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Drug-induced Photosensitivity

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61. Photosensitization of TRPA1 and TRPV1 by 7-dehydrocholesterol: implications for the Smith- Lemli-Opitz syndrome. (PubMed)

Photosensitization of TRPA1 and TRPV1 by 7-dehydrocholesterol: implications for the Smith- Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Loss-of-function mutations in the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase are responsible for the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, in which 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) levels are markedly increased in the plasma and tissues of patients. This increase in 7-DHC is probably associated with the painful and itchy photosensitivity reported by the majority of patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz (...) syndrome. To identify the molecular targets involved in the activation and photosensitization of primary afferents by 7-DHC, we focused on TRPA1 and TRPV1, two ion channels expressed in nociceptive nerve endings and previously shown to respond to ultraviolet and visible light under pathophysiological circumstances. Recombinant human TRPA1 is activated and photosensitized in the presence of 7-DHC. Prolonged preexposure to 7-DHC causes more pronounced photosensitization, and while TRPV1 contributes less

2017 Pain

62. Photosensitive epilepsy is associated with reduced inhibition of alpha rhythm generating networks. (Full text)

Photosensitive epilepsy is associated with reduced inhibition of alpha rhythm generating networks. See Hamandi (doi:10.1093/awx049) for a scientific commentary on this article.Photosensitivity is a condition in which lights induce epileptiform activities. This abnormal electroencephalographic response has been associated with hyperexcitability of the visuo-motor system. Here, we evaluate if intrinsic dysfunction of this network is present in brain activity at rest, independently of any stimulus (...) and of any paroxysmal electroencephalographic activity. To address this issue, we investigated the haemodynamic correlates of the spontaneous alpha rhythm, which is considered the hallmark of the brain resting state, in photosensitive patients and in people without photosensitivity. Second, we evaluated the whole-brain functional connectivity of the visual thalamic nuclei in the various populations of subjects under investigation. Forty-four patients with epilepsy and 16 healthy control subjects

2017 Brain PubMed

63. Photosensitizer Effects of Artificial Red Cells on Dye Laser Irradiation in an Animal Model Assuming Port-Wine Stain Treatment. (PubMed)

Photosensitizer Effects of Artificial Red Cells on Dye Laser Irradiation in an Animal Model Assuming Port-Wine Stain Treatment. The complete removal of port-wine stains has remained challenging. Based on the principle of treating port-wine stains with a dye laser, intravenous injection of artificial red cells (hemoglobin vesicles) immediately before laser treatment might improve the clinical outcome of the therapy. The hemoglobin vesicle injection increases the hemoglobin concentration (...) in microvessels. Photons of dye laser are absorbed by the mixture of red blood cells and this newly added hemoglobin, potentially producing more heat and photocoagulation and, ultimately, necrosis of the endothelial cells effectively.To confirm the performance of hemoglobin vesicles as a photosensitizer, the authors compared the absorbance of hemoglobin vesicles and human blood against 595-nm wavelength and the temperature increases that occur following dye laser irradiation. Furthermore, the authors

2017 Plastic and reconstructive surgery

64. A Study to Evaluate the Effect of ACT-709478 in Photosensitive Epilepsy Patients

by (Responsible Party): Idorsia Pharmaceuticals Ltd. Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: The main study objective is to assess the effect of ACT-709478 in male and female subjects with photosensitive epilepsy following single dose administration Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Photosensitive Epilepsy Drug: ACT-709478 for oral use Drug: Placebo Phase 2 Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial) Actual Enrollment : 5 (...) of Medicine related topics: related topics: resources: Arms and Interventions Go to Arm Intervention/treatment Experimental: ACT-709478 - Single dose administration Up to 16 subjects with photosensitive epilepsy will be studied across a maximum of 4 dose levels. Each dose level will initially be investigated in cohorts of 4 subjects undergoing a fixed sequence of study treatment administration in fed condition Drug: ACT-709478 for oral use Hard gelatin capsules for oral administration formulated

