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Diptera

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1521. The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor Family in the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Full Text available with Trip Pro

to 37 bHLH families with 21, 13, 9, 1, 9, and 1 members in group A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively. Through in-group phylogenetic analyses, all of the identified A. pisum bHLH members were assigned into their correspondent bHLH families with confidence, among which 51 were defined according to phylogenetic analyses with orthologs from Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and 3 of them were defined according to phylogenetic analyses with orthologs from Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera

2011 Journal of Insect Science

1523. Entedoninae wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae) associated with ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in tropical America, with new species and notes on their biology Full Text available with Trip Pro

females and is a gregarious endoparasitoid in larvae of the weaver ant Camponotus sp. ca. textor. The parasitoids pupate inside the host larva, and an average of 6.7 individuals develops per host. This is the second time a species of genus Horismenus is found parasitizing the brood of a formicine ant of genus Camponotus. Horismenus microdonophagussp. n. is described from both males and females, and is a gregarious endoparasitoid attacking the larvae of Microdon sp. (Diptera: Syrphidae), a predator

2011 ZooKeys

1524. Tsetse Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus: Hope or Hindrance for Tsetse Control? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Tsetse Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus: Hope or Hindrance for Tsetse Control? MANY SPECIES OF TSETSE FLIES (DIPTERA: Glossinidae) are infected with a virus that causes salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH), and flies with SGH symptoms have a reduced fecundity and fertility. The prevalence of SGH in wild tsetse populations is usually very low (0.2%-5%), but higher prevalence rates (15.2%) have been observed occasionally. The successful eradication of a Glossina austeni population from Unguja Island

2011 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

1525. Molecular Evolution of Ultraspiracle Protein (USP/RXR) in Insects Full Text available with Trip Pro

Molecular Evolution of Ultraspiracle Protein (USP/RXR) in Insects Ultraspiracle protein/retinoid X receptor (USP/RXR) is a nuclear receptor and transcription factor which is an essential component of a heterodimeric receptor complex with the ecdysone receptor (EcR). In insects this complex binds ecdysteroids and plays an important role in the regulation of growth, development, metamorphosis and reproduction. In some holometabolous insects, including Lepidoptera and Diptera, USP/RXR is thought (...) important sites. Our results reveal evidence of positive selection acting on sites within the loop connecting helices H1 and H3, the ligand-binding pocket, and the dimer interface in the holometabolous lineage leading to the Lepidoptera/Diptera/Trichoptera. Similar analyses conducted using EcR sequences did not indicate positive selection. However, analyses allowing for variation across sites demonstrated elevated non-synonymous/synonymous rate ratios (d(N)/d(S)), suggesting relaxed constraint, within

2011 PloS one

1526. The Diversity and Abundance of Small Arthropods in Onion, Allium cepa, Seed Crops, and their Potential Role in Pollination Full Text available with Trip Pro

flowering commercial A. cepa seed fields in the North and South Islands of New Zealand using window traps revealed that small arthropods were highly abundant among all except one field. Insects belonging to the orders Diptera and Thysanoptera were the most abundant and Hymenoptera, Collembola, Psocoptera, Hemiptera, and Coleoptera were also present. To test whether small arthropods might contribute to pollination, seed sets from umbels caged within 3 mm diameter mesh cages were compared with similarly

2011 Journal of Insect Science

1527. Measurement of predatory behaviour in cow dung-colonising insect larvae, using compound-specific 13C-tracing of dietary fatty acids Full Text available with Trip Pro

fly, Mesembrina meridiana (Diptera: Muscidae); the technique was used to differentiate dung from high-enrichment (13)C-labelled prey in their gut contents. Potential prey, (13)C-labelled larvae of the dung-breeding fly, Neomyia cornicina (Diptera: Muscidae), were placed into unlabelled dung microcosms in the laboratory. A single 7-day-old M. meridiana larva was allowed to feed in each microcosm for 8 h. The magnitude of increases in the δ(13)C values of fatty acids (i14:0, 14:0, i15:0, a15:0, 15:0

