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Drug-induced Photosensitivity

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21. The DGAT1 inhibitor pradigastat does not induce photosensitivity in healthy human subjects: a randomized controlled trial using three defined sunlight exposure conditions. (PubMed)

The DGAT1 inhibitor pradigastat does not induce photosensitivity in healthy human subjects: a randomized controlled trial using three defined sunlight exposure conditions. The DGAT1 inhibitor, pradigastat, demonstrated a mild phototoxicity signal in preclinical studies. Therefore, this clinical trial was conducted to assess the risk of photosensitivity in humans. 47 healthy adults were randomized to part A (double-blind, placebo-controlled; 3 : 1 pradigastat : placebo) or part B (open-label (...) was not shown to induce photosensitivity reactions, while significant responses were seen with the positive control. These results strongly suggest that pradigastat will not induce photosensitivity reactions in individuals administered doses up to 40 mg per day, which is the highest intended clinical dose. Furthermore, the design of this clinical trial may serve as a prototype for future regulatory clinical photosensitivity studies.

2016 Photochemical & photobiological sciences : Official journal of the European Photochemistry Association and the European Society for Photobiology

22. The Photosensitivity of Rhodopsin Bleaching and Light-Induced Increases of Fundus Reflectance in Mice Measured In Vivo With Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy. (PubMed)

The Photosensitivity of Rhodopsin Bleaching and Light-Induced Increases of Fundus Reflectance in Mice Measured In Vivo With Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy. To quantify bleaching-induced changes in fundus reflectance in the mouse retina.Light reflected from the fundus of albino (Balb/c) and pigmented (C57Bl/6J) mice was measured with a multichannel scanning laser ophthalmoscopy optical coherence tomography (SLO-OCT) optical system. Serial scanning of small retinal regions was used for bleaching (...) reflectance, quantifying contributions from loss of rhodopsin absorption with bleaching, absorption by oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) in the choroid (Balb/c), and absorption by melanin (C57Bl/6J). Both mouse strains exhibited light-induced broadband reflectance changes explained as bleaching-induced reflectivity increases at photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junctions and OS tips.The elevated photosensitivity of rhodopsin bleaching in vivo is explained by waveguide condensing of light

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2016 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

23. Tropomyosin Receptor Kinase C Targeted Delivery of a Peptidomimetic Ligand-Photosensitizer Conjugate Induces Antitumor Immune Responses Following Photodynamic Therapy (PubMed)

Tropomyosin Receptor Kinase C Targeted Delivery of a Peptidomimetic Ligand-Photosensitizer Conjugate Induces Antitumor Immune Responses Following Photodynamic Therapy Tropomyosin receptor kinase C (TrkC) targeted ligand-photosensitizer construct, IYIY-diiodo-boron-dipyrromethene (IYIY-I2-BODIPY) and its scrambled counterpart YIYI-I2-BODIPY have been prepared. IYIY-I2-BODIPY binds TrkC similar to neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and NT-3 has been reported to modulate immune responses. Moreover, it could (...) . Only IYIY-I2-BODIPY enhanced the IFN-γ+ and IL-17+ T-lymphocytes, and delayed tumor growth (~20% smaller size) in mice when administrated daily for 5 days. All those effects were observed without irradiation; when irradiated (520 nm, 100 J/cm2, 160 mW/cm2) to produce PDT effects (drug-light interval 1 h), IYIY-I2-BODIPY induced stronger responses. Moreover, photoirradiated IYIY-I2-BODIPY treated mice had high levels of effector T-cells compared to controls. Adoptive transfer of immune cells from

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2016 Scientific reports

24. Metal Complexes for Two‐Photon Photodynamic Therapy: A Cyclometallated Iridium Complex Induces Two‐Photon Photosensitization of Cancer Cells under Near‐IR Light (PubMed)

Metal Complexes for Two‐Photon Photodynamic Therapy: A Cyclometallated Iridium Complex Induces Two‐Photon Photosensitization of Cancer Cells under Near‐IR Light Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses photosensitizers (PS) which only become cytotoxic upon light-irradiation. Transition-metal complexes are highly promising PS due to long excited-state lifetimes, and high photo-stabilities. However, these complexes usually absorb higher-energy UV/Vis light, whereas the optimal tissue transparency

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2016 Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)

25. Lowering photosensitizer doses and increasing fluences induce apoptosis in tumor bearing mice (PubMed)

Lowering photosensitizer doses and increasing fluences induce apoptosis in tumor bearing mice The objective of this study was to determine an optimal dose of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for inducing apoptotic tumor cells in vivo. In this context, mice bearing human tongue-squamous epithelium carcinomas were treated with various photosensitizer concentrations and fluences. Tumor apoptosis was imaged after 2 days via a self-designed DY-734-annexin V probe using near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF (...) ) optical imaging. Apoptosis was verified ex vivo via TUNEL staining. Apoptotic tumor cells were detected in vivo at a dose of 40 µg photosensitizer and a fluency of 100 J/cm(2). This is the lowest photosensitizer dose reported so far.