2017 Clinical Trials

65. Light-triggered liposomal cargo delivery platform incorporating photosensitizers and gold nanoparticles for enhanced singlet oxygen generation and increased cytotoxicity (Full text)

cytotoxicity of gold-loaded liposomes by encapsulating an antitumor drug, doxorubicin (Dox); such Dox-loaded liposomes were applied to human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116) and exposed to light. Gold-loaded liposomes containing RB and Dox where Dox release was triggered by light were found to exhibit higher cytotoxicity compared with the liposomes loaded with RB and Dox alone. Our results indicate that gold-loaded liposomes incorporating photosensitizers may serve as improved agents in photodynamic (...) Light-triggered liposomal cargo delivery platform incorporating photosensitizers and gold nanoparticles for enhanced singlet oxygen generation and increased cytotoxicity We developed light-triggered liposomes incorporating 3-5 nm hydrophobic gold nanoparticles and Rose Bengal (RB), a well-known photosensitizer used for photodynamic therapy. Singlet oxygen generated by these liposomes with 532 nm light illumination was characterized for varying the molar ratio of lipids and gold nanoparticles

2017 International journal of nanomedicine PubMed

66. Water-Insoluble Photosensitizer Nanocolloids Stabilized by Supramolecular Interfacial Assembly towards Photodynamic Therapy (Full text)

Water-Insoluble Photosensitizer Nanocolloids Stabilized by Supramolecular Interfacial Assembly towards Photodynamic Therapy Nanoengineering of hydrophobic photosensitizers (PSs) is a promising approach for improved tumor delivery and enhanced photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficiency. A variety of delivery carriers have been developed for tumor delivery of PSs through the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. However, a high-performance PS delivery system with minimum use of carrier (...) materials with excellent biocompatibility is highly appreciated. In this work, we utilized the spatiotemporal interfacial adhesion and assembly of supramolecular coordination to achieve the nanoengineering of water-insoluble photosensitizer Chlorin e6 (Ce6). The hydrophobic Ce6 nanoparticles are well stabilized in a aqueous medium by the interfacially-assembled film due to the coordination polymerization of tannic acid (TA) and ferric iron (Fe(III)). The resulting Ce6@TA-Fe(III) complex nanoparticles

2017 Scientific reports PubMed

67. Photosensitization of TiO2 nanofibers by Ag2S with the synergistic effect of excess surface Ti3+ states for enhanced photocatalytic activity under simulated sunlight (Full text)

Photosensitization of TiO2 nanofibers by Ag2S with the synergistic effect of excess surface Ti3+ states for enhanced photocatalytic activity under simulated sunlight TiO2 nanofibers, with mean diameter ~200 nm, were fabricated by electrospinning and successfully photosensitized with low bandgap Ag2S nanoparticles of 11, 17, 23 and 40 nm mean sizes, with corresponding loading of 4, 10, 18 and 29 wt.% Ag2S, respectively. 17 nm Ag2S@TiO2 nanofibers exhibited optimal activity (...) in the photodegradation of methylene blue under simulated sunlight with pseudo-first order rate constant of 0.019 min-1 compared to 0.009 min-1 for pure TiO2 nanofibers. In spite of greater visible-light absorption and reduced bandgap, larger than 17 nm Ag2S nanoparticles exhibited sluggish photodegradation kinetics probably due to less photo-induced carriers generation in TiO2 and reduced electron injection rates from the larger sized Ag2S into TiO2. Furthermore, a UV-O3 surface treatment induced excess Ti3+ surface

2017 Scientific reports PubMed

68. Type I and II Photosensitized Oxidation Reactions: Guidelines and Mechanistic Pathways (Full text)

dismutation into H2 O2 , the precursor of the highly reactive hydroxyl radical (·OH) that may induce delayed oxidation reactions in cells. In the second part, several examples of type I and type II photosensitized oxidation reactions are provided to illustrate the complexity and the diversity of the degradation pathways of mostly relevant biomolecules upon one-electron oxidation and singlet oxygen reactions.© 2017 The American Society of Photobiology. (...) Type I and II Photosensitized Oxidation Reactions: Guidelines and Mechanistic Pathways Here, 10 guidelines are presented for a standardized definition of type I and type II photosensitized oxidation reactions. Because of varied notions of reactions mediated by photosensitizers, a checklist of recommendations is provided for their definitions. Type I and type II photoreactions are oxygen-dependent and involve unstable species such as the initial formation of radical cation or neutral radicals

