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Diphtheria

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161. Meningococcal Conjugate and tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccination Among HIV-Infected Youth. (Abstract)

Meningococcal Conjugate and tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccination Among HIV-Infected Youth. The meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) and the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) were first recommended for adolescents in the US in 2005. The goal of our study was to determine MCV4 and Tdap vaccines coverage among perinatally and behaviorally HIV-infected adolescents in 2006 and to compare coverage estimates

2016 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

162. Comparison of the Safety and Immunogenicity of a Novel Quadrivalent Meningococcal ACWY-Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine and a Marketed Quadrivalent Meningococcal ACWY-Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine in Healthy Individuals 10-25 Years of Age. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparison of the Safety and Immunogenicity of a Novel Quadrivalent Meningococcal ACWY-Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine and a Marketed Quadrivalent Meningococcal ACWY-Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine in Healthy Individuals 10-25 Years of Age. Universal immunization of adolescents against meningococcal disease with a quadrivalent meningococcal ACWY (MenACWY) conjugate vaccine is recommended in a number of countries.In a randomized, controlled, observer-blinded, multicenter trial, 1016 (...) participants, 10-25 years of age, were randomly allocated 1:1:1 to receive a single dose of 1 of 2 lots of an investigational tetanus toxoid-conjugated MenACWY vaccine (MenACWY-TT) or a marketed diphtheria toxoid-conjugated MenACWY vaccine (MenACWY-DT). The primary outcome was the noninferiority of the vaccine response after MenACWY-TT (lot A) compared with MenACWY-DT for all 4 serogroups. Vaccine response was defined as a postvaccination human serum bactericidal antibody (hSBA) titer against each

2016 Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society Controlled trial quality: uncertain

163. Development of human monoclonal antibodies to diphtheria toxin: A solution for the increasing lack of equine DAT for therapeutic use? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Development of human monoclonal antibodies to diphtheria toxin: A solution for the increasing lack of equine DAT for therapeutic use? 27196732 2018 03 12 2018 12 02 2150-5608 7 6 2016 08 17 Virulence Virulence Development of human monoclonal antibodies to diphtheria toxin: A solution for the increasing lack of equine DAT for therapeutic use? 613-5 10.1080/21505594.2016.1190062 Huygen Kris K a Service Immunology, Scientific Institute of Public Health , Brussels , Belgium. eng Editorial Comment (...) 2016 05 19 United States Virulence 101531386 2150-5594 0 Antibodies, Monoclonal 0 Diphtheria Antitoxin 0 Diphtheria Toxin IM Virulence. 2016 Aug 17;7(6):660-8 27070129 Animals Antibodies, Monoclonal Diphtheria Diphtheria Antitoxin Diphtheria Toxin Horses Humans diphtheria equine diphtheria antitoxin 2016 5 20 6 0 2016 5 20 6 0 2018 3 13 6 0 ppublish 27196732 10.1080/21505594.2016.1190062 PMC4991321 Emerg Infect Dis. 2012 Feb;18(2):217-25 22304732 Epidemiol Infect. 2011 Apr;139(4):494-504 20587123

2016 Virulence

164. A Belgian Serosurveillance/Seroprevalence Study of Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertussis Using a Luminex xMAP Technology-Based Pentaplex Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Belgian Serosurveillance/Seroprevalence Study of Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertussis Using a Luminex xMAP Technology-Based Pentaplex Serosurveillance and seroprevalence studies are an essential tool to monitor vaccine-preventable diseases. We have developed a magnetic bead-based pentaplex immunoassay (MIA) for the simultaneous detection of IgG antibodies against diphtheria toxin (DT), tetanus toxin (TT), pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and pertactin (Prn). The in-house (...) were below the protective level of 0.1 IU/mL in 26.4% of the sera for DT and in 8.6% of the sera for TT. Anti-PT IgG concentrations indicative of recent pertussis infection (>125 IU/mL) were detected in 1.2% of the subjects. High anti-PT antibodies were not correlated with high antibodies against any of the four other vaccine antigens. This pentaplex MIA will be used for a new large-scale Belgian serosurveillance/seroprevalence study of diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis.