2011 Journal of chemical biology

1528. The Semiaquatic Nematoceran Fly Assemblages of Three Wetland Habitats and Concordance with Plant Species Composition, a Case Study from Subalpine Fennoscandia Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Semiaquatic Nematoceran Fly Assemblages of Three Wetland Habitats and Concordance with Plant Species Composition, a Case Study from Subalpine Fennoscandia Semiaquatic flies (Diptera, Nematocera) are an ecologically important and species rich group of insects within the boreal and arctic biomes. Community structure, species richness and abundance of semiaquatic flies were studied in three habitat types (aapa mires, springs and headwater streams), totaling 19 study sites, within the subalpine

2011 Journal of Insect Science

1529. Distribution of Leishmania major zymodemes in relation to populations of Phlebotomus papatasi sand flies Full Text available with Trip Pro

Distribution of Leishmania major zymodemes in relation to populations of Phlebotomus papatasi sand flies Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the main vector of Leishmania major Yakimoff & Schokhor (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), the causative agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Old World. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) was extensively used to type different L. major stocks all over the world. Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) has been

2011 Parasites & vectors

1530. The maternal and early embryonic transcriptome of the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus Full Text available with Trip Pro

are available for holometabolous insects, developmental studies of basally branching hemimetabolous insects typically suffer from low rates of gene discovery.We used 454 pyrosequencing to sequence over 500 million bases of cDNA from the ovaries and embryos of the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, which lacks a sequenced genome. This indirectly developing insect occupies an important phylogenetic position, branching basal to Diptera (including fruit flies) and Hymenoptera (including honeybees

2011 BMC genomics

1531. Stable structural color patterns displayed on transparent insect wings Full Text available with Trip Pro

Stable structural color patterns displayed on transparent insect wings Color patterns play central roles in the behavior of insects, and are important traits for taxonomic studies. Here we report striking and stable structural color patterns--wing interference patterns (WIPs)--in the transparent wings of small Hymenoptera and Diptera, patterns that have been largely overlooked by biologists. These extremely thin wings reflect vivid color patterns caused by thin film interference. The visibility

2011 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

1532. Interchromosomal Duplications on the Bactrocera oleae Y Chromosome Imply a Distinct Evolutionary Origin of the Sex Chromosomes Compared to Drosophila Full Text available with Trip Pro

Interchromosomal Duplications on the Bactrocera oleae Y Chromosome Imply a Distinct Evolutionary Origin of the Sex Chromosomes Compared to Drosophila Diptera have an extraordinary variety of sex determination mechanisms, and Drosophila melanogaster is the paradigm for this group. However, the Drosophila sex determination pathway is only partially conserved and the family Tephritidae affords an interesting example. The tephritid Y chromosome is postulated to be necessary to determine male

2011 PloS one

1533. Dynamics of Immune System Gene Expression upon Bacterial Challenge and Wounding in a Social Insect (Bombus terrestris) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dynamics of Immune System Gene Expression upon Bacterial Challenge and Wounding in a Social Insect (Bombus terrestris) The innate immune system which helps individuals to combat pathogens comprises a set of genes representing four immune system pathways (Toll, Imd, JNK and JAK/STAT). There is a lack of immune genes in social insects (e.g. honeybees) when compared to Diptera. Potentially, this might be compensated by an advanced system of social immunity (synergistic action of several

2011 PloS one

1534. Expression of chemosensory proteins in the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans is related to female host-seeking behaviour Full Text available with Trip Pro

flies, 48 h after a bloodmeal. Thus there is a clear relationship between CSP gene transcription and host searching behaviour. Genome annotation and phylogenetic analyses comparing G. morsitans morsitans CSPs with those of other Diptera showed rapid evolution after speciation of mosquitoes.© 2011 The Authors. Insect Molecular Biology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.

