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Diphtheria

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161. Meningococcal Conjugate and tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccination Among HIV-Infected Youth. (PubMed)

Meningococcal Conjugate and tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccination Among HIV-Infected Youth. The meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) and the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) were first recommended for adolescents in the US in 2005. The goal of our study was to determine MCV4 and Tdap vaccines coverage among perinatally and behaviorally HIV-infected adolescents in 2006 and to compare coverage estimates

2016 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

162. Microbiological and molecular characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolated in Algeria between 1992 and 2015. (PubMed)

Microbiological and molecular characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolated in Algeria between 1992 and 2015. The objectives of this study were to undertake the microbiological and molecular characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates collected in Algeria during epidemic and post-epidemic periods between 1992 and 2015. Microbiological characterization includes the determination of biotype and toxigenicity status using phenotypic and genotypic methods. Antimicrobial (...) susceptibility was determined by the E-test method. Molecular characterization was performed by multi-locus sequence typing. In total, there were 157 cases of C. diphtheriae isolates, 127 in patients with respiratory diphtheria and 30 with ozena. Isolates with a mitis biotype were predominant (122 out of 157; 77.7%) followed by belfanti (28 out of 157; 17.8%) and gravis biotype (seven out of 157; 4.5%). Toxigenic isolates were predominant in the period 1992-2006 (74 out of 134) whereas in the period 2007

2016 Clinical Microbiology and Infection

163. Outbreak investigation for toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae wound infections in refugees from Northeast Africa and Syria in Switzerland and Germany by whole genome sequencing. (PubMed)

Outbreak investigation for toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae wound infections in refugees from Northeast Africa and Syria in Switzerland and Germany by whole genome sequencing. Toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae is an important and potentially fatal threat to patients and public health. During the current dramatic influx of refugees into Europe, our objective was to use whole genome sequencing for the characterization of a suspected outbreak of C. diphtheriae wound infections among (...) refugees. After conventional culture, we identified C. diphtheriae using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and investigated toxigenicity by PCR. Whole genome sequencing was performed on a MiSeq Illumina with >70×coverage, 2×250 bp read length, and mapping against a reference genome. Twenty cases of cutaneous C. diphtheriae in refugees from East African countries and Syria identified between April and August 2015 were included. Patients presented with wound

2016 Clinical Microbiology and Infection

164. Sex-differential non-vaccine specific immunological effects of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and measles vaccination. (PubMed)

Sex-differential non-vaccine specific immunological effects of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and measles vaccination. Vaccines can have nontargeted heterologous effects that manifest as increased protection against nonvaccine infections, as described for measles vaccine (MV), or increased susceptibility to infections and death, as described following diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis (DTP) vaccination. The mechanisms are unknown, and high-quality immunological studies are lacking

2016 Clinical Infectious Diseases

165. Postbooster Antibodies from Humans as Source of Diphtheria Antitoxin. (Full text)

Postbooster Antibodies from Humans as Source of Diphtheria Antitoxin. Diphtheria antitoxin for therapeutic use is in limited supply. A potential source might be affinity-purified antibodies originally derived from plasma of adults who received a booster dose of a vaccine containing diphtheria toxoid. These antibodies might be useful for treating even severe cases of diphtheria.

2016 Emerging Infectious Diseases PubMed

166. First Report on the Draft Genome Sequences of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Isolates from India (Full text)

First Report on the Draft Genome Sequences of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Isolates from India We report here the draft genome sequences of five Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates of Indian origin. The C. diphtheriae isolates TH1141, TH510, TH1526, TH1337, and TH2031 belong to sequence type ST-50, ST-295, ST-377, ST-405, and ST-405, with an average genome size of 2.5 Mbp.Copyright © 2016 Veeraraghavan et al.

2016 Genome Announcements PubMed

167. Characterization of the Second Conserved Domain in the Heme Uptake Protein HtaA from Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Full text)

Characterization of the Second Conserved Domain in the Heme Uptake Protein HtaA from Corynebacterium diphtheriae HtaA is a heme-binding protein that is part of the heme uptake system in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. HtaA contains two conserved regions (CR1 and CR2). It has been previously reported that both domains can bind heme; the CR2 domain binds hemoglobin more strongly than the CR1 domain. In this study, we report the biophysical characteristics of HtaA-CR2. UV-visible spectroscopy

2016 Journal of inorganic biochemistry PubMed

168. Undervaccination with diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine: National trends and association with pertussis risk in young children (Full text)

Undervaccination with diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine: National trends and association with pertussis risk in young children The high coverage for ≥3 pertussis vaccine doses among Taiwanese children might not imply timely vaccination. Recently, resurgence of pertussis and challenges with availability of DTaP-IPV-Hib prompted this study.In the 1996-2012 national birth cohort, we calculated the prevalence and days of undervaccination against pertussis by age 36 months. We also compared

