

unprotected intercourse with new partners frequently enough to sustain the infection in a community are defined as core transmitters. Neonatal and pediatric gonococcal infection Neonatal gonococcal infection may follow conjunctival infection, which is obtained during passage through the birth canal. In addition, direct infection may occur through the scalp at the sites of fetal monitoring electrodes. In children, infection may occur from sexual abuse by an infected individual or possibly nonsexual contact (...) contraceptives Rates of reported gonorrhea cases by age group and sex, United States, 2016. Courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Infection in children is a marker for child sexual abuse and should be reported as such, although a 2007 review provided some support for nonsexual transmission between children and for transmission from adults to children related to poor hand hygiene. [ , ] Gonococcemia remains an important disease in the adolescent and young adult population

2014 eMedicine.com

460. Epididymitis (Diagnosis)

demonstrates increased blood flow in the epididymis resulting from the active inflammation. Signs and symptoms The following history findings are associated with acute epididymitis and orchitis: Gradual onset of scrotal pain and swelling, usually unilateral, often developing over several days (as opposed to hours for testicular torsion) Dysuria, frequency, or urgency Fever and chills (in only 25% of adults with acute epididymitis but in up to 71% of children with the condition) Usually, no nausea (...) resection of the ejaculatory ducts, resulting in epididymitis. It can also be a result of heavy physical activity such as weight lifting. In children, infection is less common an etiology. One study of a pediatric emergency department found only 4 (4.1%) of 97 children diagnosed with epididymitis had a positive urine culture. [ ] Children may have various congenital abnormalities or functional voiding problems that increase the risk of reflux into the ejaculatory ducts. For example, epididymitis may

2014 eMedicine.com

To help you find the content you need quickly, you can filter your results via the categories on the right-hand side >>>>