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81. Prenatal Tetanus, Diphtheria, Acellular Pertussis Vaccination and Autism Spectrum Disorder. (PubMed)

Prenatal Tetanus, Diphtheria, Acellular Pertussis Vaccination and Autism Spectrum Disorder. : media-1vid110.1542/5803567555001PEDS-VA_2018-0120Video Abstract BACKGROUND: Increasing vaccination of pregnant women makes it important to assess safety events potentially linked to prenatal vaccination. This study investigates the association between prenatal tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in offspring.This is a retrospective cohort

2018 Pediatrics

82. A genetically inactivated two-component acellular pertussis vaccine, alone or combined with tetanus and reduced-dose diphtheria vaccines, in adolescents: a phase 2/3, randomised controlled non-inferiority trial. (PubMed)

A genetically inactivated two-component acellular pertussis vaccine, alone or combined with tetanus and reduced-dose diphtheria vaccines, in adolescents: a phase 2/3, randomised controlled non-inferiority trial. Increasing evidence shows that protection induced by acellular pertussis vaccines is short-lived, requiring repeated booster vaccination to control pertussis disease. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant acellular pertussis vaccine containing genetically (...) inactivated pertussis toxin and filamentous haemagglutinin, as either a monovalent vaccine (aP[PTgen/FHA]) or in combination with tetanus and reduced-dose diphtheria vaccines (TdaP[PTgen/FHA]), versus a licensed tetanus and reduced-dose diphtheria and acellular pertussis combination vaccine (Tdap).We did this phase 2/3, randomised controlled non-inferiority trial at two sites in Bangkok, Thailand. Healthy adolescents (aged 12-17 years) were randomly assigned (1:1:1), via a computer-generated randomisation

2017 Lancet infectious diseases

83. Epidemiology of Diphtheria in India, 1996-2016: Implications for Prevention and Control. (PubMed)

Epidemiology of Diphtheria in India, 1996-2016: Implications for Prevention and Control. Diphtheria is an acute disease caused by exotoxin-producing Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Globally, diphtheria has been showing a declining trend due to effective childhood vaccination programs. A substantial proportion of global burden of diphtheria is contributed by India. Hospital-based surveillance studies as well as diphtheria outbreaks published in last 20 years (1996-2016) indicate that diphtheria (...) cases are frequent among school-going children and adolescents. In some Indian states, Muslim children are affected more. As per the national level health surveys, coverage of three doses of diphtheria vaccine was 80% during 2015-2016. Information about coverage of diphtheria boosters is not routinely collected through these surveys, but is expected to be low. Few studies also indicate low diphtheria immunity among school-going children and adults. The strategies for prevention of diphtheria need

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2017 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

84. Sequence Analysis of Toxin Gene-Bearing Corynebacterium diphtheriae Strains, Australia. (PubMed)

Sequence Analysis of Toxin Gene-Bearing Corynebacterium diphtheriae Strains, Australia. By conducting a molecular characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains in Australia, we identified novel sequences, nonfunctional toxin genes, and 5 recent cases of toxigenic cutaneous diphtheria. These findings highlight the importance of extrapharyngeal infections for toxin gene-bearing (functional or not) and non-toxin gene-bearing C. diphtheriae strains. Continued surveillance is recommended.

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2017 Emerging Infectious Diseases

85. Impact of the US Maternal Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccination Program on Preventing Pertussis in Infants <2 Months of Age: A Case-Control Evaluation. (PubMed)

Impact of the US Maternal Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccination Program on Preventing Pertussis in Infants <2 Months of Age: A Case-Control Evaluation. Infants aged <1 year are at highest risk for pertussis-related morbidity and mortality. In 2012, Tdap (tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis) vaccine was recommended for women during each pregnancy to protect infants in the first months of life; data on effectiveness of this strategy

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2017 Clinical Infectious Diseases

86. Protection against Tetanus and Diphtheria in Europe: The impact of age, gender and country of origin based on data from the MARK-AGE Study. (PubMed)