2016 Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics PubMed

169. The pH-Dependent Trigger in Diphtheria Toxin T Domain Comes with a Safety Latch (Full text)

The pH-Dependent Trigger in Diphtheria Toxin T Domain Comes with a Safety Latch Protein-side-chain protonation, coupled to conformational rearrangements, is one way of regulating physiological function caused by changes in protein environment. Specifically, protonation of histidine residues has been implicated in pH-dependent conformational switching in several systems, including the diphtheria toxin translocation (T) domain, which is responsible for the toxin's cellular entry via the endosomal

2016 Biophysical journal PubMed

170. Comparing Galactan Biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Full text)

Comparing Galactan Biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Corynebacterium diphtheriae The suborder Corynebacterineae encompasses species like Corynebacterium glutamicum, which has been harnessed for industrial production of amino acids, as well as Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which cause devastating human diseases. A distinctive component of the Corynebacterineae cell envelope is the mycolyl-arabinogalactan (mAG) complex. The mAG is composed of lipid (...) mycolic acids, and arabinofuranose (Araf) and galactofuranose (Galf) carbohydrate residues. Elucidating microbe-specific differences in mAG composition could advance biotechnological applications and lead to new antimicrobial targets. To this end, we compare and contrast galactan biosynthesis in C. diphtheriae and M. tuberculosis In each species, the galactan is constructed from uridine 5'-diphosphate-α-d-galactofuranose (UDP-Galf), which is generated by the enzyme UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM

2016 The Journal of biological chemistry PubMed

171. Dmp1 Promoter-Driven Diphtheria Toxin Receptor Transgene Expression Directs Unforeseen Effects in Multiple Tissues (Full text)

Dmp1 Promoter-Driven Diphtheria Toxin Receptor Transgene Expression Directs Unforeseen Effects in Multiple Tissues Mice harbouring a dentin matrix protein 1 (Dmp1) promoter-driven human diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor (HDTR) transgene (Tg) have recently been used to attain targeted ablation of osteocytes by diphtheria toxin (DT) treatment in order to define osteocyte function. Use of these Tg mice has asserted mechano- and novel paracrine regulatory osteocyte functions. To explore osteocyte

2016 International journal of molecular sciences PubMed

172. Stress-Induced Anxiety- and Depressive-Like Phenotype Associated with Transient Reduction in Neurogenesis in Adult Nestin-CreERT2/Diphtheria Toxin Fragment A Transgenic Mice (Full text)

Stress-Induced Anxiety- and Depressive-Like Phenotype Associated with Transient Reduction in Neurogenesis in Adult Nestin-CreERT2/Diphtheria Toxin Fragment A Transgenic Mice Depression and anxiety involve hippocampal dysfunction, but the specific relationship between these mood disorders and adult hippocampal dentate gyrus neurogenesis remains unclear. In both humans with MDD and rodent models of depression, administration of antidepressants increases DG progenitor and granule cell number, yet (...) rodents with induced ablation of DG neurogenesis typically do not demonstrate depressive- or anxiety-like behaviors. The conflicting data may be explained by the varied duration and degree to which adult neurogenesis is reduced in different rodent neurogenesis ablation models. In order to test this hypothesis we examined how a transient-rather than permanent-inducible reduction in neurogenesis would alter depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. Transgenic Nestin-CreERT2/floxed diphtheria toxin

2016 PloS one PubMed

173. Long-Term Protection against Diphtheria in the Netherlands after 50 Years of Vaccination: Results from a Seroepidemiological Study (Full text)

Long-Term Protection against Diphtheria in the Netherlands after 50 Years of Vaccination: Results from a Seroepidemiological Study To evaluate the National Immunisation Programme (NIP) a population-based cross-sectional seroepidemiological study was performed in the Netherlands. We assessed diphtheria antitoxin levels in the general Dutch population and in low vaccination coverage (LVC) areas where a relatively high proportion of orthodox Protestants live who decline vaccination based (...) on religious grounds. Results were compared with a nationwide seroepidemiological study performed 11 years earlier.In 2006/2007 a national serum bank was established. Blood samples were tested for diphtheria antitoxin IgG concentrations using a multiplex immunoassay for 6383 participants from the national sample (NS) and 1518 participants from LVC municipalities. A cut-off above 0.01 international units per ml (IU/ml) was used as minimum protective level.In the NS 91% of the population had antibody levels

2016 PloS one PubMed

174. Development of human monoclonal antibodies to diphtheria toxin: A solution for the increasing lack of equine DAT for therapeutic use? (Full text)

Development of human monoclonal antibodies to diphtheria toxin: A solution for the increasing lack of equine DAT for therapeutic use? 27196732 2018 03 12 2018 12 02 2150-5608 7 6 2016 08 17 Virulence Virulence Development of human monoclonal antibodies to diphtheria toxin: A solution for the increasing lack of equine DAT for therapeutic use? 613-5 10.1080/21505594.2016.1190062 Huygen Kris K a Service Immunology, Scientific Institute of Public Health , Brussels , Belgium. eng Editorial Comment (...) 2016 05 19 United States Virulence 101531386 2150-5594 0 Antibodies, Monoclonal 0 Diphtheria Antitoxin 0 Diphtheria Toxin IM Virulence. 2016 Aug 17;7(6):660-8 27070129 Animals Antibodies, Monoclonal Diphtheria Diphtheria Antitoxin Diphtheria Toxin Horses Humans diphtheria equine diphtheria antitoxin 2016 5 20 6 0 2016 5 20 6 0 2018 3 13 6 0 ppublish 27196732 10.1080/21505594.2016.1190062 PMC4991321 Emerg Infect Dis. 2012 Feb;18(2):217-25 22304732 Epidemiol Infect. 2011 Apr;139(4):494-504 20587123

