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21. Reporting transfusion-related acute lung injury by clinical and preclinical disciplines (PubMed)

Reporting transfusion-related acute lung injury by clinical and preclinical disciplines Disciplines involved in diagnosing transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) report according to a "one-hit" theory. However, studies showed that patients with an underlying condition are at increased risk of the development of TRALI. We investigated whether accumulating evidence on the "two-hit" theory has changed the practice of reporting TRALI.Departments of haematology, haemovigilance, transfusion

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2018 Blood Transfusion

22. In Search of the Ninth Discipline: The History of Pathophysiology, with an Emphasis on Pathophysiology in Varna, Bulgaria—Celebrating 100 Years of Pathophysiology in Bulgaria (PubMed)

In Search of the Ninth Discipline: The History of Pathophysiology, with an Emphasis on Pathophysiology in Varna, Bulgaria—Celebrating 100 Years of Pathophysiology in Bulgaria Pathophysiology is a medical science whose subject is the change in regulatory mechanisms related to the onset, development, and outcome of diseases. The first lectures on pathophysiology were held in 1790 at the University of Erfurt, Germany, by Professor Augustus Hecker, who in 1791 also published the first work (...) on the discipline - "Grundriss der Physiologia pathologica" in 770 pages. The teaching of pathophysiology as an independent discipline was introduced by academician Viktor Pashutin at the University of Kazan, Russia in 1874. Academician Pashutin called this new discipline "Pathological Physiology and Experimental Medicine." Despite the persuasiveness of Pashutin that pathological anatomy and pathophysiology are inseparable parts of a whole, his students, academician Nikolay Anichkov and Prof. Semyon Khalatov

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2018 Cureus

23. Cyberbiosecurity: An Emerging New Discipline to Help Safeguard the Bioeconomy (PubMed)

Cyberbiosecurity: An Emerging New Discipline to Help Safeguard the Bioeconomy Cyberbiosecurity is being proposed as a formal new enterprise which encompasses cybersecurity, cyber-physical security and biosecurity as applied to biological and biomedical-based systems. In recent years, an array of important meetings and public discussions, commentaries and publications have occurred that highlight numerous vulnerabilities. While necessary first steps, they do not provide a systematized structure (...) outcomes could result. Creating, promoting and advancing a new discipline can assist with formal, beneficial and continuing engagements. Recent key activities and publications that inform the creation of Cyberbiosecurity are briefly reviewed, as is the expansion of Cyberbiosecurity to include biomanufacturing which is supported by a rigorous analysis of a biomanufacturing facility. Recommendations are provided to initialize Cyberbiosecurity and place it on a trajectory to establish a structured

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2018 Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology

24. Using text analysis to quantify the similarity and evolution of scientific disciplines (PubMed)

Using text analysis to quantify the similarity and evolution of scientific disciplines We use an information-theoretic measure of linguistic similarity to investigate the organization and evolution of scientific fields. An analysis of almost 20 M papers from the past three decades reveals that the linguistic similarity is related but different from experts and citation-based classifications, leading to an improved view on the organization of science. A temporal analysis of the similarity (...) of fields shows that some fields (e.g. computer science) are becoming increasingly central, but that on average the similarity between pairs of disciplines has not changed in the last decades. This suggests that tendencies of convergence (e.g. multi-disciplinarity) and divergence (e.g. specialization) of disciplines are in balance.

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2018 Royal Society Open Science

25. The impact of the 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak in Liberia on parent preferences for harsh discipline practices: a quasi-experimental, pre-post design (PubMed)

The impact of the 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak in Liberia on parent preferences for harsh discipline practices: a quasi-experimental, pre-post design This paper uses data from a cohort of parents and guardians of young children living in Monrovia, Liberia collected before and after the 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) to estimate the impact of EVD exposure on implicit preferences for harsh discipline. We hypothesized that parents exposed to EVD-related sickness or death would (...) exhibit a stronger preference for harsh discipline practices compared with non-exposed parents.The data for this analysis come from two survey rounds conducted in Liberia as part of an intervention trial of a behavioral parenting skills intervention. Following a baseline assessment of 201 enrolled parents in July 2014, all program and study activities were halted due to the outbreak of EVD. Following the EVD crisis, we conducted a tracking survey with parents who completed the baseline survey 12