2016 Vaccines

165. The ChrSA and HrrSA Two-Component Systems Are Required for Transcriptional Regulation of the hemA Promoter in Corynebacterium diphtheriae Full Text available with Trip Pro

The ChrSA and HrrSA Two-Component Systems Are Required for Transcriptional Regulation of the hemA Promoter in Corynebacterium diphtheriae Corynebacterium diphtheriae utilizes heme and hemoglobin (Hb) as iron sources for growth in low-iron environments. In C. diphtheriae, the two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) ChrSA and HrrSA are responsive to Hb levels and regulate the transcription of promoters for hmuO, hrtAB, and hemA ChrSA and HrrSA activate transcription at the hmuO promoter (...) expands on the previous analyses of the ChrSA and HrrSA TCSs in the human pathogen C. diphtheriae The findings here underscore the complex interactions between the ChrSA and HrrSA systems in the regulation of the hemA promoter and demonstrate how the two systems complement one another to refine and control transcription in the presence and absence of Hb.Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

2016 Journal of bacteriology

166. Diphtheria Toxin-Induced Cell Death Triggers Wnt-Dependent Hair Cell Regeneration in Neonatal Mice Full Text available with Trip Pro

Diphtheria Toxin-Induced Cell Death Triggers Wnt-Dependent Hair Cell Regeneration in Neonatal Mice Cochlear hair cells (HCs), the sensory cells that respond to sound, do not regenerate after damage in adult mammals, and their loss is a major cause of deafness. Here we show that HC regeneration in newborn mouse ears occurred spontaneously when the original cells were ablated by treatment with diphtheria toxin (DT) in ears that had been engineered to overexpress the DT receptor (...) is determined by reaching a threshold level of Wnt signaling rather than its complete absence or presence.Sensory HCs of the inner ear do not regenerate in the adult, and their loss is a major cause of deafness. We found that HCs regenerated spontaneously in the newborn mouse after diphtheria toxin (DT)-induced, but not neomycin-induced, HC death. Regeneration depended on activation of Wnt signaling, and regeneration in DT-treated ears correlated to a higher level of Wnt activation than occurred

2016 The Journal of Neuroscience

167. Evaluation of the Immunogenicity of Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugated to Salmonella Typhimurium-Derived OPS in a Mouse Model: A Potential Vaccine Candidate Against Salmonellosis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of the Immunogenicity of Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugated to Salmonella Typhimurium-Derived OPS in a Mouse Model: A Potential Vaccine Candidate Against Salmonellosis Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) causes gastroenteritis in humans and paratyphoid disease in some animals. Given the emergence of antibiotic resistance, vaccines are more effective than chemotherapy in disease control.The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the immunogenicity of diphtheria

2016 Iranian Red Crescent medical journal

168. Diphtheria toxin–mediated ablation of lymphatic endothelial cells results in progressive lymphedema Full Text available with Trip Pro

Diphtheria toxin–mediated ablation of lymphatic endothelial cells results in progressive lymphedema Development of novel treatments for lymphedema has been limited by the fact that the pathophysiology of this disease is poorly understood. It remains unknown, for example, why limb swelling resulting from surgical injury resolves initially, but recurs in some cases months or years later. Finding answers for these basic questions has been hampered by the lack of adequate animal models (...) . In the current study, we used Cre-lox mice that expressed the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) driven by a lymphatic-specific promoter in order to noninvasively ablate the lymphatic system of the hind limb. Animals treated in this manner developed lymphedema that was indistinguishable from clinical lymphedema temporally, radiographically, and histologically. Using this model and clinical biopsy specimens, we show that the initial resolution of edema after injury is dependent on the formation

2016 JCI insight

169. Adult vaccination against tetanus and diphtheria: the European perspective Full Text available with Trip Pro

Adult vaccination against tetanus and diphtheria: the European perspective Besides immunizations against influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae and herpes zoster, which are recommended specifically for elderly people, regular booster vaccinations against tetanus, diphtheria and in some cases pertussis and polio are recommended in many European countries for adults, including elderly people. Vaccination recommendations for adults differ greatly between individual countries and coverage data (...) is scarce. Tetanus-specific antibody concentrations are generally higher than diphtheria-specific antibodies, and a substantial proportion of adults, and particularly of elderly people, do not have protective antibody concentrations against diphtheria. Antibody levels increase upon booster vaccination in all age groups, but diphtheria-specific antibody concentrations remain below protective levels in some older individuals, even immediately after vaccination and long-term protection is frequently

2016 Clinical and experimental immunology

170. Antibody Persistence in Young Children 5 Years after Vaccination with a Combined Haemophilus influenzae Type b-Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine Coadministered with Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis-Based and Pneumococcal Conjugate Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibody Persistence in Young Children 5 Years after Vaccination with a Combined Haemophilus influenzae Type b-Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine Coadministered with Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis-Based and Pneumococcal Conjugate We evaluated antibody persistence in children up to 5 years after administration of a combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC)-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine coadministered (...) with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. This is the follow-up study of a randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT00334334/00463437) in which healthy children were vaccinated (primary vaccinations at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and booster vaccination at 11 to 18 months of age) with Hib-MenC-TT or a control MenC conjugate vaccine, coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa)-based combination vaccines (DTPa/Hib for control groups) and a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (10-valent

