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Dilemma of healthcare reform and invention of new discipline of health fiscalogy China's Reform and Open up Policy in 1980s has brought rapid economic development to Chinese society. With the deepening of economic reform, the withdrawal of the state in China has had visible and worrisome consequences for health and for the functioning of health services. The new round of healthcare reform after 2009 has made significant achievements on improving fundamental health and bringing back the nature (...) of welfare of health. However, the financing mechanism of health system has not been established, and the underlying reason behind the healthcare reform dilemma and the theoretical solution need to be found.This study used the methods of literature review, theoretical research and comparative research to summarize and analyze the reasons and solutions of current dilemma in healthcare reform, and created the new discipline of health fiscalogy through theoretical analysis and vertical and horizontal
Where Are You Going, Nephrology? Considerations on Models of Care in an Evolving Discipline Nephrology is a complex discipline, including care of kidney disease, dialysis, and transplantation. While in Europe, about 1:10 individuals is affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD), 1:1000 lives thanks to dialysis or transplantation, whose costs are as high as 2% of all the health care budget. Nephrology has important links with surgery, bioethics, cardiovascular and internal medicine (...) is built around kidney transplantation and care of glomerulonephritis and immunologic diseases, which probably pose the most important challenges in our discipline, but do not mirror the most common clinical problems. Conversely, the pragmatic one is built around dialysis (the most expensive and frequent mode of renal replacement therapy) and pre-dialysis treatment, focusing attention on the most common diseases, the holistic, or comprehensive, model comprehends both, and is integrated by several
The Children's Oncology Group Radiation Oncology Discipline: 15 Years of Contributions to the Treatment of Childhood Cancer. Our aim was to review the advances in radiation therapy for the management of pediatric cancers made by the Children's Oncology Group (COG) radiation oncology discipline since its inception in 2000.The various radiation oncology disease site leaders reviewed the contributions and advances in pediatric oncology made through the work of the COG. They have presented outcomes (...) of relevant studies and summarized current treatment policies developed by consensus from experts in the field.The indications and techniques for pediatric radiation therapy have evolved considerably over the years for virtually all pediatric tumor types, resulting in improved cure rates together with the potential for decreased treatment-related morbidity and mortality.The COG radiation oncology discipline has made significant contributions toward the treatment of childhood cancer. Our discipline
Psychiatry: A discipline at specific risk of mental health issues and addictive behavior? Results from the national BOURBON study. Physicians are at risk for burnout, anxiety and depression.To explore the self-reported mental health status, substance use behavior and motives of a national sample of interns in psychiatry compared to other specialties.Interns of the 35 French Medicine faculties were recruited through mailing lists and social networks between December 2016 and May 2018
A systematic review of interventions to support the careers of women in academic medicine and other disciplines. To summarise quantitative evaluations of interventions designed to support the careers of women in academia of any discipline.A systematic search of English entries in PubMed, CINAHL and Google Scholar was conducted in September 2017. Methodological quality of the studies was independently assessed by two authors using the Joanna Briggs Institute quality appraisal checklists. Meta
Reformulation as an Integrated Approach of Four Disciplines: A Qualitative Study with Food Companies In 2014, the Dutch government agreed with the food sector to lower salt, sugar, saturated fat and energy in foods. To reformulate, an integrated approach of four disciplines (Nutrition & Health, Food Technology, Legislation, and Consumer Perspectives) is important for food companies (Framework for Reformulation). The objective of this study was to determine whether this framework accurately (...) more (Legislation). Traditional meat products and luxury sweet bakery products were considered less suitable for reformulation (Consumer Perspectives). In addition, the reduction of E-numbers was considered important. The important role of the retailer is stressed by the respondents. In conclusion, all four disciplines are important in the reformulation processes in food companies. Reformulation does not only mean the reduction of salt, saturated fat and sugar for companies, but also the reduction
Reporting transfusion-related acute lung injury by clinical and preclinical disciplinesDisciplines involved in diagnosing transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) report according to a "one-hit" theory. However, studies showed that patients with an underlying condition are at increased risk of the development of TRALI. We investigated whether accumulating evidence on the "two-hit" theory has changed the practice of reporting TRALI.Departments of haematology, haemovigilance, transfusion
In Search of the Ninth Discipline: The History of Pathophysiology, with an Emphasis on Pathophysiology in Varna, Bulgariaâ€”Celebrating 100 Years of Pathophysiology in Bulgaria Pathophysiology is a medical science whose subject is the change in regulatory mechanisms related to the onset, development, and outcome of diseases. The first lectures on pathophysiology were held in 1790 at the University of Erfurt, Germany, by Professor Augustus Hecker, who in 1791 also published the first work (...) on the discipline - "Grundriss der Physiologia pathologica" in 770 pages. The teaching of pathophysiology as an independent discipline was introduced by academician Viktor Pashutin at the University of Kazan, Russia in 1874. Academician Pashutin called this new discipline "Pathological Physiology and Experimental Medicine." Despite the persuasiveness of Pashutin that pathological anatomy and pathophysiology are inseparable parts of a whole, his students, academician Nikolay Anichkov and Prof. Semyon Khalatov
