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Diphtheria

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121. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase GapDH of Corynebacterium diphtheriae is redox-controlled by protein S-mycothiolation under oxidative stress (Full text)

The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase GapDH of Corynebacterium diphtheriae is redox-controlled by protein S-mycothiolation under oxidative stress Mycothiol (MSH) is the major low molecular weight (LMW) thiol in Actinomycetes and functions in post-translational thiol-modification by protein S-mycothiolation as emerging thiol-protection and redox-regulatory mechanism. Here, we have used shotgun-proteomics to identify 26 S-mycothiolated proteins in the pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae (...) resulted in S-mycothiolation and reversible GapDH inactivation in vitro which was faster compared to the overoxidation pathway. Reactivation of S-mycothiolated GapDH could be catalyzed by both, the Trx and the Mrx1 pathways in vitro, but demycothiolation by Mrx1 was faster compared to Trx. In summary, we show here that S-mycothiolation can function in redox-regulation and protection of the GapDH active site against overoxidation in C. diphtheriae which can be reversed by both, the Mrx1 and Trx pathways.

2017 Scientific reports PubMed

122. Long-term maintenance of diphtheria-specific antibodies after booster vaccination is hampered by latent infection with Cytomegalovirus (Full text)

Long-term maintenance of diphtheria-specific antibodies after booster vaccination is hampered by latent infection with Cytomegalovirus Many currently used vaccines are less immunogenic in the elderly compared to young adults. The impact of latent infection with Cytomegalovirus (CMV) on vaccine-induced antibody responses has been discussed controversially. We have demonstrated that recall responses to diphtheria vaccination are frequently insufficient in elderly persons and that antibody (...) concentrations decline substantially within 5 years. In the current study we show that within a cohort of healthy elderly (n = 87; median age 71 years, range 66-92) antibody responses to a booster vaccination against diphtheria do not differ between CMV-negative and CMV-positive individuals 4 weeks after vaccination.. However, the goal of diphtheria-vaccination is long-term protection and this is achieved by circulating anti-toxin antibodies. Diphtheria-specific antibody concentrations decline faster in CMV

2017 Immunity & ageing : I & A PubMed

123. Genomic analysis of endemic clones of toxigenic and non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae in Belarus during and after the major epidemic in 1990s (Full text)

Genomic analysis of endemic clones of toxigenic and non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae in Belarus during and after the major epidemic in 1990s Diphtheria remains a major public health concern with multiple recent outbreaks around the world. Moreover, invasive non-toxigenic strains have emerged globally causing severe infections. A diphtheria epidemic in the former Soviet Union in the 1990s resulted in ~5000 deaths. In this study, we analysed the genome sequences of a collection of 93 C (...) . diphtheriae strains collected during and after this outbreak (1996 - 2014) in a former Soviet State, Belarus to understand the evolutionary dynamics and virulence capacities of these strains.C. diphtheriae strains from Belarus belong to ten sequence types (STs). Two major clones, non-toxigenic ST5 and toxigenic ST8, encompassed 76% of the isolates that are associated with sore throat and diphtheria in patients, respectively. Core genomic diversity is limited within outbreak-associated ST8 with relatively

2017 BMC genomics PubMed

124. Vaxelis - diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (acellular, component), hepatitis B (rDNA), poliomyelitis (inactivated) and Haemophilus type b conjugate vaccine (adsorbed)

Vaxelis - diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (acellular, component), hepatitis B (rDNA), poliomyelitis (inactivated) and Haemophilus type b conjugate vaccine (adsorbed) 17 December 2015 EMA/CHMP/72003/2016 Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) Assessment report Vaxelis Common name: diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (acellular, component), hepatitis B (rDNA), poliomyelitis (inactivated) and haemophilus type b conjugate vaccine (adsorbed) Procedure No. EMEA/H/C/003982/0000 Note (...) 132 4. Recommendations 139 Assessment report EMA/CHMP/72003/2016 Page 4/140 List of abbreviations AAHS Aluminium Hydroxyphosphate Sulfate AlPO4 aluminium phosphate aP acellular pertussis BAP Bulk alum Product BSA Bovine Serum Albumin CHO Chinese Hamster Ovary CPP Critical Process Parameters CPVS Concentrated Purified Viral Suspension CQAs Critical Quality Attributes D Diphtheria DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid DP Drug Product dPRP derivatised Polyribosyl Ribitol Phosphate DS Drug substance ELISA Enzyme