2016 Clinical and vaccine immunology : CVI

171. Post-licensure safety surveillance study of routine use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine Full Text available with Trip Pro

Post-licensure safety surveillance study of routine use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine An observational post-licensure (Phase IV) retrospective large-database safety study was conducted at Kaiser Permanente, a US integrated medical care organization, to assess the safety of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and 5-Component Acellular Pertussis Vaccine (Tdap5) administered as part of routine healthcare among adolescents and adults (...) relationship), alternative etiology, and other health record details to discern possible relatedness of the health events to vaccination. Overall, 124,139 people received Tdap5 vaccine from September 2005 through mid-October 2006, and 203,154 in the comparison cohort received a tetanus and diphtheria toxoid adsorbed vaccine (and no live virus vaccine) during the year prior to initiation of this study. In the outpatient, ED and hospital databases, respectively, we identified 11/26, 179/700 and 187/700

2016 Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics

172. Identification and isolation of kidney-derived stem cells from transgenic rats with diphtheria toxin-induced kidney damage Full Text available with Trip Pro

Identification and isolation of kidney-derived stem cells from transgenic rats with diphtheria toxin-induced kidney damage Adult stem cells have been well characterized in numerous organs, with the exception of the kidneys. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify and isolate kidney-derived stem cells. A total of 12 Fischer 344 transgenic rats expressing the human diphtheria toxin receptor in podocyte cells of the kidney, were used in the present study. The rats were administered 5-bromo (...) -2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in order to detect cellular proliferation. After 60 days, the rats were treated with the diphtheria toxin (DT), in order to induce kidney injury. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the number of BrdU-positive cells were increased following DT treatment. In addition, the expression of octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct-4), a stem cell marker, was detected and suggested that kidney-specific stem cells were present in the DT-treated tissue samples

2016 Experimental and therapeutic medicine

173. Safety and immunogenicity of a combined Tetanus, Diphtheria, recombinant acellular Pertussis vaccine (TdaP) in healthy Thai adults Full Text available with Trip Pro

Safety and immunogenicity of a combined Tetanus, Diphtheria, recombinant acellular Pertussis vaccine (TdaP) in healthy Thai adults An acellular Pertussis (aP) vaccine containing recombinant genetically detoxified Pertussis Toxin (PTgen), Filamentous Hemagglutinin (FHA) and Pertactin (PRN) has been developed by BioNet-Asia (BioNet). We present here the results of the first clinical study of this recombinant aP vaccine formulated alone or in combination with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (TdaP (...) ).A phase I/II, observer-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted at Mahidol University in Bangkok, Thailand in healthy adult volunteers aged 18-35 y. The eligible volunteers were randomized to receive one dose of either BioNet's aP or Tetanus toxoid-reduced Diphtheria toxoid-acellular Pertussis (TdaP) vaccine, or the Tdap Adacel® vaccine in a 1:1:1 ratio. Safety follow-up was performed for one month. Immunogenicity was assessed at baseline, at 7 and 28 d after vaccination. Anti-PT, anti-FHA

2016 Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

174. Tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination among women of childbearing age – United States 2013 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination among women of childbearing age – United States 2013 The incidence of pertussis in the United States has increased since the 1990s. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of pregnant women provides passive protection to infants. Tdap vaccination is currently recommended for pregnant women during each pregnancy, but coverage among pregnant women and women of childbearing age has been suboptimal. Data from

2016 American journal of infection control

175. Recent Outbreaks of Diphtheria in Dibrugarh District, Assam, India Full Text available with Trip Pro

Recent Outbreaks of Diphtheria in Dibrugarh District, Assam, India Diphtheria is still a significant child health problem in countries with low immunization coverage. Reports of diphtheria in adult population are also increasing. Here we describe three recent outbreaks of diphtheria in Dibrugarh district, Assam in two consecutive years. The study was undertaken in Assam Medical College & Hospital, Dibrugarh after the diagnosis of two Diphtheria cases in the month of September and October 2015 (...) and another in January 2016. Outbreak investigation was done after defining operational definition and throat swabs were collected from thirty three (33) individuals including three (3) index cases and thirty (30) close contacts. Diagnosis was done by clinical findings, direct microscopy, bacteriological culture and in-house designed multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of the isolates for the expression of Corynebacterium diphtheriae specific rpoB gene and tox gene. Out of the 10 confirmed cases, 2

