How to Trip Rapid Review

Step 1: Select articles relevant to your search (remember the system is only optimised for single intervention studies)

Step 2: press

Step 3: review the result, and maybe amend the or if you know better! If we're unsure of the overall sentiment of the trial we will display the conclusion under the article title. We then require you to tell us what the correct sentiment is.

8,776 results for

Dry Mouth

by
...
Latest & greatest
Alerts

Export results

Use check boxes to select individual results below

SmartSearch available

Trip's SmartSearch engine has discovered connected searches & results. Click to show

4821. Pressure Ulcers and Wound Care (Overview)

, pressure relief, and nutritional support. Prevention is the key to managing pressure injuries, and it begins with a complete medical and nursing history, a risk assessment, and skin examination when the patient is admitted. [ , , ] (See Treatment.) Factors that subject the tissue at risk to potential skin breakdown should receive particular attention. Patients should be kept clean and dry and should be repositioned frequently. For patients at risk, adequate pressure relief must be provided, along (...) J . 1981 Nov. 30(11):45-50. . Barbenel JC, Jordan MM, Nicol SM, Clark MO. Incidence of pressure-sores in the Greater Glasgow Health Board area. Lancet . 1977 Sep 10. 2(8037):548-50. . Schols JM, Heyman H, Meijer EP. Nutritional support in the treatment and prevention of pressure ulcers: an overview of studies with an arginine enriched oral nutritional supplement. J Tissue Viability . 2009 Aug. 18(3):72-9. . Berlowitz DR, Wilking SV. Risk factors for pressure sores. A comparison of cross

2014 eMedicine.com

4822. Pregnancy and Urolithiasis (Overview)

of a congenital abnormality of the collecting system. Previous Next: Etiology Stone formation during pregnancy does not appear to have any etiologic factors that are unique to pregnancy. Risk factors associated with urolithiasis in general include the following: Family history Age (third to fifth decades of life) Decreased water intake Increased environmental temperature and/or dry climate Diet (eg, high in calcium, sodium, and red meat consumption) Excessive weight or obesity (apparently a risk factor (...) . 2006 Feb. 20(2):107-10. . Streem SB. Contemporary clinical practice of shock wave lithotripsy: a reevaluation of contraindications. J Urol . 1997 Apr. 157(4):1197-203. . Kakkar VV. The current status of low-dose heparin in the prophylaxis of thrombophlebitis and pulmonary embolism. World J Surg . 1978 Jan. 2(1):3-18. . Pisegna JR. Switching between intravenous and oral pantoprazole. J Clin Gastroenterol . 2001 Jan. 32(1):27-32. . Khoo L, Anson K, Patel U. Success and short-term complication rates

2014 eMedicine.com

4823. Prostate Cancer: Radical Perineal Prostatectomy (Overview)

must be stopped at least 7 days before the operation. The day before the procedure, the patient is given an oral mechanical bowel preparation, (eg, Fleet Phospho-soda [C.B. Fleet, Lynchburg, VA], a 1.5-oz. dose of which is taken at 9:00 AM and 12:00 PM). The patient is on a clear liquid diet that day. On the morning of surgery, after arrival at the hospital, the patient is given a 1% neomycin enema. Because of the proximity of the incision to the rectum, antibiotic prophylaxis is indicated (...) to verumontanum. Length of urethra is dissected out of prostate base, and bladder neck is left intact. Urethrourethrostomy is completed with 2 continuous sutures to ensure optimally watertight anastomosis. Sutures are nearly ready to be tied together to complete anastomosis. Note cavernosal nerve bundles on each side of urethral anastomosis. Penrose drain in completed incision is removed on postoperative day 1. Time until continence in weeks after catheter removal. Socially dry is defined as use of 0-1 pad

2014 eMedicine.com

4824. Intertrigo (Treatment)

Treatment & Management Updated: Jun 11, 2018 Author: Paras Vakharia, PharmD; Chief Editor: William D James, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Intertrigo Treatment Approach Considerations Correcting the causative factors of intertrigo is critical. Simple intertrigo may be treated with drying agents, while infected intertrigo should be treated with a combination of an appropriate antimicrobial agent and low-potency topical steroid. Next: Medical Care Correcting the causative factors (...) of intertrigo is critical. Take steps to eliminate friction, heat, and maceration by keeping folds cool and dry. These steps can be accomplished by using air conditioning and absorbent powders, wearing moisture-wicking polyester underwear and socks (eg, Orlon) and by exposing skin folds to the air. Compresses with Burow solution 1:40, dilute vinegar, or wet tea bags often are effective, especially if followed by fanning or cool blow-drying. Skin surfaces in deep folds can be kept separated with cotton