2017 Photochemistry and photobiology PubMed

69. New photodynamic therapy with next-generation photosensitizers (Full text)

New photodynamic therapy with next-generation photosensitizers Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive antitumor treatment that uses the combination of a photosensitizer, tissue oxygen, and visible light irradiation to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species, predominantly singlet oxygen. Currently, first-generation PDT using porfimer sodium with an excimer dye laser, and second-generation PDT using talaporfin sodium PDT with a semiconductor laser are approved by health insurance for use (...) in Japan. However, the cancer cell specificity and selectivity of these treatments are inadequate. Cancer cells consume higher levels of glucose than normal cells and this phenomenon is known as the Warburg effect. Thus, we developed a third-generation PDT, based on the Warburg effect, by synthesizing a novel photosensitizer, sugar-conjugated chlorin, with increased cancer cell-selective accumulation. Glucose-conjugated chlorin (G-chlorin) PDT showed significantly stronger antitumor effects than second

2017 Annals of Translational Medicine PubMed

70. Photosensitization Priming of Tumor Microenvironments Improves Delivery of Nanotherapeutics via Neutrophil Infiltration (Full text)

Photosensitization Priming of Tumor Microenvironments Improves Delivery of Nanotherapeutics via Neutrophil Infiltration Remodeling of tumor microenvironments enables enhanced delivery of nanoparticles (NPs). This study shows that direct priming of a tumor tissue using photosensitization rapidly activates neutrophil infiltration that mediates delivery of nanotherapeutics into the tumor. A drug delivery platform is comprised of NPs coated with anti-CD11b antibodies (Abs) that target activated (...) neutrophils. Intravital microscopy demonstrates that the movement of anti-CD11b Abs-decorated NPs (NPs-CD11b) into the tumor is mediated by neutrophil infiltration induced by photosensitization (PS) because the systemic depletion of neutrophils completely abolishes the nanoparticle tumor deposition. The neutrophil uptake of NPs does not alter neutrophil activation and transmigration. For cancer therapy in mice, tumor PS and photothermal therapy of anti-CD11b Abs-linked gold nanorods (GNRs-CD11b

2017 Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) PubMed

71. TWEAK/Fn14 Activation Participates in Ro52-Mediated Photosensitization in Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (Full text)

TWEAK/Fn14 Activation Participates in Ro52-Mediated Photosensitization in Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) binds to its sole receptor fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14), participating in various inflammatory responses. Recently, TWEAK/Fn14 activation was found prominent in the lesions of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE). This study was designed to further reveal the potential role of this pathway in Ro52-mediated (...) photosensitization. TWEAK, Fn14, and Ro52 were determined in the skin lesions of patients with CLE. Murine keratinocytes received ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation or plus TWEAK stimulation and underwent detection for Ro52 and proinflammatory cytokines. The chemotaxis of J774.2 macrophages was evaluated on TWEAK stimulation of cocultured keratinocytes. We found that TWEAK, Fn14, and downstream cytokines were highly expressed in CLE lesions that overexpressed Ro52. Moreover, TWEAK enhanced the UVB-induced Ro52

2017 Frontiers in immunology PubMed

72. Enhancing Photodynamic Therapy Through Resonance-Energy-Transfer Constructed Near InfraRed Photosensitized Nanoparticles (Full text)

Enhancing Photodynamic Therapy Through Resonance-Energy-Transfer Constructed Near InfraRed Photosensitized Nanoparticles Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an important cancer treatment modality due to its minimally invasive nature. However, the efficiency of existing PDT drug molecules in the deep-tissue-penetrable near-infrared (NIR) region has been the major hurdle that has hindered further development and clinical usage of PDT. Thus, herein a strategy is presented to utilize a resonance energy (...) transfer (RET) mechanism to construct a novel dyad photosensitizer which is able to dramatically boost NIR photon utility and enhance singlet oxygen generation. In this work, the energy donor moiety (distyryl-BODIPY) is connected to a photosensitizer (i.e., diiodo-distyryl-BODIPY) to form a dyad molecule (RET-BDP). The resulting RET-BDP shows significantly enhanced absorption and singlet oxygen efficiency relative to that of the acceptor moiety of the photosensitizer alone in the NIR range. After being