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2018 Global mental health

26. Trend of Medical Tourism Publications: An Attempt to Explore the Involved Academic Disciplines and Interests (PubMed)

Trend of Medical Tourism Publications: An Attempt to Explore the Involved Academic Disciplines and Interests Medical tourism suffers from the lack of a consensus regarding the involved categories. This study aimed to address this gap from the academic disciplines and publications perspective.Totally 1954 citations were identified through a formula of keyword search of SCOPUS. In order to classify the various subject areas, we followed the international standard classification of education (...) (ISCED) developed by UNESCO. Moreover, the trends of publications were identified based on their popularity between 2000 and 2017.The category with the most interests on publication about medical tourism was 'health and welfare', followed by 'social science'. Even though various disciplines were involved in the medical tourism, it seems that a downward trend has been experienced since 2015.The identified key trends of medical tourism publications will benefit researchers exploring the categories

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2018 Iranian journal of public health

27. Knowledge, demand, and the need of lay people for the orthodontic specialty in comparison to other dental disciplines (PubMed)

Knowledge, demand, and the need of lay people for the orthodontic specialty in comparison to other dental disciplines To assess the knowledge of, demand for, and need for the orthodontic specialty in comparison to other dental fields in a sample of Saudi males.multiple choice questionnaire was designed to assess participants' knowledge interest, demand, and need for treatment in the following dental specialties: orthodontics, periodontics, prosthodontics, endodontics, and restorative dentistry (...) . Subjects desiring clinical examination underwent further assessment to document their actual needs. In addition to the subjects' age, the frequencies of tooth brushing, dental pain, treatment seeking, and routine checkup were collected. Descriptive statistics and Pearson's Chi-square test were applied to compare the percentages of the knowledge of, demand for, and need for each dental discipline. The significance level was set at P < 0.05.total of 1566 Saudi males completed the initial survey of dental

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2018 Journal of orthodontic science

28. Corporal punishment of children: discipline or abuse? (PubMed)

Corporal punishment of children: discipline or abuse? Corporal punishment is a public health problem due to its impact on the physical, psychological, and social interactions of children.To determine the knowledge of pediatricians in Lebanon regarding corporal punishment, their preventive, educational, and legal role.A cross-sectional descriptive study conducted on 153 pediatricians in Lebanon, by a questionnaire distributed at the 12th Annual Congress of the Lebanese Pediatric Society (...) in the abolition of corporal punishment, but this cannot be accomplished without improving their skills in this area. They are invited to seek legal reforms in Lebanon to abolish the use of corporal punishment as a means of disciplining children.

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2018 The Libyan journal of medicine

29. Training for translation between disciplines: a philosophy for life and data sciences curricula (PubMed)

Training for translation between disciplines: a philosophy for life and data sciences curricula Our society has become data-rich to the extent that research in many areas has become impossible without computational approaches. Educational programmes seem to be lagging behind this development. At the same time, there is a growing need not only for strong data science skills, but foremost for the ability to both translate between tools and methods on the one hand, and application and problems (...) from adjacent disciplines. Finally, we present concrete suggestions on how this may be implemented in practice, which may be relevant for the effectiveness of life science and data science curricula in general, and of particular interest to those who are in the process of setting up such curricula.Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

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2018 Bioinformatics

30. Decision making with visualizations: a cognitive framework across disciplines (PubMed)

Decision making with visualizations: a cognitive framework across disciplines Visualizations-visual representations of information, depicted in graphics-are studied by researchers in numerous ways, ranging from the study of the basic principles of creating visualizations, to the cognitive processes underlying their use, as well as how visualizations communicate complex information (such as in medical risk or spatial patterns). However, findings from different domains are rarely shared across