Protection against Tetanus and Diphtheria in Europe: The impact of age, gender and country of origin based on data from the MARK-AGE Study. Due to the successful implementation of vaccination strategies early-life morbidity and mortality due to infectious disease has been reduced dramatically. Vaccines against tetanus and diphtheria are among the most frequently used vaccines worldwide, but various studies in different European countries have shown that protection against tetanus (...) and particularly against diphtheria is unsatisfactory in adults and older persons. In this study we analyzed tetanus- and diphtheria-specific antibody concentrations in 2100 adults of different age from 6 selected European countries (Austria, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Italy, Poland) in order to investigate differences in the level of protection against tetanus and diphtheria across Europe. Our data reveal that tetanus- and diphtheria-specific antibody concentrations vary greatly between countries, which

2017 Experimental Gerontology

87. Relationship between patient copayments in Medicare Part D and vaccination claim status for herpes zoster and tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis. (PubMed)

Relationship between patient copayments in Medicare Part D and vaccination claim status for herpes zoster and tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis. To assess the relationship between copay amount and vaccination claim submission status for tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) and herpes zoster (GSK study identifier: HO-14-14319).Retrospective analyses were performed using vaccination administrative claims data in patients aged ≥65 years with ≥1 claim for Tdap or zoster vaccines

2017 Current medical research and opinion

88. Committee Opinion No. 718 Summary: Update on Immunization and Pregnancy: Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Vaccination. (PubMed)

Committee Opinion No. 718 Summary: Update on Immunization and Pregnancy: Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Vaccination. The overwhelming majority of morbidity and mortality attributable to pertussis infection occurs in infants who are 3 months and younger. Infants do not begin their own vaccine series against pertussis until approximately 2 months of age. This leaves a window of significant vulnerability for newborns, many of whom contract serious pertussis infections from family members (...) and caregivers, especially their mothers, or older siblings, or both. In 2013, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices published its updated recommendation that a dose of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) should be administered during each pregnancy, irrespective of the prior history of receiving Tdap. The recommended timing for maternal Tdap vaccination is between 27 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation. To maximize the maternal antibody response and passive

2017 Obstetrics and Gynecology

89. Committee Opinion No. 718: Update on Immunization and Pregnancy: Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Vaccination. (PubMed)

Committee Opinion No. 718: Update on Immunization and Pregnancy: Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Vaccination. The overwhelming majority of morbidity and mortality attributable to pertussis infection occurs in infants who are 3 months and younger. Infants do not begin their own vaccine series against pertussis until approximately 2 months of age. This leaves a window of significant vulnerability for newborns, many of whom contract serious pertussis infections from family members (...) and caregivers, especially their mothers, or older siblings, or both. In 2013, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices published its updated recommendation that a dose of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) should be administered during each pregnancy, irrespective of the prior history of receiving Tdap. The recommended timing for maternal Tdap vaccination is between 27 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation. To maximize the maternal antibody response and passive

2017 Obstetrics and Gynecology

90. Diphtheria in Mayotte, 2007-2015. (PubMed)

Diphtheria in Mayotte, 2007-2015. Epidemiology of diphtheria in the southwestern Indian Ocean is poorly documented. We analyzed 14 cases of infection with toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae reported during 2007-2015 in Mayotte, a French department located in this region. Local control of diphtheria is needed to minimize the risk for importation of the bacterium into disease-free areas.