2016 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

125. Pertussis-tetanus-diphtheria-polio vaccines

Pertussis-tetanus-diphtheria-polio vaccines USE OF PERTUSSIS/TETANUS/DIPHTHERIA/POLIO VACCINES IN PREGNANCY 0344 892 0909 USE OF PERTUSSIS/TETANUS/DIPHTHERIA/POLIO VACCINES IN PREGNANCY (Date of issue: November 2016 , Version: 2 ) This is a UKTIS monograph for use by health care professionals. For case-specific advice please contact UKTIS on 0344 892 0909. To report an exposure please download and complete a . Please encourage all women to complete an . A corresponding patient information (...) leaflet on is available at . Summary The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation recommends that all pregnant women in the UK are vaccinated with Boostrix IPV ® (a combined, inactivated tetanus/diphtheria/acellular pertussis/polio (Tdap-IPV) vaccine) between 16 and 32 weeks of gestation. Infants under the age of three months are at increased risk of severe complications of pertussis infection, including death. Maternal vaccination between 16 and 32 weeks of pregnancy is thought to optimise

2014 UK Teratology Information Service

126. Effect of Tetanus-diphtheria Vaccine on Immune Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine in Low-responder Individuals (Full text)

Effect of Tetanus-diphtheria Vaccine on Immune Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine in Low-responder Individuals Conventional hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination fails to achieve efficient protection in about 5-10% of the world population. Hence, different strategies have been adopted to ameliorate HBV antibody titers. This study aimed to evaluate the concurrent application of tetanus-diphtheria (Td) and HBV vaccination on hepatitis B surface (HBs) antibody titer in low-responder healthy

2016 International journal of preventive medicine PubMed

127. Post-licensure safety surveillance study of routine use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine (Full text)

Post-licensure safety surveillance study of routine use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine An observational post-licensure (Phase IV) retrospective large-database safety study was conducted at Kaiser Permanente, a US integrated medical care organization, to assess the safety of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and 5-Component Acellular Pertussis Vaccine (Tdap5) administered as part of routine healthcare among adolescents and adults (...) relationship), alternative etiology, and other health record details to discern possible relatedness of the health events to vaccination. Overall, 124,139 people received Tdap5 vaccine from September 2005 through mid-October 2006, and 203,154 in the comparison cohort received a tetanus and diphtheria toxoid adsorbed vaccine (and no live virus vaccine) during the year prior to initiation of this study. In the outpatient, ED and hospital databases, respectively, we identified 11/26, 179/700 and 187/700

2016 Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics PubMed

128. Identification and isolation of kidney-derived stem cells from transgenic rats with diphtheria toxin-induced kidney damage (Full text)

Identification and isolation of kidney-derived stem cells from transgenic rats with diphtheria toxin-induced kidney damage Adult stem cells have been well characterized in numerous organs, with the exception of the kidneys. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify and isolate kidney-derived stem cells. A total of 12 Fischer 344 transgenic rats expressing the human diphtheria toxin receptor in podocyte cells of the kidney, were used in the present study. The rats were administered 5-bromo (...) -2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in order to detect cellular proliferation. After 60 days, the rats were treated with the diphtheria toxin (DT), in order to induce kidney injury. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the number of BrdU-positive cells were increased following DT treatment. In addition, the expression of octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct-4), a stem cell marker, was detected and suggested that kidney-specific stem cells were present in the DT-treated tissue samples

2016 Experimental and therapeutic medicine PubMed

129. Semicarbazone EGA Inhibits Uptake of Diphtheria Toxin into Human Cells and Protects Cells from Intoxication (Full text)

Semicarbazone EGA Inhibits Uptake of Diphtheria Toxin into Human Cells and Protects Cells from Intoxication Diphtheria toxin is a single-chain protein toxin that invades human cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. In acidic endosomes, its translocation domain inserts into endosomal membranes and facilitates the transport of the catalytic domain (DTA) from endosomal lumen into the host cell cytosol. Here, DTA ADP-ribosylates elongation factor 2 inhibits protein synthesis and leads to cell (...) death. The compound 4-bromobenzaldehyde N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)semicarbazone (EGA) has been previously shown to protect cells from various bacterial protein toxins which deliver their enzymatic subunits from acidic endosomes to the cytosol, including Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin and the binary clostridial actin ADP-ribosylating toxins C2, iota and Clostridium difficile binary toxin (CDT). Here, we demonstrate that EGA also protects human cells from diphtheria toxin by inhibiting the pH-dependent

2016 Toxins PubMed

130. Adult vaccination against tetanus and diphtheria: the European perspective (Full text)

Adult vaccination against tetanus and diphtheria: the European perspective Besides immunizations against influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae and herpes zoster, which are recommended specifically for elderly people, regular booster vaccinations against tetanus, diphtheria and in some cases pertussis and polio are recommended in many European countries for adults, including elderly people. Vaccination recommendations for adults differ greatly between individual countries and coverage data (...) is scarce. Tetanus-specific antibody concentrations are generally higher than diphtheria-specific antibodies, and a substantial proportion of adults, and particularly of elderly people, do not have protective antibody concentrations against diphtheria. Antibody levels increase upon booster vaccination in all age groups, but diphtheria-specific antibody concentrations remain below protective levels in some older individuals, even immediately after vaccination and long-term protection is frequently

