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121. Environmental Adversity and Children’s Early Trajectories of Problem Behavior: The Role of Harsh Parental Discipline (PubMed)

Environmental Adversity and Children’s Early Trajectories of Problem Behavior: The Role of Harsh Parental Discipline This study was performed to examine the role of harsh parental discipline in mediating and moderating the effects of environmental adversity (family socioeconomic disadvantage and adverse life events) on emotional and behavioral problems across early-to-middle childhood. The sample included 16,916 children (48% female; 24% non-White) from the U.K.'s Millennium Cohort Study. We (...) analyzed trajectories of conduct, hyperactivity, and emotional problems, measured at ages 3, 5, and 7 years, using growth curve models. Harsh parental discipline was measured at these ages with parent-reported items on the frequency of using the physical and verbal discipline tactics of smacking, shouting at, and "telling off" the child. As expected, family socioeconomic disadvantage and adverse life events were significantly associated with emotional and behavioral problems. Harsh parental discipline

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2016 Journal of Family Psychology

122. Closing the Racial Discipline Gap in Classrooms by Changing Teacher Practice (PubMed)

Closing the Racial Discipline Gap in Classrooms by Changing Teacher Practice Black students are issued school discipline sanctions at rates higher than members of other racial and ethnic groups, underscoring the need for professional development that addresses this gap. In 86 secondary classrooms, a randomized controlled trial examined the effects of a 2-year teacher coaching program, My Teaching Partner Secondary (MTP-S). Results from the second year of coaching and the year after coaching (...) was discontinued replicated previous findings from the first year of coaching-intervention teachers had no significant disparities in discipline referral between Black students and their classmates, compared to teachers in the control condition, for whom racial discipline gaps remained. Thus, MTP-S effects were replicated in the second year of coaching and maintained when coaching was withdrawn. Mediational analyses identified mechanisms for these effects; Black students had a low probability of receiving

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2016 School psychology review Controlled trial quality: uncertain

123. This month in the journal: cardiology and other disciplines (PubMed)

This month in the journal: cardiology and other disciplines 27282670 2018 08 07 2018 10 23 2149-2271 16 6 2016 06 Anatolian journal of cardiology Anatol J Cardiol This month in the journal: cardiology and other disciplines. 369 10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2016.06 Öngen Zeki Z Department of Cardiology, İstanbul University, Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine, İstanbul-Turkey. z_ongen@yahoo.com.tr. eng Editorial Comment Turkey Anatol J Cardiol 101652981 2149-2263 Anatol J Cardiol. 2016 Sep;16(9):647

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2016 Anatolian journal of cardiology

124. Hotspotting sepsis: applying analytic tools from other disciplines to eliminate disparities (PubMed)

Hotspotting sepsis: applying analytic tools from other disciplines to eliminate disparities 27569126 2016 08 29 2018 11 13 2305-5839 4 15 2016 Aug Annals of translational medicine Ann Transl Med Hotspotting sepsis: applying analytic tools from other disciplines to eliminate disparities. 295 10.21037/atm.2016.07.19 Holder Andre L AL Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30307, USA ; Wallace David J DJ Department

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2016 Annals of Translational Medicine

125. To Educate or To Incarcerate: Factors in Disproportionality in School Discipline (PubMed)

To Educate or To Incarcerate: Factors in Disproportionality in School Discipline The school-to-prison pipeline describes the process by which school suspension/expulsion may push adolescents into the justice system disproportionately based on race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and gender. The current study moves the field forward by analyzing a survey of a diverse sample of 2,539 students in 10th to 12th grade in Southern California to examine how demographic, individual, and family factors (...) contribute to disparities in office referral and suspension/expulsion. African Americans, boys, and students whose parents had less education were more likely to be suspended/expelled. Higher levels of student academic preparation for class, hours spent on homework, and academic aspiration were associated with less school discipline. Findings suggest that helping students engage in school may be protective against disproportionate school discipline.

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2016 Children and youth services review

126. Differences in Collaboration Patterns across Discipline, Career Stage, and Gender (PubMed)

Differences in Collaboration Patterns across Discipline, Career Stage, and Gender Collaboration plays an increasingly important role in promoting research productivity and impact. What remains unclear is whether female and male researchers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) disciplines differ in their collaboration propensity. Here, we report on an empirical analysis of the complete publication records of 3,980 faculty members in six STEM disciplines at select U.S (...) for gender segregation in some sub-disciplines in molecular biology, in particular in genomics where we find female faculty to be clearly under-represented.