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2017 Emerging Infectious Diseases

91. Molecular Characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Outbreak Isolates, South Africa, March-June 2015. (PubMed)

Molecular Characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Outbreak Isolates, South Africa, March-June 2015. In 2015, a cluster of respiratory diphtheria cases was reported from KwaZulu-Natal Province in South Africa. By using whole-genome analysis, we characterized 21 Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates collected from 20 patients and contacts during the outbreak (1 patient was infected with 2 variants of C. diphtheriae). In addition, we included 1 cutaneous isolate, 2 endocarditis isolates

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2017 Emerging Infectious Diseases

92. Tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis vaccine may suppress the immune response to subsequent immunization with pneumococcal CRM197-conjugate vaccine (coadministered with quadrivalent meningococcal TT-conjugate vaccine): a randomized, controlled trial⋆. (PubMed)

Tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis vaccine may suppress the immune response to subsequent immunization with pneumococcal CRM197-conjugate vaccine (coadministered with quadrivalent meningococcal TT-conjugate vaccine): a randomized, controlled trial⋆. : Due to their antigenic similarities, there is a potential for immunological interaction between tetanus/diphtheria-containing vaccines and carrier proteins presented on conjugate vaccines. The interaction could, unpredictably, result in either (...) enhancement or suppression of the immune response to conjugate vaccines if they are injected soon after or concurrently with diphtheria or tetanus toxoid. We examined this interaction among adult Australian travellers before attending the Hajj pilgrimage of 2015.We randomly assigned each participant to one of three vaccination schedules. Group A received tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) 3-4 weeks before receiving CRM197-conjugated 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13

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2017 Journal of Travel Medicine

93. Assessment of safety and efficacy against Bordetella pertussis of a new tetanus-reduced dose diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine in a murine model. (PubMed)

Assessment of safety and efficacy against Bordetella pertussis of a new tetanus-reduced dose diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine in a murine model. Tetanus-reduced dose diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination during adolescence was introduced in response to the resurgence of pertussis in various countries. A new Tdap vaccine was manufactured in Korea as a countermeasure against a predicted Tdap vaccine shortage. This study was performed to evaluate the immunogenicity, safety (...) , and protection efficacy against Bordetella pertussis of the new Tdap vaccine in a murine model.Four-week-old BABL/c mice were used for assessment of immunogenicity and protection efficacy. A single dose of primary diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine was administered, followed by a single dose of Tdap booster vaccine after a 12-week interval. Anti-pertussis toxin (PT), anti-filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), and anti-pertactin (PRN) IgG titers were measured before primary vaccination

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2017 BMC Infectious Diseases

94. Predictors of Low Uptake of Prenatal Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and Acellular Pertussis Immunization in Privately Insured Women in the United States. (PubMed)

Predictors of Low Uptake of Prenatal Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and Acellular Pertussis Immunization in Privately Insured Women in the United States. To examine the uptake of prenatal tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) immunization among pregnant women in the United States.Using MarketScan data, we conducted a historical cohort study among pregnant women with employer-based commercial insurance in the United States who delivered between

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2017 Obstetrics and Gynecology

95. Diphtheria toxin-based anti-human CD19 immunotoxin for targeting human CD19<sup>+</sup> tumors. (PubMed)

Diphtheria toxin-based anti-human CD19 immunotoxin for targeting human CD19+ tumors. CD19 is expressed on normal and neoplastic B cells and is a promising target for immunotherapy. However, there is still an unmet need to further develop novel therapeutic drugs for the treatment of the refractory/relapsing human CD19+ tumors. We have developed a diphtheria toxin-based anti-human CD19 immunotoxin for targeting human CD19+ tumors. We have constructed three isoforms of the CD19

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2017 Molecular oncology

96. Safety of Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Vaccination During Pregnancy: A Systematic Review. (PubMed)

Safety of Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Vaccination During Pregnancy: A Systematic Review. To assess antenatal, birth, and infant outcomes for pregnant women, fetuses, and infants after antenatal vaccination with any antigen present in combination pertussis vaccines.PubMed, EMBASE, Literature in the Health Sciences in Latin America and the Caribbean, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cochrane Library, and World Health Organization (inception to May 5, 2016).Studies reporting outcomes for pregnant women (...) , their fetus, or infant after antenatal exposure to either monovalent or combined tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) or inactivated polio vaccines were considered for inclusion.A total of 21 studies were included in this review. Point estimates ranged from 0.47 to 1.50 for preterm birth (less than 37 weeks of gestation), 0.65-1.00 for small for gestational age (birth weight less than the 10th percentile), 0.36-0.85 for stillbirth, 0.16-1.00 for neonatal death, 0.76