2016 Clinical and experimental immunology PubMed

131. A Bordetella pertussis proteoliposome induces protection in mice without affecting the immunogenicity of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids in a trivalent formulation (Full text)

A Bordetella pertussis proteoliposome induces protection in mice without affecting the immunogenicity of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids in a trivalent formulation In this study, a formulation of Bordetella pertussis proteoliposome (PLBp), diphtheria, and tetanus toxoids and alum (DT-PLBp) was evaluated as a trivalent vaccine candidate in BALB/c mice. Vaccine-induced protection was estimated using the intranasal challenge for pertussis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay fvto assess (...) serological responses for diphtheria or tetanus. Both, diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis (DTP) and diphtheria-tetanus vaccines (DT) were used as controls. Animals immunized with DT-PLBp, PLBp alone, and DTP showed total reduction of CFU in lungs 7 days after intranasal challenge. Likewise, formulations DT-PLBp, DTP, and DT elicited antibody levels ≥2 IU/mL against tetanus and diphtheria, considered protective when neutralization tests are used. Overall, results showed that combination of PLBp

2016 Clinical and experimental vaccine research PubMed

132. State of inequality in diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis immunisation coverage in low-income and middle-income countries: a multicountry study of household health surveys (Full text)

State of inequality in diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis immunisation coverage in low-income and middle-income countries: a multicountry study of household health surveys Immunisation programmes have made substantial contributions to lowering the burden of disease in children, but there is a growing need to ensure that programmes are equity-oriented. We aimed to provide a detailed update about the state of between-country inequality and within-country economic-related inequality in the delivery (...) of three doses of the combined diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, and pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP3), with a special focus on inequalities in high-priority countries.We used data from the latest available Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys done in 51 low-income and middle-income countries. Data for DTP3 coverage were disaggregated by wealth quintile, and inequality was calculated as difference and ratio measures based on coverage in richest (quintile 5) and poorest

2016 The Lancet. Global health PubMed

133. Immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM in Korean Military Recruits: Influence of Tetanus-Diphtheria Toxoid Vaccination on the Vaccine Response to MenACWY-CRM (Full text)

Immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM in Korean Military Recruits: Influence of Tetanus-Diphtheria Toxoid Vaccination on the Vaccine Response to MenACWY-CRM The quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) has been introduced for military recruits in Korea since 2012. This study was performed to evaluate the immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM in Korean military recruits. In addition, the influence of tetanus-diphtheria toxoids (Td) vaccination on the vaccine response to MenACWY-CRM

2016 Yonsei medical journal PubMed

134. Diphtheria Toxin-Induced Cell Death Triggers Wnt-Dependent Hair Cell Regeneration in Neonatal Mice (Full text)

Diphtheria Toxin-Induced Cell Death Triggers Wnt-Dependent Hair Cell Regeneration in Neonatal Mice Cochlear hair cells (HCs), the sensory cells that respond to sound, do not regenerate after damage in adult mammals, and their loss is a major cause of deafness. Here we show that HC regeneration in newborn mouse ears occurred spontaneously when the original cells were ablated by treatment with diphtheria toxin (DT) in ears that had been engineered to overexpress the DT receptor (...) is determined by reaching a threshold level of Wnt signaling rather than its complete absence or presence.Sensory HCs of the inner ear do not regenerate in the adult, and their loss is a major cause of deafness. We found that HCs regenerated spontaneously in the newborn mouse after diphtheria toxin (DT)-induced, but not neomycin-induced, HC death. Regeneration depended on activation of Wnt signaling, and regeneration in DT-treated ears correlated to a higher level of Wnt activation than occurred

2016 The Journal of Neuroscience PubMed

135. The ChrSA and HrrSA Two-Component Systems Are Required for Transcriptional Regulation of the hemA Promoter in Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Full text)

The ChrSA and HrrSA Two-Component Systems Are Required for Transcriptional Regulation of the hemA Promoter in Corynebacterium diphtheriae Corynebacterium diphtheriae utilizes heme and hemoglobin (Hb) as iron sources for growth in low-iron environments. In C. diphtheriae, the two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) ChrSA and HrrSA are responsive to Hb levels and regulate the transcription of promoters for hmuO, hrtAB, and hemA ChrSA and HrrSA activate transcription at the hmuO promoter (...) expands on the previous analyses of the ChrSA and HrrSA TCSs in the human pathogen C. diphtheriae The findings here underscore the complex interactions between the ChrSA and HrrSA systems in the regulation of the hemA promoter and demonstrate how the two systems complement one another to refine and control transcription in the presence and absence of Hb.Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