2017 Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) PubMed

73. Oxidatively-generated damage to DNA and proteins mediated by photosensitized UVA (Full text)

species. Exogenously supplied chemicals, including some widely-prescribed medicines, may also act as photosensitisers and these drugs are associated with an increased risk of sun-related cancer. Because they amplify the effects of UVA on cells, they provide a means to investigate the mechanisms and effects of UVA-induced photodamage. Here, we describe some of the major lesions induced by two groups of UVA photosensitisers, the DNA thionucleotides and the fluoroquinolone antibiotics. In thionucleotides (...) Oxidatively-generated damage to DNA and proteins mediated by photosensitized UVA UVA accounts for about 95% of the solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reaches Earth and most likely contributes to human skin cancer risk. In contrast to UVB, which comprises the remaining 5% and is absorbed by DNA nucleobases to cause direct photodamage, UVA damages DNA indirectly. It does this largely through its interactions with cellular chromophores that act as photosensitisers to generate reactive oxygen

2017 Free radical biology & medicine PubMed

74. Intracellular “activated” two-photon photodynamic therapy by fluorescent conveyor and photosensitizer co-encapsulating pH-responsive micelles against breast cancer (Full text)

Intracellular “activated” two-photon photodynamic therapy by fluorescent conveyor and photosensitizer co-encapsulating pH-responsive micelles against breast cancer The application of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer is hindered by the intrinsic defects of the currently available photosensitizers (PSs), such as poor water solubility and limited light-penetration depth. In this study, pH-responsive polymeric micelles that co-encapsulate therapeutic PSs (...) and organooxotin two-photon compounds were applied for two-photon PDT (TP-PDT) against breast cancer. The TP-PDT effect of the drug-loaded micelles was "activated" when the micelles turned into aggregates at a triggering pH level. The in vitro therapeutic effect was evaluated on 4T1 murine breast cancer cells by viability assays, real-time morphology collapsing, and reactive oxygen species determination. Time-dependent ex vivo organ distribution and in vivo anticancer efficacy results suggested that the drug

2017 International journal of nanomedicine PubMed

75. Antibacterial photosensitization through activation of coproporphyrinogen oxidase (Full text)

of coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CgoX) from Gram-positive bacteria, an enzyme essential for heme biosynthesis. Activation of CgoX induces accumulation of coproporphyrin III and leads to photosensitization of Gram-positive pathogens. In combination with light, CgoX activation reduces bacterial burden in murine models of SSTI. Thus, small-molecule activation of CgoX represents an effective strategy for the development of light-based antimicrobial therapies. (...) Antibacterial photosensitization through activation of coproporphyrinogen oxidase Gram-positive bacteria cause the majority of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), resulting in the most common reason for clinic visits in the United States. Recently, it was discovered that Gram-positive pathogens use a unique heme biosynthesis pathway, which implicates this pathway as a target for development of antibacterial therapies. We report here the identification of a small-molecule activator

2017 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America PubMed

76. RGD-Modified Albumin Nanoconjugates for Targeted Delivery of a Porphyrin Photosensitizer (Full text)

RGD-Modified Albumin Nanoconjugates for Targeted Delivery of a Porphyrin Photosensitizer Advances in photodynamic therapy of cancer have been restrained by lack of cancer specificity and side effects to normal tissues. Molecularly targeted photodynamic therapy can achieve higher cancer specificity by combination of active cancer targeting and localized laser activation. We aimed to use albumin as a carrier to prepare targeted nanoconjugates that are selective to cancer cells and smaller than (...) conventional nanoparticles for superior tumor penetration. IRDye 700DX (IR700), a porphyrin photosensitizer, was covalently conjugated to human serum albumin that was also linked with tumor-targeting RGD peptides. With multiple IR700 and RGD molecules in a single albumin molecule, the resultant nanoconjugates demonstrated monodispersed and uniform size distribution with a diameter of 10.9 nm. These targeted nanoconjugates showed 121-fold increase in cellular delivery of IR700 into TOV21G ovarian cancer