2011 Insect molecular biology

1535. The Enhancer of split complex arose prior to the diversification of schizophoran flies and is strongly conserved between Drosophila and stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae) Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Enhancer of split complex arose prior to the diversification of schizophoran flies and is strongly conserved between Drosophila and stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae) In Drosophila, the Enhancer of split complex (E(spl)-C) comprises 11 bHLH and Bearded genes that function during Notch signaling to repress proneural identity in the developing peripheral nervous system. Comparison with other insects indicates that the basal state for Diptera is a single bHLH and Bearded homolog (...) and that the expansion of the gene complex occurred in the lineage leading to Drosophila. However, comparative genomic data from other fly species that would elucidate the origin and sequence of gene duplication for the complex is lacking. Therefore, in order to examine the evolutionary history of the complex within Diptera, we reconstructed, using several fosmid clones, the entire E(spl)-complex in the stalk-eyed fly, Teleopsis dalmanni and collected additional homologs of E(spl)-C genes from searches of dipteran

2011 BMC evolutionary biology

1536. Comparative Phylogeography in a Specific and Obligate Pollination Antagonism Full Text available with Trip Pro

plant-insect pollination lure-and-trap antagonism, involving Arum maculatum (Araceae) and its specific psychodid (Diptera) visitors Psychoda phalaenoides and Psycha grisescens. Because the interaction is asymmetric (i.e., only the plant depends on the insect), we expect the genetic structure of the plant to be related with the historical pollinator availability, yielding incongruent phylogeographic patterns between the interacting organisms.Using insect mtDNA sequences and plant AFLP genome

2011 PloS one

1537. No Adverse Effect of Genetically Modified Antifungal Wheat on Decomposition Dynamics and the Soil Fauna Community – A Field Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

isolines and six conventional cereal varieties. To elucidate the mechanisms that cause differences in plant decomposition, structural plant components (i.e. C∶N ratio, lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose) were examined and soil properties, temperature and precipitation were monitored. The most frequent taxa extracted from decaying plant material were mites (Cryptostigmata, Gamasina and Uropodina), springtails (Isotomidae), annelids (Enchytraeidae) and Diptera (Cecidomyiidae larvae). Despite a single

2011 PloS one

1538. The Temporal Pattern of Mating Behavior of the Fruit Fly, Anastrepha zenildae in the Laboratory Full Text available with Trip Pro

, Anastrepha zenildae Zucchi (Diptera: Tephritidae), probably a result of the introduction of irrigated guava orchards that make fruit available all year. Knowledge of the sexual behavior of Tephritidae has great importance to pest control programs, particularly those that employ the Sterile Insect Technique. In order to characterize the reproductive behavior of A. zenildae, 32 individuals (16 males; 16 females) in each of six generations were submitted to an artificial 12:12 L:D cycle (750: < 1 lux

2011 Journal of Insect Science

1539. Molecular Phylogeny and Identification of the Peach Fruit Fly, Bactrocera zonata, Established in Egypt Full Text available with Trip Pro

Molecular Phylogeny and Identification of the Peach Fruit Fly, Bactrocera zonata, Established in Egypt The genetic structure of the Egyptian peach fruit fly (Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae)) population was analyzed using total RNA from adult females. A portion of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), 369 bp was amplified using RT-PCR, and was sequenced and analyzed to clarify the phylogenetic relationship of B. zonata established in Egypt. The data suggested

2011 Journal of Insect Science

1540. Metamorphosis and Gonad Maturation in the Horn Fly Haematobia irritans Full Text available with Trip Pro

Metamorphosis and Gonad Maturation in the Horn Fly Haematobia irritans The bloodsucking horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most damaging pests of pasture cattle in many areas of the world. Both male and female imagoes spend their adult stage on the host, while immature stages develop in dung. Our goal was to determine if the progress of H. irritans gonad maturation can be correlated with eye and cuticle pigmentation events that occur during development

2011 Journal of Insect Science

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