2017 Obstetrics and Gynecology

97. A phase I, randomized, controlled, dose-ranging study of investigational acellular pertussis (aP) and reduced tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (TdaP) booster vaccines in adults (PubMed)

A phase I, randomized, controlled, dose-ranging study of investigational acellular pertussis (aP) and reduced tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (TdaP) booster vaccines in adults Despite high vaccination coverage worldwide, pertussis has re-emerged in many countries. This randomized, controlled, observer-blind phase I study and extension study in Belgium (March 2012-June 2015) assessed safety and immunogenicity of investigational acellular pertussis vaccines containing genetically (...) detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) (NCT01529645; NCT02382913). 420 healthy adults (average age: 26.8 ± 5.5 years, 60% female) were randomized to 1 of 10 vaccine groups: 3 investigational aP vaccines (containing pertussis antigens PT, filamentous hemagglutinin [FHA] and pertactin [PRN] at different dosages), 6 investigational TdaP (additionally containing tetanus toxoid [TT] and diphtheria toxoid [DT]), and 1 TdaP comparator containing chemically inactivated PT. Antibody responses were evaluated on days 1, 8

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2017 Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics

98. Nanoporous Microneedle Arrays Effectively Induce Antibody Responses against Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoid (PubMed)

Nanoporous Microneedle Arrays Effectively Induce Antibody Responses against Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoid The skin is immunologically very potent because of the high number of antigen-presenting cells in the dermis and epidermis, and is therefore considered to be very suitable for vaccination. However, the skin's physical barrier, the stratum corneum, prevents foreign substances, including vaccines, from entering the skin. Microneedles, which are needle-like structures with dimensions (...) in the micrometer range, form a relatively new approach to circumvent the stratum corneum, allowing for minimally invasive and pain-free vaccination. In this study, we tested ceramic nanoporous microneedle arrays (npMNAs), representing a novel microneedle-based drug delivery technology, for their ability to deliver the subunit vaccines diphtheria toxoid (DT) and tetanus toxoid (TT) intradermally. First, the piercing ability of the ceramic (alumina) npMNAs, which contained over 100 microneedles per array

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2017 Frontiers in immunology

99. Demand- and supply-side determinants of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus nonvaccination and dropout in rural India (PubMed)

Demand- and supply-side determinants of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus nonvaccination and dropout in rural India Although 93% of 12- to 23-month-old children in India receive at least one vaccine, typically Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, only 75% complete the recommended three doses of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT, also referred to as DTP) vaccine. Determinants can be different for nonvaccination and dropout but have not been examined in earlier studies. We use the three-dose DPT series

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2017 Vaccine

100. Two Techniques to Create Hypoparathyroid Mice: Parathyroidectomy Using GFP Glands and Diphtheria-Toxin-Mediated Parathyroid Ablation (PubMed)

Two Techniques to Create Hypoparathyroid Mice: Parathyroidectomy Using GFP Glands and Diphtheria-Toxin-Mediated Parathyroid Ablation Hypoparathyroidism (HP) is a disorder characterized by low levels of PTH which lead to hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and low bone turnover. The most common cause of the disease is accidental removal of the parathyroid glands during thyroid surgery. Novel therapies for HP are needed, but testing them requires reliable animal models of acquired HP. Here, we (...) -parathyroidectomy, this precise surgical approach leaves thyroid glands and thyroid function intact. The second model, which does not require surgery, is based on a diphtheria-toxin approach. PTHcre-iDTR mice, which express the diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor specifically in the parathyroids, were generated by crossing the inducible DTR mouse with the PTHcre mouse. Parathyroid cells are thus rendered sensitive to diphtheria toxin (DT) and can be selectively destroyed by systemically injecting mice with DT

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2017 Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE

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