2014 eMedicine.com

4825. Insomnia (Treatment)

nonbenzodiazepine receptor agonists; however, this is not the case. Tricyclic drugs and mirtazapine can cause daytime sedation, weight gain, dry mouth, postural hypotension, and cardiac arrhythmias. Trazodone can cause priapism in men, daytime sedation, and hypotension. The efficacy and safety of low-dose doxepin have been demonstrated in 2 randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trials. Low-dose doxepin is thought to be a hypnotic that primarily works through an antihistaminic effect. Roth

2014 eMedicine.com

4826. Insomnia (Treatment)

nonbenzodiazepine receptor agonists; however, this is not the case. Tricyclic drugs and mirtazapine can cause daytime sedation, weight gain, dry mouth, postural hypotension, and cardiac arrhythmias. Trazodone can cause priapism in men, daytime sedation, and hypotension. The efficacy and safety of low-dose doxepin have been demonstrated in 2 randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trials. Low-dose doxepin is thought to be a hypnotic that primarily works through an antihistaminic effect. Roth

2014 eMedicine.com

4827. Interstitial Cystitis (Treatment)

beneficial, but this was not significant. The study compared placebo with oral pentosan polysulfate sodium, hydroxyzine, and a combination of both. [ ] In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, amitriptyline was shown to provide statistically significant improvement in the O'Leary-Sant interstitial cystitis symptom index and problem index, pain, and urgency intensity. Common adverse effects of amitriptyline include dry mouth, weight gain, constipation, and sedation. [ ] In a 2010 intention (...) fashion until some degree of symptomatic relief is obtained. [ ] The level of initial treatment may also be influenced by clinical judgment, taking into account the severity of presenting symptoms and patient-specific factors. At times, multiple simultaneous treatments may be used in select patients. In patients who have shown no response to multiple treatment modalities, reassessment for any underlying patient condition should be undertaken. [ ] Interventions may include the following: Oral

2014 eMedicine.com

4828. Injectable Bulking Agents for Incontinence (Treatment)

. If the patient remains dry, encourage voiding before discharging home. Prescribe oral antibiotics for 3 days. This procedure results in minimal urethral pain that responds to simple analgesics. Do not place a urethral catheter routinely after bovine collagen injection because it may cause molding of the urethra and injectable agent around the catheter. If molding occurs, the urethral lumen will be unable to properly close. If patients experience difficulty in urination, they may need to self-catheterize (...) outcomes Bovine collagen injection A total of 67-96% of women with intrinsic sphincter deficiency remain dry 1 year after injection. After 2 years, 40-49% of incontinent women were cured and 67-83% were either cured or improved. Reports indicate that collagen is a more effective bulking agent than fat. [ , ] After 4 years, 27% remained cured and 36% remained improved. The number of injections required to achieve continence varies. Reports have documented injecting 8 mL of bovine collagen during

2014 eMedicine.com

4829. Incontinence, Urinary: Nonsurgical Therapies (Treatment)

in achieving cure, but both interventions were more effective than no treatment. Second-line interventions (eg, alpha-agonists, anticholinergics) were associated with adverse effects, such as dry mouth. Next: Absorbent Products Absorbent products are pads or garments designed to absorb urine to protect the skin and clothing. Both disposable and reusable forms are available. By reducing wetness and odor, these products help to keep patients comfortable and allow them to function in usual activities. Do (...) was nausea, which tended to decrease with continued use. Discontinuation of therapy was significantly more common in the treatment group, with equal numbers of patients withdrawing because of nausea, vomiting, worsening of hypertension, and headache. Other common side effects included constipation and dry mouth. At the end of the 8-week trial, 20% of the treatment group patients were no longer interested in surgical therapy, versus 0% in the placebo arm. Another small study demonstrated similar results

2014 eMedicine.com

4830. Infertility (Treatment)

follicular phase and reaches its maximum approximately 24-48 hours before ovulation. The water and salt concentration increases, changing the physical characteristics of the mucus. The mucus becomes thin, watery, alkaline, acellular, and elastic (spinnbarkheit) because of the increased concentration of sodium chloride, despite a fernlike pattern when the mucus is allowed to dry on a cover slide under the microscope (see the images below). Infertility. Cervical os changes during the menstrual cycle. Image