Cyberbiosecurity: An Emerging New Discipline to Help Safeguard the Bioeconomy Cyberbiosecurity is being proposed as a formal new enterprise which encompasses cybersecurity, cyber-physical security and biosecurity as applied to biological and biomedical-based systems. In recent years, an array of important meetings and public discussions, commentaries and publications have occurred that highlight numerous vulnerabilities. While necessary first steps, they do not provide a systematized structure (...) outcomes could result. Creating, promoting and advancing a new discipline can assist with formal, beneficial and continuing engagements. Recent key activities and publications that inform the creation of Cyberbiosecurity are briefly reviewed, as is the expansion of Cyberbiosecurity to include biomanufacturing which is supported by a rigorous analysis of a biomanufacturing facility. Recommendations are provided to initialize Cyberbiosecurity and place it on a trajectory to establish a structured
Using text analysis to quantify the similarity and evolution of scientific disciplines We use an information-theoretic measure of linguistic similarity to investigate the organization and evolution of scientific fields. An analysis of almost 20 M papers from the past three decades reveals that the linguistic similarity is related but different from experts and citation-based classifications, leading to an improved view on the organization of science. A temporal analysis of the similarity (...) of fields shows that some fields (e.g. computer science) are becoming increasingly central, but that on average the similarity between pairs of disciplines has not changed in the last decades. This suggests that tendencies of convergence (e.g. multi-disciplinarity) and divergence (e.g. specialization) of disciplines are in balance.
The impact of the 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak in Liberia on parent preferences for harsh discipline practices: a quasi-experimental, pre-post design This paper uses data from a cohort of parents and guardians of young children living in Monrovia, Liberia collected before and after the 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) to estimate the impact of EVD exposure on implicit preferences for harsh discipline. We hypothesized that parents exposed to EVD-related sickness or death would (...) exhibit a stronger preference for harsh discipline practices compared with non-exposed parents.The data for this analysis come from two survey rounds conducted in Liberia as part of an intervention trial of a behavioral parenting skills intervention. Following a baseline assessment of 201 enrolled parents in July 2014, all program and study activities were halted due to the outbreak of EVD. Following the EVD crisis, we conducted a tracking survey with parents who completed the baseline survey 12
Trend of Medical Tourism Publications: An Attempt to Explore the Involved Academic Disciplines and Interests Medical tourism suffers from the lack of a consensus regarding the involved categories. This study aimed to address this gap from the academic disciplines and publications perspective.Totally 1954 citations were identified through a formula of keyword search of SCOPUS. In order to classify the various subject areas, we followed the international standard classification of education (...) (ISCED) developed by UNESCO. Moreover, the trends of publications were identified based on their popularity between 2000 and 2017.The category with the most interests on publication about medical tourism was 'health and welfare', followed by 'social science'. Even though various disciplines were involved in the medical tourism, it seems that a downward trend has been experienced since 2015.The identified key trends of medical tourism publications will benefit researchers exploring the categories
Knowledge, demand, and the need of lay people for the orthodontic specialty in comparison to other dental disciplines To assess the knowledge of, demand for, and need for the orthodontic specialty in comparison to other dental fields in a sample of Saudi males.multiple choice questionnaire was designed to assess participants' knowledge interest, demand, and need for treatment in the following dental specialties: orthodontics, periodontics, prosthodontics, endodontics, and restorative dentistry (...) . Subjects desiring clinical examination underwent further assessment to document their actual needs. In addition to the subjects' age, the frequencies of tooth brushing, dental pain, treatment seeking, and routine checkup were collected. Descriptive statistics and Pearson's Chi-square test were applied to compare the percentages of the knowledge of, demand for, and need for each dental discipline. The significance level was set at P < 0.05.total of 1566 Saudi males completed the initial survey of dental
Corporal punishment of children: discipline or abuse? Corporal punishment is a public health problem due to its impact on the physical, psychological, and social interactions of children.To determine the knowledge of pediatricians in Lebanon regarding corporal punishment, their preventive, educational, and legal role.A cross-sectional descriptive study conducted on 153 pediatricians in Lebanon, by a questionnaire distributed at the 12th Annual Congress of the Lebanese Pediatric Society (...) in the abolition of corporal punishment, but this cannot be accomplished without improving their skills in this area. They are invited to seek legal reforms in Lebanon to abolish the use of corporal punishment as a means of disciplining children.