2016 Journal of bacteriology PubMed

136. A Belgian Serosurveillance/Seroprevalence Study of Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertussis Using a Luminex xMAP Technology-Based Pentaplex (Full text)

A Belgian Serosurveillance/Seroprevalence Study of Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertussis Using a Luminex xMAP Technology-Based Pentaplex Serosurveillance and seroprevalence studies are an essential tool to monitor vaccine-preventable diseases. We have developed a magnetic bead-based pentaplex immunoassay (MIA) for the simultaneous detection of IgG antibodies against diphtheria toxin (DT), tetanus toxin (TT), pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and pertactin (Prn). The in-house (...) were below the protective level of 0.1 IU/mL in 26.4% of the sera for DT and in 8.6% of the sera for TT. Anti-PT IgG concentrations indicative of recent pertussis infection (>125 IU/mL) were detected in 1.2% of the subjects. High anti-PT antibodies were not correlated with high antibodies against any of the four other vaccine antigens. This pentaplex MIA will be used for a new large-scale Belgian serosurveillance/seroprevalence study of diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis.

2016 Vaccines PubMed

137. Safety and immunogenicity of a combined Tetanus, Diphtheria, recombinant acellular Pertussis vaccine (TdaP) in healthy Thai adults (Full text)

Safety and immunogenicity of a combined Tetanus, Diphtheria, recombinant acellular Pertussis vaccine (TdaP) in healthy Thai adults An acellular Pertussis (aP) vaccine containing recombinant genetically detoxified Pertussis Toxin (PTgen), Filamentous Hemagglutinin (FHA) and Pertactin (PRN) has been developed by BioNet-Asia (BioNet). We present here the results of the first clinical study of this recombinant aP vaccine formulated alone or in combination with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (TdaP (...) ).A phase I/II, observer-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted at Mahidol University in Bangkok, Thailand in healthy adult volunteers aged 18-35 y. The eligible volunteers were randomized to receive one dose of either BioNet's aP or Tetanus toxoid-reduced Diphtheria toxoid-acellular Pertussis (TdaP) vaccine, or the Tdap Adacel® vaccine in a 1:1:1 ratio. Safety follow-up was performed for one month. Immunogenicity was assessed at baseline, at 7 and 28 d after vaccination. Anti-PT, anti-FHA

2016 Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics PubMed

138. Porcine Treg depletion with a novel diphtheria toxin-based anti-human CCR4 immunotoxin (Full text)

Porcine Treg depletion with a novel diphtheria toxin-based anti-human CCR4 immunotoxin Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are known to play an important role in immunoregulation and have been shown to facilitate induction of transplantation tolerance. Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 4 (CCR4) is expressed on the surface of effector Tregs involved in controlling alloimmune and autoimmune responses. Recently we have developed a novel diphtheria-toxin based anti-human CCR4 immunotoxin for depleting CCR4

2016 Veterinary immunology and immunopathology PubMed

139. Evaluation of Immunogenicity and Safety of the Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis and Inactivated Poliovirus (DPT-IPV) Vaccine Squarekidsâ„¢ Co-administered With GSK Biologicals' Human Rotavirus (HRV) Vaccine Rotarixâ„¢ (GSK444563) in Healthy Infants

Evaluation of Immunogenicity and Safety of the Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis and Inactivated Poliovirus (DPT-IPV) Vaccine Squarekidsâ„¢ Co-administered With GSK Biologicals' Human Rotavirus (HRV) Vaccine Rotarixâ„¢ (GSK444563) in Healthy Infants Evaluation of Immunogenicity and Safety of the Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis and Inactivated Poliovirus (DPT-IPV) Vaccine Squarekids Co-administered With GSK Biologicals' Human Rotavirus (HRV) Vaccine Rotarix (GSK444563) in Healthy Infants - Full Text (...) View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Evaluation of Immunogenicity and Safety of the Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis and Inactivated Poliovirus (DPT-IPV) Vaccine Squarekids Co-administered With GSK Biologicals

2016 Clinical Trials

140. Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Tetanus, Diphtheria and Acellular Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine

Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Tetanus, Diphtheria and Acellular Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Tetanus, Diphtheria and Acellular Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one (...) or more studies before adding more. Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Tetanus, Diphtheria and Acellular Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02813486 Recruitment Status : Unknown Verified November 2016 by Green Cross Corporation. Recruitment status was: Active

2016 Clinical Trials

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