2016 Virulence PubMed

175. Evaluation of the Immunogenicity of Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugated to Salmonella Typhimurium-Derived OPS in a Mouse Model: A Potential Vaccine Candidate Against Salmonellosis (Full text)

Evaluation of the Immunogenicity of Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugated to Salmonella Typhimurium-Derived OPS in a Mouse Model: A Potential Vaccine Candidate Against Salmonellosis Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) causes gastroenteritis in humans and paratyphoid disease in some animals. Given the emergence of antibiotic resistance, vaccines are more effective than chemotherapy in disease control.The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the immunogenicity of diphtheria

2016 Iranian Red Crescent medical journal PubMed

176. Recent Outbreaks of Diphtheria in Dibrugarh District, Assam, India (Full text)

Recent Outbreaks of Diphtheria in Dibrugarh District, Assam, India Diphtheria is still a significant child health problem in countries with low immunization coverage. Reports of diphtheria in adult population are also increasing. Here we describe three recent outbreaks of diphtheria in Dibrugarh district, Assam in two consecutive years. The study was undertaken in Assam Medical College & Hospital, Dibrugarh after the diagnosis of two Diphtheria cases in the month of September and October 2015 (...) and another in January 2016. Outbreak investigation was done after defining operational definition and throat swabs were collected from thirty three (33) individuals including three (3) index cases and thirty (30) close contacts. Diagnosis was done by clinical findings, direct microscopy, bacteriological culture and in-house designed multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of the isolates for the expression of Corynebacterium diphtheriae specific rpoB gene and tox gene. Out of the 10 confirmed cases, 2

2016 Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR PubMed

177. Tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination among women of childbearing age – United States 2013 (Full text)

Tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination among women of childbearing age – United States 2013 The incidence of pertussis in the United States has increased since the 1990s. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of pregnant women provides passive protection to infants. Tdap vaccination is currently recommended for pregnant women during each pregnancy, but coverage among pregnant women and women of childbearing age has been suboptimal. Data from

2016 American journal of infection control PubMed

178. Antibody Persistence in Young Children 5 Years after Vaccination with a Combined Haemophilus influenzae Type b-Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine Coadministered with Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis-Based and Pneumococcal Conjugate (Full text)

Antibody Persistence in Young Children 5 Years after Vaccination with a Combined Haemophilus influenzae Type b-Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine Coadministered with Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis-Based and Pneumococcal Conjugate We evaluated antibody persistence in children up to 5 years after administration of a combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC)-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine coadministered (...) with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. This is the follow-up study of a randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT00334334/00463437) in which healthy children were vaccinated (primary vaccinations at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and booster vaccination at 11 to 18 months of age) with Hib-MenC-TT or a control MenC conjugate vaccine, coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa)-based combination vaccines (DTPa/Hib for control groups) and a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (10-valent

2016 Clinical and vaccine immunology : CVI PubMed

179. Durability of Vaccine-Induced Immunity Against Tetanus and Diphtheria Toxins: A Cross-sectional Analysis. (Full text)

Durability of Vaccine-Induced Immunity Against Tetanus and Diphtheria Toxins: A Cross-sectional Analysis. Many adult immunization schedules recommend that tetanus and diphtheria vaccination be performed every 10 years. In light of current epidemiological trends of disease incidence and rates of vaccine-associated adverse events, the 10-year revaccination schedule has come into question.We performed cross-sectional analysis of serum antibody titers in 546 adult subjects stratified by age or sex (...) . All serological results were converted to international units after calibration with international serum standards.Approximately 97% of the population was seropositive to tetanus and diphtheria as defined by a protective serum antibody titer of ≥0.01 IU/mL. Mean antibody titers were 3.6 and 0.35 IU/mL against tetanus and diphtheria, respectively. Antibody responses to tetanus declined with an estimated half-life of 14 years (95% confidence interval, 11-17 years), whereas antibody responses

2016 Clinical Infectious Diseases PubMed

180. Potency of a Human Monoclonal Antibody to Diphtheria Toxin Relative to Equine Diphtheria Anti-toxin in an Animal Model (Full text)

Potency of a Human Monoclonal Antibody to Diphtheria Toxin Relative to Equine Diphtheria Anti-toxin in an Animal Model 27437410 2016 07 20 2016 07 22 2328-8957 2 Suppl 1 2015 Dec Open forum infectious diseases Open Forum Infect Dis Potency of a Human Monoclonal Antibody to Diphtheria Toxin Relative to Equine Diphtheria Anti-toxin in an Animal Model. 116 10.1093/ofid/ofv131.36 Smith Heidi H MassBiologics of the University of Massachusetts Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Cheslock Peter P

2015 Open forum infectious diseases PubMed

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