Training for translation between disciplines: a philosophy for life and data sciences curricula Our society has become data-rich to the extent that research in many areas has become impossible without computational approaches. Educational programmes seem to be lagging behind this development. At the same time, there is a growing need not only for strong data science skills, but foremost for the ability to both translate between tools and methods on the one hand, and application and problems (...) from adjacent disciplines. Finally, we present concrete suggestions on how this may be implemented in practice, which may be relevant for the effectiveness of life science and data science curricula in general, and of particular interest to those who are in the process of setting up such curricula.Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Decision making with visualizations: a cognitive framework across disciplines Visualizations-visual representations of information, depicted in graphics-are studied by researchers in numerous ways, ranging from the study of the basic principles of creating visualizations, to the cognitive processes underlying their use, as well as how visualizations communicate complex information (such as in medical risk or spatial patterns). However, findings from different domains are rarely shared across
Evidence-based practice profiles among bachelor students in four health disciplines: a cross-sectional study Despite the recognition of integrating evidence-based practice (EBP) in educational programs, there is limited research about bachelor students' EBP profiles (EBP knowledge, attitudes and behaviour) in the health disciplines nursing, occupational therapy, physiotherapy and radiography. The aim of this study was to assess EBP profiles among bachelor students in health disciplines (...) , and explore differences between health disciplines, educational institutions, students' assessment of EBP teaching and expectations of EBP performance.A survey using the 'Evidence-Based Practice Profile - Norwegian version' (EBP2-N) was conducted among final year bachelor students in health disciplines from four educational institutions. The questionnaire consisted of five domains (Relevance, Terminology, Confidence, Practice and Sympathy) and assessed the five steps of EBP. We performed regression
Developing Course-Based Research Experiences in Discipline-Based Education Research: Lessons Learned and Recommendations In this perspective, we highlight the opportunity for the biology education research community to develop course-based research experiences (CREs) or course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) in discipline-based education research. Building on our prior experience developing and teaching four biology education research CREs, we present opportunities, potential (...) pitfalls, and recommendations for discipline-based education researchers interested in integrating their research and teaching in the context of a CRE.
Trends in utilization and perioperative outcomes in live donor nephrectomies: a multi-surgical discipline analysis. We aim to analyze the trends in donor nephrectomy (DN) across three surgical disciplines-urology, general surgery, and transplant surgery, specifically to analyze the surgical techniques and perioperative outcomes.We reviewed all live DN reported in the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database of New York State (NYS) from 1995 to 2015. Surgeons were grouped (...) in their respective disciplines using their state license number and the American Medical Association masterfile. We analyzed the volume of DN performed by each group along with how the surgical approach is, such as open, laparoscopic or robotic. Perioperative outcomes assessed were length of stay (LOS), 30-day and 90-day readmission rates, and complication rates RESULTS: A total of 6803 DN were performed with urologists, transplant surgeons and general surgeons accounting for 42%, 29%, and 29% of them
Effective Discipline to Raise Healthy Children. Pediatricians are a source of advice for parents and guardians concerning the management of child behavior, including discipline strategies that are used to teach appropriate behavior and protect their children and others from the adverse effects of challenging behavior. Aversive disciplinary strategies, including all forms of corporal punishment and yelling at or shaming children, are minimally effective in the short-term and not effective (...) in the long-term. With new evidence, researchers link corporal punishment to an increased risk of negative behavioral, cognitive, psychosocial, and emotional outcomes for children. In this Policy Statement, the American Academy of Pediatrics provides guidance for pediatricians and other child health care providers on educating parents about positive and effective parenting strategies of discipline for children at each stage of development as well as references to educational materials. This statement