2014 eMedicine.com

4831. Imperforate Hymen (Treatment)

> Imperforate Hymen Treatment & Management Updated: Mar 22, 2016 Author: Paula J Adams Hillard, MD; Chief Editor: Richard Scott Lucidi, MD, FACOG Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Imperforate Hymen Treatment Medical Therapy After initial presentation and suspected diagnosis of an obstructive anomaly in an adolescent, the use of continually administered oral contraceptive to suppress menses allows symptomatic relief and essential time needed to obtain further diagnostic studies. In addition (...) orifice. The patient is instructed to apply the jelly sparingly to the area a few minutes prior to urinating and as needed for soreness. Baths are not prohibited and, in fact, may provide some soothing comfort and help keep the area clean. The use of a hair dryer on the cool setting to dry the area avoids the abrasion of towel drying. Topically applied estrogen cream has been shown to improve vascularity and promote healing of mucosal tissue in animal studies. Application of estrogen cream

2014 eMedicine.com

4832. Ichthyosis (Treatment)

& Management Updated: Aug 28, 2018 Author: Andrew A Dahl, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Ichthyosis Treatment Medical Care Systemic therapy Oral retinoids display an impressive antikeratinizing action in ichthyosiform dermatoses. Etretinate (1 mg/kg/d) and isotretinoin (2 mg/kg/d) have been shown to reduce scaling, discomfort, and disfigurement. However, when these drugs are discontinued, the ichthyotic skin recurs, thereby necessitating long (...) that bezafibrate, a hypolipidemic drug, induces the activity of FALDH in patients with some residual enzyme activity. Ocular therapy The primary aim of eye care in both adults and children with ichthyosis is to maintain moisture, integrity, and clarity of the cornea. When ichthyosis involves the eye or eyelids, there is a high risk of the cornea becoming dry and developing an epithelial defect that may lead to an infection of the cornea. Corneal infections may result in a scar that reduces the clarity

2014 eMedicine.com

4833. Keloid and Hypertrophic Scar (Treatment)

treated with postoperative imiquimod 5% cream was lower than recurrence rates previously reported in the literature. Previous Next: Laser Therapy Ablative lasers Carbon dioxide, argon laser, and Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) Ablation of keloids and hypertrophic scars using a carbon dioxide laser (10,600 nm) can cut and cauterize the lesion, creating a dry surgical environment with relatively minimal tissue trauma. When used as a single modality, the carbon dioxide laser was associated with recurrence rates

2014 eMedicine.com

4834. Hypocitraturia (Treatment)

be used with caution in patients with renal insufficiency or in those receiving potassium-sparing diuretics. Citrate therapy may be counterproductive in patients with infection stones. Meta-analysis shows that up to 48% of patients in long-term studies discontinue oral potassium citrate therapy because of side effects. Potassium-magnesium-citrate Potassium-magnesium-citrate has been investigated and may be more effective than potassium citrate in the prevention of stones, because it increases not only (...) with a low-normal urinary citrate level (320-400 mg/d), administer potassium citrate (10 mEq PO bid-tid). Consider optimizing 24-hour citrate to 600 mg per 24 hours. Previous Next: Activity No limitation of the patient’s activity level is necessary, but dehydration should be avoided, especially when the patient is engaging in outdoor activities in a warm, dry environment. Previous Next: Patient Information Educate the patient in the following: Diet and behavioral modification Risks and benefits

2014 eMedicine.com

4835. Keratoconjunctivitis, Sicca (Treatment)

of follow-up care depends on the severity of the signs and symptoms. Although supplemental lubrication is the mainstay of treatment for mild and moderate aqueous-deficient dry eye disease, any concomitant lid disease must also be treated. The use of topical cyclosporine has been shown to enhance the production of the aqueous component of the tear layer, as well as increase goblet cell density and decrease inflammatory tear cytokines. The use of oral omega-3 fatty acids has beneficial anti-inflammatory (...) in a stepwise approach, beginning with low-risk, highly available interventions and progressing for cases of treatment failure or severe dry eye. Step one is as follows: Educating the patient regarding the condition, management, and prognosis Modifying the patient’s local environment Educating the patient on dietary modifications (including oral essential fatty acid supplementation) Identifying any potentially etiologic systemic/topical medications and considering modification or elimination of offending

2014 eMedicine.com

4836. Keratitis, Interstitial (Treatment)

chorioretinitis Uveal effusion Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) Subretinal neovascular membrane (SNVM) formation Retinal necrosis (big blind spot syndrome) Syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis are present in HIV-positive patients. Findings include the following: Large, flat, dry, yellowish, or gray (with baited centers); macular or juxtapapillary placoid lesions at the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) layer Leopard spot hypofluorescence on fluorescein angiography Chen and Lee reported a case (...) for Disease Control and Prevention, the treatment of neurosyphilis is as follows [ ] : Administer aqueous crystalline penicillin G, 2-4 million U IV q4h for 10-14 days. Alternatively, give procaine penicillin intramuscularly (IM) every day plus probenecid, 500 mg orally 4 times daily both for 10-14 days. In addition to the treatment guidelines for neurosyphilis, the administration of benzathine penicillin is preferred, 2.4 million U IM for 3 weeks, following either of the regimens to achieve a duration