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2016 Biomedical optics express

26. Rapid and durable photochemical bonding of cartilage using the porphyrin photosensitizer verteporfin. (PubMed)

Rapid and durable photochemical bonding of cartilage using the porphyrin photosensitizer verteporfin. To evaluate the effectiveness of verteporfin as a photosensitizer to photochemically bond articular cartilage tissues and determine bond durability in vitro.Bond strength induced by verteporfin over a range of concentrations and light exposure conditions was investigated using a disk-annulus model and a pushout test. Exposure was parameterized by varying either irradiance or irradiation time (...) . Bond robustness in a cell-mediated degeneration environment was examined by exposing newly bonded samples to interleukin-1 alpha for the first 4 days of a 7-day culture period, followed by mechanical testing and biochemical and cellular viability assays.Photochemical bonding using verteporfin produced high bonding shear strengths at relatively low photosensitizer concentrations. Low exposures produced by either low irradiance or short irradiation time were sufficient to produce shear strengths

2019 Osteoarthritis and Cartilage

27. The effects of photodynamic therapy on leukemia cells mediated by KillerRed, a genetically encoded fluorescent protein photosensitizer. (PubMed)

The effects of photodynamic therapy on leukemia cells mediated by KillerRed, a genetically encoded fluorescent protein photosensitizer. Leukemia is a cancer of blood and bone marrow cells, causing about 300,000 deaths worldwide. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising alternative for the treatment of malignant tumors. KillerRed is a genetically encoded red fluorescent protein photosensitizer (PS). In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of KillerRed-mediated PDT on chronic (...) -blotting. The ROS generation was measured by flow cytometry.Pure KillerRed was obtained with a yield of about 37 mg per liter of bacterial cells. KillerRed photodynamic inactivated the leukemia cells in a concentration-dependent manner, but exhibited no obvious dark toxicity. PDT mediated by KillerRed could also induce apoptotic response (mainly early apoptosis) in the three cell lines. The CLSM imaging indicated that KillerRed was distributed within the cytoplasm and nuclei of leukemia cells, causing

2019 BMC Cancer

28. Innate immune dysfunction in rosacea promotes photosensitivity and vascular adhesion molecule expression. (PubMed)

Innate immune dysfunction in rosacea promotes photosensitivity and vascular adhesion molecule expression. Rosacea is a chronic skin disease characterized by photosensitivity, abnormal dermal vascular behavior, inflammation and enhanced expression of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37. We observed that dermal endothelial cells in rosacea had increased expression of VCAM1 and hypothesized that LL-37 could be responsible for this response. Digestion of dsRNA from keratinocytes exposed to ultraviolet (...) B radiation (UVB) blocked the capacity of these cells to induce adhesion molecules on dermal microvascular endothelial cells. However, a synthetic non-coding snoU1RNA was only capable of increasing adhesion molecules on endothelial cells in the presence of LL-37, suggesting that the capacity of UVB exposure to promote both dsRNA and LL-37 was responsible for the endothelial response to keratinocytes. Sequencing of RNA from endothelial cells uncovered activation of gene ontology pathways relevant

2019 Journal of Investigative Dermatology

29. Suppression of the photoparoxysmal response in photosensitive epilepsy with cenobamate (YKP3089). (PubMed)

Suppression of the photoparoxysmal response in photosensitive epilepsy with cenobamate (YKP3089). To evaluate the effect of cenobamate in patients with photoparoxysmal-EEG response (PPR) to intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) as proof of principle of efficacy in patients with epilepsy.In this multicenter, single-blind study, adults with photosensitive epilepsy, with/without concomitant antiepileptic drug therapy, underwent IPS under 3 eye conditions after a single dose of placebo (day -1, day (...) and somnolence.This proof-of-principle study demonstrated that cenobamate is a potentially effective product for epilepsy.NCT00616148.This study provides Class III evidence that, for patients with photosensitive epilepsy, cenobamate suppresses IPS-induced PPR.Copyright © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