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2018 Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications

31. Evidence-based practice profiles among bachelor students in four health disciplines: a cross-sectional study (PubMed)

Evidence-based practice profiles among bachelor students in four health disciplines: a cross-sectional study Despite the recognition of integrating evidence-based practice (EBP) in educational programs, there is limited research about bachelor students' EBP profiles (EBP knowledge, attitudes and behaviour) in the health disciplines nursing, occupational therapy, physiotherapy and radiography. The aim of this study was to assess EBP profiles among bachelor students in health disciplines (...) , and explore differences between health disciplines, educational institutions, students' assessment of EBP teaching and expectations of EBP performance.A survey using the 'Evidence-Based Practice Profile - Norwegian version' (EBP2-N) was conducted among final year bachelor students in health disciplines from four educational institutions. The questionnaire consisted of five domains (Relevance, Terminology, Confidence, Practice and Sympathy) and assessed the five steps of EBP. We performed regression

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2018 BMC medical education

32. Developing Course-Based Research Experiences in Discipline-Based Education Research: Lessons Learned and Recommendations (PubMed)

Developing Course-Based Research Experiences in Discipline-Based Education Research: Lessons Learned and Recommendations In this perspective, we highlight the opportunity for the biology education research community to develop course-based research experiences (CREs) or course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) in discipline-based education research. Building on our prior experience developing and teaching four biology education research CREs, we present opportunities, potential (...) pitfalls, and recommendations for discipline-based education researchers interested in integrating their research and teaching in the context of a CRE.

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2018 Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education

33. Trends in utilization and perioperative outcomes in live donor nephrectomies: a multi-surgical discipline analysis. (PubMed)

Trends in utilization and perioperative outcomes in live donor nephrectomies: a multi-surgical discipline analysis. We aim to analyze the trends in donor nephrectomy (DN) across three surgical disciplines-urology, general surgery, and transplant surgery, specifically to analyze the surgical techniques and perioperative outcomes.We reviewed all live DN reported in the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database of New York State (NYS) from 1995 to 2015. Surgeons were grouped (...) in their respective disciplines using their state license number and the American Medical Association masterfile. We analyzed the volume of DN performed by each group along with how the surgical approach is, such as open, laparoscopic or robotic. Perioperative outcomes assessed were length of stay (LOS), 30-day and 90-day readmission rates, and complication rates RESULTS: A total of 6803 DN were performed with urologists, transplant surgeons and general surgeons accounting for 42%, 29%, and 29% of them

2018 World journal of urology

34. Effective Discipline to Raise Healthy Children. (PubMed)

Effective Discipline to Raise Healthy Children. Pediatricians are a source of advice for parents and guardians concerning the management of child behavior, including discipline strategies that are used to teach appropriate behavior and protect their children and others from the adverse effects of challenging behavior. Aversive disciplinary strategies, including all forms of corporal punishment and yelling at or shaming children, are minimally effective in the short-term and not effective (...) in the long-term. With new evidence, researchers link corporal punishment to an increased risk of negative behavioral, cognitive, psychosocial, and emotional outcomes for children. In this Policy Statement, the American Academy of Pediatrics provides guidance for pediatricians and other child health care providers on educating parents about positive and effective parenting strategies of discipline for children at each stage of development as well as references to educational materials. This statement

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2018 Pediatrics

35. Addressing Gender Inequality in Our Disciplines: Report from the Association of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Division Chiefs. (PubMed)

Addressing Gender Inequality in Our Disciplines: Report from the Association of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Division Chiefs. Despite the increasing proportion of women in U.S. medical schools, there are relatively few women in leadership positions, and a number of recent publications have highlighted many factors that could contribute to gender inequity and inequality in medicine. The Association of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Division Directors, an organization of Division