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2016 PLoS biology

127. Phytogeographic and genetic variation in Sorbus, a traditional antidiabetic medicine—adaptation in action in both a plant and a discipline (PubMed)

Phytogeographic and genetic variation in Sorbus, a traditional antidiabetic medicine—adaptation in action in both a plant and a discipline Mountain ash (Sorbus decora and S. americana) is used by the Cree Nation of the James Bay region of Quebec (Eeyou Istchee) as traditional medicine. Its potential as an antidiabetic medicine is thought to vary across its geographical range, yet little is known about the factors that affect its antioxidant capacity. Here, we examined metabolite gene

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2016 PeerJ

128. Upper Respiratory Tract Diseases in Athletes in Different Sports Disciplines (PubMed)

Upper Respiratory Tract Diseases in Athletes in Different Sports Disciplines Upper respiratory tract diseases in athletes are a very common medical problem. Training conditions in different sports disciplines increase the risk of upper respiratory disease. Epidemiological evidence suggests that heavy acute or chronic exercise is related to an increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in athletes. Regular physical exercise at high intensity may lead to transient immunosuppression (...) due to high prevalence of allergic diseases in athletes. Regardless of the cause they can exclude athletes from the training program and significantly impair their performance. In the present work, the most common upper respiratory tract diseases in athletes taking into account the disciplines in which they most often occur were presented. The focus was laid on symptoms, diagnostic methods and pharmacotherapy. Moreover, preventive procedures which can help reduce the occurrence of upper

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2016 Journal of human kinetics

129. Multiple Citation Indicators and Their Composite across Scientific Disciplines (PubMed)

Multiple Citation Indicators and Their Composite across Scientific Disciplines Many fields face an increasing prevalence of multi-authorship, and this poses challenges in assessing citation metrics. Here, we explore multiple citation indicators that address total impact (number of citations, Hirsch H index [H]), co-authorship adjustment (Schreiber Hm index [Hm]), and author order (total citations to papers as single; single or first; or single, first, or last author). We demonstrate

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2016 PLoS biology

130. Laboratory Notes From Behavioral Pharmacologists and Trainees: Considerations for the Discipline (PubMed)

Laboratory Notes From Behavioral Pharmacologists and Trainees: Considerations for the Discipline In several laboratory meetings, we discussed the challenges that face trainees in behavioral pharmacology. Major concerns, such as a difficult funding climate and limited academic job prospects were discussed at first. However, we decided to concentrate on ways to meet these challenges; versus focusing on negatives and listing gripes. Within this more constructive framework, we identified

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2016 Behavior analysis (Washington, D.C.)

131. Brief intervention to encourage empathic discipline cuts suspension rates in half among adolescents. (PubMed)

Brief intervention to encourage empathic discipline cuts suspension rates in half among adolescents. Growing suspension rates predict major negative life outcomes, including adult incarceration and unemployment. Experiment 1 tested whether teachers (n = 39) could be encouraged to adopt an empathic rather than punitive mindset about discipline-to value students' perspectives and sustain positive relationships while encouraging better behavior. Experiment 2 tested whether an empathic response (...) to misbehavior would sustain students' (n = 302) respect for teachers and motivation to behave well in class. These hypotheses were confirmed. Finally, a randomized field experiment tested a brief, online intervention to encourage teachers to adopt an empathic mindset about discipline. Evaluated at five middle schools in three districts (Nteachers = 31; Nstudents = 1,682), this intervention halved year-long student suspension rates from 9.6% to 4.8%. It also bolstered respect the most at-risk students

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2016 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

132. Interviews with Irish healthcare workers from different disciplines about palliative care for people with Parkinson's disease: a definite role but uncertainty around terminology and timing. (PubMed)

Interviews with Irish healthcare workers from different disciplines about palliative care for people with Parkinson's disease: a definite role but uncertainty around terminology and timing. An integrated palliative care approach is recommended in all life-limiting diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD). However research shows that people with PD have unmet palliative care needs. The study aimed to explore multidisciplinary healthcare workers' (HCWs) views on palliative care for people (...) , and patients and carers weren't equipped with information to seek palliative care. A lack of communication between PD and palliative care specialists was seen to impede collaboration between the disciplines. Uncertainty about the timing of palliative care meant that it was often not introduced until a crisis point, despite the recognised need for early planning due to increased prevalence of dementia.Most HCWs recognised a need for palliative care for people with PD; however several barriers

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2016 BMC Palliative Care

133. Learner : preceptor ratios for practice-based learning across health disciplines: a systematic review. (PubMed)

Learner : preceptor ratios for practice-based learning across health disciplines: a systematic review. Practice-based learning is a cornerstone of developing clinical and professional competence in health disciplines. Practice-based learning systems have many interacting components, but a key facet is the number of learners per preceptor. Different learner : preceptor ratios may have unique benefits and pose unique challenges for participants. This is the first comprehensive systematic review