2019 Neurology

30. Inhaled alprazolam rapidly suppresses epileptic activity in photosensitive participants. (PubMed)

Inhaled alprazolam rapidly suppresses epileptic activity in photosensitive participants. Treatment options for seizure clusters are limited; the need for easy-to-administer treatments remains. The Staccato system delivers drug deep into the lung via inhalation. In this phase 2a study, we investigated the ability of three different doses of Staccato alprazolam to suppress the electroencephalographic (EEG) photoparoxysmal response (PPR) compared with placebo in participants with photosensitive (...) seizures.Adults (18-60 years) with a diagnosis and history of PPR on EEG with or without an epilepsy diagnosis were eligible to participate. Participants received Staccato alprazolam 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg, and Staccato placebo (twice) in random order. Intermittent photic stimulation and clinical assessments were performed at one predose and seven postdose time points. The primary endpoint of the study was the change in standardized photosensitivity range (SPR) in participants receiving each dose of Staccato

2019 Epilepsia

31. Drug-Induced Photosensitivity (Diagnosis)

Drug-Induced Photosensitivity (Diagnosis) Drug-Induced Photosensitivity: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTA0OTY0OC1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Drug-Induced (...) Photosensitivity Updated: Jun 12, 2018 Author: Alexandra Y Zhang, MD; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Drug-Induced Photosensitivity Overview Background Drug-induced photosensitivity refers to the development of cutaneous disease as a result of the combined effects of a chemical and light. [ ] Exposure to either the chemical or the light alone is not sufficient to induce the disease; however, when photoactivation of the chemical occurs, one or more cutaneous

2014 eMedicine.com

32. Drug-Induced Photosensitivity (Overview)

Drug-Induced Photosensitivity (Overview) Drug-Induced Photosensitivity: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTA0OTY0OC1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Drug-Induced (...) Photosensitivity Updated: Jun 12, 2018 Author: Alexandra Y Zhang, MD; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Drug-Induced Photosensitivity Overview Background Drug-induced photosensitivity refers to the development of cutaneous disease as a result of the combined effects of a chemical and light. [ ] Exposure to either the chemical or the light alone is not sufficient to induce the disease; however, when photoactivation of the chemical occurs, one or more cutaneous

2014 eMedicine.com

33. Drug-Induced Photosensitivity (Treatment)

Drug-Induced Photosensitivity (Treatment) Drug-Induced Photosensitivity Treatment & Management: Medical Care, Prevention Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTA0OTY0OC10cmVhdG1lbnQ= processing > Drug (...) -Induced Photosensitivity Treatment & Management Updated: Jun 12, 2018 Author: Alexandra Y Zhang, MD; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Drug-Induced Photosensitivity Treatment Medical Care The mainstays of treatment of drug-induced photosensitivity include identification and avoidance of the causative agent, the use of sun protection, and the institution of measures for symptomatic relief. Topical corticosteroids and cool compresses may alleviate drug

2014 eMedicine.com

34. Drug-Induced Photosensitivity (Follow-up)

Drug-Induced Photosensitivity (Follow-up) Drug-Induced Photosensitivity Treatment & Management: Medical Care, Prevention Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTA0OTY0OC10cmVhdG1lbnQ= processing > Drug (...) -Induced Photosensitivity Treatment & Management Updated: Jun 12, 2018 Author: Alexandra Y Zhang, MD; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Drug-Induced Photosensitivity Treatment Medical Care The mainstays of treatment of drug-induced photosensitivity include identification and avoidance of the causative agent, the use of sun protection, and the institution of measures for symptomatic relief. Topical corticosteroids and cool compresses may alleviate drug

2014 eMedicine.com

35. High Repetition Rate UV versus VIS Picosecond Laser Fabrication of 3D Microfluidic Channels Embedded in Photosensitive Glass (PubMed)

High Repetition Rate UV versus VIS Picosecond Laser Fabrication of 3D Microfluidic Channels Embedded in Photosensitive Glass Glass is an alternative solution to polymer for the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic biochips. Femtosecond (fs) lasers are nowadays the most promising tools for transparent glass processing. Specifically, the multiphoton process induced by fs pulses enables fabrication of embedded 3D channels with high precision. The subtractive fabrication process (...) creating 3D hollow structures in glass, known as fs laser-assisted etching (FLAE), is based on selective removal of the laser-modified regions by successive chemical etching in diluted hydrofluoric acid solutions. In this work we demonstrate the possibility to generate embedded hollow channels in photosensitive Foturan glass volume by high repetition rate picosecond (ps) laser-assisted etching (PLAE). In particular, the influence of the critical irradiation doses and etching rates are discussed