2014 eMedicine.com

4837. Keratitis, Herpes Simplex (Treatment)

be performed to remove infectious virus and viral antigens that may induce stromal keratitis. Antiviral therapy, topical or oral, is an effective treatment for epithelial herpes infection. [ ] Treatment options for primary ocular herpes infection include the following: Ganciclovir ophthalmic gel 0.15% - 5 times daily Trifluridine 1% drops - 9 times daily Vidarabine 3% ointment - 5 times daily Oral acyclovir 400 mg - 5 times daily for 10 days [ ] ; oral acyclovir is the preferred treatment in patients (...) that are resistant to trifluridine and acyclovir. Oral therapy Oral acyclovir has been reported to be as effective as topical antivirals for infectious epithelial keratitis with the added advantage of no ocular toxicity. The use of systemic acyclovir is increasingly preferred over topical agents in the treatment of HSV keratitis, particularly for patients with preexisting ocular surface disease who are at high risk for toxicity from topical medications, for patients who are immunocompromised, and for pediatric

2014 eMedicine.com

4838. Otitis Externa (Treatment)

of topical medications into the medial canal. In severe cases, oral or intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy and narcotic analgesics may be required. [ ] In the case of necrotizing (malignant) OE, the patient must be admitted to a hospital for IV antibiotic therapy at the discretion of the consulting otorhinolaryngologist. The treatment that is rendered depends on the likely organism, which is best determined by means of Gram staining of the affected area. The American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head (...) ), are the mainstay of therapy. Topical acidifying and drying agents (given to alter the pH and to inhibit the growth of microorganisms) may be used in mild or resolving cases and are useful in fungal infections. An antifungal agent may be included as necessary. Mild OE usually responds to the use of an acidifying agent and a corticosteroid. As an alternative, a 2:1 ratio mixture of 70% isopropyl alcohol and acetic acid may be used. For moderate OE, consideration should be given to adding antibacterial

2014 eMedicine.com

4839. Osteoarthritis (Treatment)

associated with significantly more nausea, dry mouth, constipation, fatigue, and decreased appetite than placebo was. [ ] To date, trials of duloxetine in osteoarthritis have been short in duration (10-13 weeks), and studies comparing duloxetine directly with other therapies have not been performed. Intra-articular injections Intra-articular pharmacologic therapy includes injection of a corticosteroid or sodium hyaluronate (ie, hyaluronic acid [HA] or hyaluronan) or biologic agent (ie, platelet-rich (...) The AHRQ noted that topical diclofenac was found to have efficacy similar to that of oral NSAIDs in patients with localized osteoarthritis. No head-to-head trials compared topical salicylates or capsaicin with oral NSAIDs for osteoarthritis. [ ] All NSAIDs had deleterious effects on blood pressure, edema, and kidney function. However, the AHRQ found no consistent clinically relevant differences between celecoxib, partially selective NSAIDs, and nonselective NSAIDs with regard to the risk

2014 eMedicine.com

4840. Wilson Disease (Treatment)

Hepatic copper concentration (criterion standard) on a liver biopsy specimen is >250 mcg/g of dry weight even in asymptomatic patients; a normal result (15-55 mcg/g) effectively excludes the diagnosis of untreated Wilson disease, but elevation may be found in other chronic hepatic disorders Radiolabeled copper testing directly assays hepatic copper metabolism Genetic testing is limited to screening of family members for an identified mutation detected in the index patient Brain imaging shows (...) Relat Disord . 2009 Sep. 15(8):582-6. . Sen S, Felldin M, Steiner C, et al. Albumin dialysis and Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System (MARS) for acute Wilson's disease. Liver Transpl . 2002 Oct. 8(10):962-7. . Weiss KH, Thurik F, Gotthardt DN, et al. Efficacy and safety of oral chelators in treatment of patients with Wilson disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol . 2013 Aug. 11(8):1028-1035.e2. . Weiss KH, Gotthardt DN, Klemm D, et al. Zinc monotherapy is not as effective as chelating agents

2014 eMedicine.com

To help you find the content you need quickly, you can filter your results via the categories on the right-hand side >>>>