2016 Medical education

134. Asthma prevalence in German Olympic athletes: A comparison of winter and summer sport disciplines. (PubMed)

Asthma prevalence in German Olympic athletes: A comparison of winter and summer sport disciplines. Prevalence of asthma in elite athletes shows very wide ranges. It remains unclear to what extent this is influenced by the competition season (winter vs. summer) or the ventilation rate achieved during competition. The aim of this study was to evaluate prevalence of asthma in German elite winter and summer athletes from a wide range of sport disciplines and to identify high risk groups.In total

2016 Respiratory medicine

135. Effect of Sex and Sporting Discipline on LV Adaptation to Exercise. (PubMed)

Effect of Sex and Sporting Discipline on LV Adaptation to Exercise. This study sought to investigate the effect of different types of exercise on left ventricular (LV) geometry in a large group of female and male athletes.Studies assessing cardiac adaptation in female and male athletes indicate that female athletes reveal smaller increases in LV wall thickness and cavity size compared with male athletes. However, data on sex-specific changes in LV geometry in athletes are scarce.A total (...) /increased RWT).Athletes were engaged in 40 different sporting disciplines with similar participation rates with respect to the type of exercise between females and males. Females exhibited lower LVM (83 ± 17 g/m2 vs. 101 ± 21 g/m2; p < 0.001) and RWT (0.35 ± 0.05 vs. 0.36 ± 0.05; p < 0.001) compared with male athletes. Females also demonstrated lower absolute LV dimensions (49 ± 4 mm vs. 54 ± 5 mm; p < 0.001) but following correction for body surface area, the indexed LV dimensions were greater

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2016 JACC. Cardiovascular imaging

136. Interdisciplinary Postdoctoral Training in Global Health Through a Novel Joint Project for Trainees from Diverse Disciplines: Benefits, Risks, and Observations. (PubMed)

Interdisciplinary Postdoctoral Training in Global Health Through a Novel Joint Project for Trainees from Diverse Disciplines: Benefits, Risks, and Observations. Postdoctoral training programs are usually highly individualized arrangements between trainees and a limited number of senior mentors in their field, an approach that contrasts with current trends in public health education that promote interdisciplinary training to spur innovation. Herein, we describe an alternative model (...) for postdoctoral training for a group of fellows from distinct disciplines. Fellows work with mentors from diverse fields to create a joint research project or a group of complementary projects, with the goal of developing a new device, intervention, or innovation to address a global health problem. The perceived benefits, challenges, and limitations of this team approach to interdisciplinary postdoctoral training are presented.

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2016 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

137. Socioeconomic Gaps in Parents' Discipline Strategies From 1988 to 2011. (PubMed)

Socioeconomic Gaps in Parents' Discipline Strategies From 1988 to 2011. The prevalence of corporal punishment is high in the United States despite a 1998 American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement urging against its use. The current study tests whether the socioeconomic difference in its use by parents has changed over the past quarter century. It goes on to test whether socioeconomic differences in the use of nonphysical discipline have also changed over time.Data are drawn from 4 (...) national studies conducted between 1988 and 2011. Each asked how often a kindergarten-aged child was spanked in the past week and what the parents would do if the child misbehaved, with physical discipline, time-out, and talking to child as possible responses. We use regression models to estimate parents' responses to these questions at the 90th, 50th, and 10th percentiles of the income and education distributions and t tests to compare estimates across cohorts.The proportion of mothers at the 50th

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2016 Pediatrics

138. Opening to the otherwise: The discipline of listening and the necessity of free-association for psychoanalytic praxis. (PubMed)

Opening to the otherwise: The discipline of listening and the necessity of free-association for psychoanalytic praxis. It is argued that only free-association methodically opens the discourse of self-consciousness (the representations available to reflective awareness) to the voicing of the repressed. The method is key to Freud's originality and the sine qua non of any genuinely psychoanalytic process. Clinical procedures which do not prioritize a steadfast and ongoing commitment to this method

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2016 International Journal of Psycho-Analysis

139. Rethinking the role and impact of health information technology: informatics as an interventional discipline. (PubMed)

Rethinking the role and impact of health information technology: informatics as an interventional discipline. Recent advances in the adoption and use of health information technology (HIT) have had a dramatic impact on the practice of medicine. In many environments, this has led to the ability to achieve new efficiencies and levels of safety. In others, the impact has been less positive, and is associated with both: 1) workflow and user experience dissatisfaction; and 2) perceptions of missed

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2016 Medical Informatics and Decision Making

140. What can we learn on public accountability from non-health disciplines: a meta-narrative review. (PubMed)

What can we learn on public accountability from non-health disciplines: a meta-narrative review. In health, accountability has since long been acknowledged as a central issue, but it remains an elusive concept. The literature on accountability spans various disciplines and research traditions, with differing interpretations. There has been little transfer of ideas and concepts from other disciplines to public health and global health. In the frame of a study of accountability of (international

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2016 BMJ open

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