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2018 Nanomaterials

36. Shaping Rolling Circle Amplification Products into DNA Nanoparticles by Incorporation of Modified Nucleotides and Their Application to In Vitro and In Vivo Delivery of a Photosensitizer (PubMed)

Shaping Rolling Circle Amplification Products into DNA Nanoparticles by Incorporation of Modified Nucleotides and Their Application to In Vitro and In Vivo Delivery of a Photosensitizer Rolling circle amplification (RCA) is a robust way to generate DNA constructs, which are promising materials for biomedical applications including drug delivery because of their high biocompatibility. To be employed as a drug delivery platform, however, the DNA materials produced by RCA need to be shaped (...) for the delivery of a photosensitizer into cancer cells to achieve photodynamic therapy upon irradiation at both the in vitro and in vivo levels.

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2018 Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry

37. Recent Developments in the Diagnosis and Management of Photosensitive Disorders. (PubMed)

Recent Developments in the Diagnosis and Management of Photosensitive Disorders. Photodermatoses occur in males and females of all races and ages. Onset can be variable in timing and influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Photodermatoses are broadly classified as immunologically mediated, chemical- and drug-induced, photoaggravated, and genetic (defective DNA repair or chromosomal instability) diseases. Advances in the field have led to improved recognition and treatment of many

2018 American journal of clinical dermatology

38. Assessing Photosensitizer Targeting Using Meso-Tetra(Carboxyphenyl) Porphyrin (PubMed)

- or l-lysine mTCPP. Likewise, only the Fmoc-protected compounds induced substantial phototoxicty in cells following incubation and irradiation with blue light. These experimental results do not provide evidence to suggest that lysine-mTCPP is able to specifically target cancer cells. However, they do highlight mTCPP as a convenient and accessible framework for assessing molecular targeting of photosensitizers. (...) Assessing Photosensitizer Targeting Using Meso-Tetra(Carboxyphenyl) Porphyrin Mesotetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (mTCPP) is a commercially available small molecule fluorophore and photosensitizer with four free carboxylic acid groups. mTCPP can readily be conjugated with amines for facile attachment of functional groups. In this work, we synthesized and assessed tetravalent, lysine-conjugated mTCPP, for its potential applications in targeted imaging and photodynamic therapy. Fmoc-protected d

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2018 Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry

39. Difunctional bacteriophage conjugated with photosensitizers for Candida albicans-targeting photodynamic inactivation (PubMed)

infections based on the interactions between visible light and photosensitisers, in which pheophorbide a (PPA) is a chlorophyll-based photosensitizer that could induce cell death after light irradiation. Due to PPA's phototoxicity and low efficiency, the main challenge is to implement photosensitizer cell targeting and attacking.In this study, PPA was conjugated with JM-phage by EDC/NHS crosslinking. UV-Vis spectra was used to determine the optimum conjugation percentages of PPA and JM-phage complex (...) Difunctional bacteriophage conjugated with photosensitizers for Candida albicans-targeting photodynamic inactivation Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal pathogen of the human microbiota, causing infections ranging from superficial infections of the skin to life-threatening systemic infections. Due to the increasing occurrence of antibiotic-resistant C. albicans strains, new approaches to control this pathogen are needed. Photodynamic inactivation is an emerging alternative to treat

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2018 International journal of nanomedicine

40. Reactive Oxygen Species Explicit Dosimetry (ROSED) of a Type 1 Photosensitizer (PubMed)

-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumors were treated with different light fluence and fluence rate conditions. Explicit measurements of photosensitizer drug concentration were made via diffuse reflective absorption spectrum using a contact probe before and after PDT. Blood flow and tissue oxygen concentration over time were measured during PDT as a mean to validate the photochemical parameters for the ROSED calculation. Cure index was computed from the rate of tumor regrowth after treatment and was compared (...) Reactive Oxygen Species Explicit Dosimetry (ROSED) of a Type 1 Photosensitizer Type I photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the use of photochemical reactions mediated through an interaction between a tumor-selective photosensitizer, photoexcitation with a specific wavelength of light, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The goal of this study is to develop a model to calculate reactive oxygen species concentration ([ROS]rx) after Tookad®-mediated vascular PDT. Mice with radiation

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2018 Proceedings of SPIE--the International Society for Optical Engineering

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