2016 Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR

176. Porcine Treg depletion with a novel diphtheria toxin-based anti-human CCR4 immunotoxin Full Text available with Trip Pro

Porcine Treg depletion with a novel diphtheria toxin-based anti-human CCR4 immunotoxin Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are known to play an important role in immunoregulation and have been shown to facilitate induction of transplantation tolerance. Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 4 (CCR4) is expressed on the surface of effector Tregs involved in controlling alloimmune and autoimmune responses. Recently we have developed a novel diphtheria-toxin based anti-human CCR4 immunotoxin for depleting CCR4

2016 Veterinary immunology and immunopathology

177. The pH-Dependent Trigger in Diphtheria Toxin T Domain Comes with a Safety Latch Full Text available with Trip Pro

The pH-Dependent Trigger in Diphtheria Toxin T Domain Comes with a Safety Latch Protein-side-chain protonation, coupled to conformational rearrangements, is one way of regulating physiological function caused by changes in protein environment. Specifically, protonation of histidine residues has been implicated in pH-dependent conformational switching in several systems, including the diphtheria toxin translocation (T) domain, which is responsible for the toxin's cellular entry via the endosomal

2016 Biophysical journal

178. Stress-Induced Anxiety- and Depressive-Like Phenotype Associated with Transient Reduction in Neurogenesis in Adult Nestin-CreERT2/Diphtheria Toxin Fragment A Transgenic Mice Full Text available with Trip Pro

Stress-Induced Anxiety- and Depressive-Like Phenotype Associated with Transient Reduction in Neurogenesis in Adult Nestin-CreERT2/Diphtheria Toxin Fragment A Transgenic Mice Depression and anxiety involve hippocampal dysfunction, but the specific relationship between these mood disorders and adult hippocampal dentate gyrus neurogenesis remains unclear. In both humans with MDD and rodent models of depression, administration of antidepressants increases DG progenitor and granule cell number, yet (...) rodents with induced ablation of DG neurogenesis typically do not demonstrate depressive- or anxiety-like behaviors. The conflicting data may be explained by the varied duration and degree to which adult neurogenesis is reduced in different rodent neurogenesis ablation models. In order to test this hypothesis we examined how a transient-rather than permanent-inducible reduction in neurogenesis would alter depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. Transgenic Nestin-CreERT2/floxed diphtheria toxin

2016 PloS one

179. Quadracel: Vaccination Against Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, and Poliomyelitis in Children Full Text available with Trip Pro

Quadracel: Vaccination Against Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, and Poliomyelitis in Children Vaccinations in school-aged children are required by state and local law to maintain high vaccination coverage rates, as well as low rates of vaccine-preventable diseases. Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis are childhood diseases that can be life threatening; poliomyelitis, another childhood disease, can be disabling. In turn, vaccinations were developed to provide protection against these diseases (...) . Today, several vaccinations are recommended for children, including but not limited to diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP) and poliomyelitis (IPV). DTaP requires five doses, and IPV requires four. Quadracel (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis adsorbed and inactivated poliovirus vaccine, Sanofi Pasteur Inc.) is a new vaccination developed to condense the last dose of both DTaP and IPV so they do not have to be given separately, thus reducing the total number of vaccinations

2016 Pharmacy and Therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

180. Long-Term Protection against Diphtheria in the Netherlands after 50 Years of Vaccination: Results from a Seroepidemiological Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Long-Term Protection against Diphtheria in the Netherlands after 50 Years of Vaccination: Results from a Seroepidemiological Study To evaluate the National Immunisation Programme (NIP) a population-based cross-sectional seroepidemiological study was performed in the Netherlands. We assessed diphtheria antitoxin levels in the general Dutch population and in low vaccination coverage (LVC) areas where a relatively high proportion of orthodox Protestants live who decline vaccination based (...) on religious grounds. Results were compared with a nationwide seroepidemiological study performed 11 years earlier.In 2006/2007 a national serum bank was established. Blood samples were tested for diphtheria antitoxin IgG concentrations using a multiplex immunoassay for 6383 participants from the national sample (NS) and 1518 participants from LVC municipalities. A cut-off above 0.01 international units per ml (IU/ml) was used as minimum protective level.In the NS 91% of the population had antibody levels

2016 PloS one

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