2018 Annals of the American Thoracic Society

36. Between empowerment and self-discipline: Governing patients' conduct through technological self-care. (PubMed)

Between empowerment and self-discipline: Governing patients' conduct through technological self-care. Recent health policy renders patients increasingly responsible for managing their health via digital technology such as health apps and online patient platforms. This paper discusses underlying tensions between empowerment and self-discipline embodied in discourses of technological self-care. It presents findings from documentary analysis and interviews with key players in the English digital (...) health context including policy makers, health designers and patient organisations. We show how discourses ascribe to patients an enterprising identity, which is inculcated with economic interests and engenders self-discipline. However, this reading does not capture all implications of technological self-care. A governmentality lens also shows that technological self-care opens up the potential for a de-centring of medical knowledge and its subsequent communalization. The paper contributes

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2018 Social Science & Medicine

37. Cognitive Computational Neuroscience: A New Conference for an Emerging Discipline (PubMed)

Cognitive Computational Neuroscience: A New Conference for an Emerging Discipline Understanding the computational principles that underlie complex behavior is a central goal in cognitive science, artificial intelligence, and neuroscience. In an attempt to unify these disconnected communities, we created a new conference called Cognitive Computational Neuroscience (CCN). The inaugural meeting revealed considerable enthusiasm but significant obstacles remain.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All

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2018 Trends in cognitive sciences

38. The value of a cross-discipline team-based approach for resection of renal cell carcinoma with IVC tumor thrombus: A report of a large, contemporary, single-institution experience. (PubMed)

The value of a cross-discipline team-based approach for resection of renal cell carcinoma with IVC tumor thrombus: A report of a large, contemporary, single-institution experience. We report the evolution of the largest, contemporary, single-institution experience with this complex procedure to highlight the value of a cross-discipline, team-based approach.Patients from a prospectively maintained database who underwent resection of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with inferior vena cava (IVC) tumor (...) to 2010 and 89 from 2011 to 2016. All procedures since 2011 were performed by the same cross-discipline dedicated team of two surgeons, composed of a surgical and urological oncologist. When comparing the two time-periods, the team-approach after 2011 had shorter operative-times (5.3 vs 6.7 hours; P = 0.009), decreased ICU-utilization (25% vs 72%; P < 0.001), and decreased ICU length-of-stay (0.4 vs 2.2 days; P = 0.001). This group also trended towards less blood loss (1.2 vs 1.8 L), shorter average

2018 Journal of Surgical Oncology

39. Motor imagery ability assessments in four disciplines: protocol for a systematic review. (PubMed)

Motor imagery ability assessments in four disciplines: protocol for a systematic review. Motor imagery (MI) is a very popular and well-accepted technique in different disciplines. Originating from sport and psychology, MI is now also used in the field of medicine and education. Several studies confirmed the benefits of MI to facilitate motor learning and skill acquisition. The findings indicated that individual's MI ability might influence the effectiveness of MI interventions. Over the last (...) two centuries, researchers have developed several assessments to evaluate MI's abstract construct. However, no systematic reviews (SR) exist for MI ability evaluation methods and their measurement properties.The SR will evaluate available MI ability assessments and their psychometric properties in four relevant disciplines: sports, psychology, medicine and education. This involves performing searches in SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science and ERIC. Working independently

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2018 BMJ open

40. Differences in the outcomes of adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer prescribed by physicians in different disciplines: a population-based study in Taiwan. (PubMed)

Differences in the outcomes of adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer prescribed by physicians in different disciplines: a population-based study in Taiwan. One feature unique to the Taiwanese healthcare system is the ability of physicians other than oncologists to prescribe systemic chemotherapy. This study investigated whether the care paths implemented by oncologists and non-oncologists differ with regard to patient outcomes.Data from the Taiwan Cancer Registry and National Health Insurance (...) cancer but for whom this was not the first primary cancer. The variables included sex, age, comorbidities, disease stage, chemotherapy cycle and changes in treatment regimen as well as the specialty of treatment providers and their case volume. Cox regression models and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to examine differences in outcomes in the matched cohorts.We examined 3534 patients who were prescribed adjuvant chemotherapy by physicians from different disciplines. In terms of 5-year disease-free

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2018 BMJ open

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