2017 Molecular pharmaceutics PubMed

77. Shedding Light on Alzheimer’s β-Amyloidosis: Photosensitized Methylene Blue Inhibits Self-Assembly of β-Amyloid Peptides and Disintegrates Their Aggregates (Full text)

Shedding Light on Alzheimer’s β-Amyloidosis: Photosensitized Methylene Blue Inhibits Self-Assembly of β-Amyloid Peptides and Disintegrates Their Aggregates Abnormal aggregation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides is a major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In spite of numerous attempts to prevent the β-amyloidosis, no effective drugs for treating AD have been developed to date. Among many candidate chemicals, methylene blue (MB) has proved its therapeutic potential for AD in a number (...) , and decreased vacuole in the brain. The hindrance effect is attributed to Aβ42 oxidation by singlet oxygen (1O2) generated from photoexcited MB. Finally, we show that photoexcited MB possess a capability to disaggregate the pre-existing Aβ42 aggregates and reduce Aβ-induced cytotoxicity. Our work suggests that light illumination can provide an opportunity to boost the efficacies of MB toward photodynamic therapy of AD in future.

2017 Scientific reports PubMed

78. Design features for optimization of tetrapyrrole macrocycles as antimicrobial and anticancer photosensitizers (Full text)

Design features for optimization of tetrapyrrole macrocycles as antimicrobial and anticancer photosensitizers Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses non-toxic dyes called photosensitizers (PS) and harmless visible light that combine to form highly toxic reactive oxygen species that kill cells. Originally, a cancer therapy, PDT, now includes applications for infections. The most widely studied PS are tetrapyrrole macrocycles including porphyrins, chlorins, bacteriochlorins, and phthalocyanines (...) influence on the PDT activity. Hydrophobicity and charge are important factors that govern interactions with various types of cells (cancer and microbial) in vitro and the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution in vivo. Hydrophobic structures tend to be water insoluble and require a drug delivery vehicle for maximal activity. Molecular asymmetry and amphiphilicity are also important for high activity. In vivo some structures possess the ability to selectively accumulate in tumors and to localize

2017 Chemical biology & drug design PubMed

79. Photosensitive disorders in HIV (Full text)

Photosensitive disorders in HIV Photosensitive disorders are common, affecting up to 5% of HIV-positive patients. HIV itself induces photosensitivity but photoaggravated drug reactions, porphyria cutanea tarda and nutritional disorders such as pellagra are also more common in patients with HIV. In South Africa, actinic lichenoid leukomelanoderma of HIV is a unique photosensitive disorder which is associated with advanced HIV. It is important to be able to recognise these conditions and withdraw

2017 Southern African journal of HIV medicine PubMed

80. A Mitochondria-Targeted Cryptocyanine-Based Photothermogenic Photosensitizer (Full text)

A Mitochondria-Targeted Cryptocyanine-Based Photothermogenic Photosensitizer Cryptocyanine-based probes exhibit highly efficient photothermal conversion and represent a new class of photothermal agents for use in photothermal therapy (PTT). With the thermal susceptibility of mitochondria in mind, we have prepared a mitochondria-targeted, NIR-absorbing cryptocyanine probe (Mito-CCy) and evaluated its photophysical properties, photothermal conversion efficiency, biological compatibility (...) in HeLa cells when subject to photoirradiation. This light-induced cytotoxicity is attributed to the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced under conditions of local heating. ROS are known to interfere with the mitochondrial defense system and to trigger apoptosis. By targeting the mitochondria, the present sensitizer-based photothermogenic approach is rendered more effective. As such, the system reported here represents the vanguard of what might be a new generation

2017 Journal of the American Chemical Society PubMed

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