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Diphtheria

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41. A phase III, open-label, randomised multicentre study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of two different reduced antigen diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-polio vaccines, when co-administered with measles-mumps-rubella vacci Full Text available with Trip Pro

A phase III, open-label, randomised multicentre study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of two different reduced antigen diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-polio vaccines, when co-administered with measles-mumps-rubella vacci To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a reduced antigen diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus (dTap-IPVB) vaccine (Boostrix-IPV, GSK) as a pre-school booster in 3-4 year old children as compared to dTap-IPVR (...) (Repevax, Sanofi Pasteur), when co-administered with mumps-measles-rubella vaccine (MMRV).This phase III, open label, randomised study was conducted in the UK between April 2011 and April 2012. Children due their pre-school dTap-IPV booster vaccination were randomised 2:1 to receive one of two different dTap-IPV vaccines (dTap-IPVB or dTap-IPVR) with blood sample for immunogenicity assessment just prior and one month after vaccination. Immune responses to diphtheria, tetanus and polio antigens were

2018 Vaccine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

42. Antibody persistence and safety and immunogenicity of a second booster dose nine years after a first booster vaccination with a reduced antigen diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) in adults. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibody persistence and safety and immunogenicity of a second booster dose nine years after a first booster vaccination with a reduced antigen diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) in adults. Over the last decades, pertussis showed periodic increases in its incidence among adults, despite being a vaccine-preventable disease.This phase III, multicenter, extension study (NCT00489970) was conducted in adults from the United States, followed at Year (Y) 5 and Y9 post-vaccination (...) with a dose of reduced-antigen-content tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine containing either 3 (Tdap-B group) or 5 pertussis components (Tdap-A group). Willing participants in Tdap groups and newly-recruited participants (Control group) received one Tdap-B dose at Y9. Antibody persistence (at Y5 and Y9) and safety of Tdap-B at Y9 were assessed. Non-inferiority of immune response elicited by 2 Tdap doses was evaluated at Y9: (i) versus one Tdap-B dose for diphtheria and tetanus in terms

2018 Vaccine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

43. Immunogenicity and safety of the quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine MenACWY-TT co-administered with a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine versus their separate administration in adolescents and young adults: A phase III, randomized stu Full Text available with Trip Pro

Immunogenicity and safety of the quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine MenACWY-TT co-administered with a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine versus their separate administration in adolescents and young adults: A phase III, randomized stu This study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine using tetanus (T) toxoid as carrier protein (MenACWY-TT) co-administered with combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap (...) ) versus their separate administration in adolescents and young adults.In this phase III, randomized, partially-blind study (NCT01767376), healthy 11-25-year-olds (N = 660) were randomized (1:1:1) to receive MenACWY-TT and Tdap at Month 0 (Co-ad group), MenACWY-TT at Month 0 and Tdap at Month 1 (ACWY_Tdap group) or Tdap at Month 0 and MenACWY-TT at Month 1 (Tdap_ACWY group). Immune responses to MenACWY-TT were measured by serum bactericidal assay using rabbit complement (rSBA). Anti-diphtheria (D

2018 Vaccine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

44. Effect of HIV exposure and timing of antiretroviral therapy initiation on immune memory responses to diphtheria, tetanus, whole cell pertussis and hepatitis B vaccines. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of HIV exposure and timing of antiretroviral therapy initiation on immune memory responses to diphtheria, tetanus, whole cell pertussis and hepatitis B vaccines. We evaluated memory responses and antibody persistence to diphtheria-toxoid, tetanus-toxoid, whole-cell-pertussis (DTwP), and Hepatitis-B vaccines in HIV-unexposed, HIV-exposed-uninfected and HIV-infected children previously randomized to initiate time-limited ART at 6-10 weeks (ART-Immed) or when clinically/immunologically (...) indicated (ART-Def).All children received DTwP booster at 15-18 months. Antibodies were measured for pertussis-toxoid, filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), diphtheria-toxoid, tetanus-toxoid, and hepatitis-B prior to booster, 1-2 weeks post-booster and at 24 months of age.Pre-booster antibody GMC were lower in HIV-infected groups than HIV-unexposed children for all epitopes. Post-booster and at 24 months of age, the ART-Def group had lower GMCs and antibody proportion ≥0.1 IU/ml for tetanus-toxoid

2018 Expert review of vaccines Controlled trial quality: uncertain

45. Immunogenicity and safety following primary and booster vaccination with a hexavalent diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, inactivated poliovirus and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine: a randomized trial in the United States. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Immunogenicity and safety following primary and booster vaccination with a hexavalent diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, inactivated poliovirus and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine: a randomized trial in the United States. Combined hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib) can further reduce the number of injections in pediatric immunization schedules of countries

2018 Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

46. Molecular characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates in Malaysia between 1981 and 2016. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Molecular characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates in Malaysia between 1981 and 2016. Sporadic diphtheria cases in Malaysia have remained low in number since the 1990s. However, in 2016 a total of 31 cases were reported nationwide and to investigate this we performed molecular characterization of 30 Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates collected from 1981 to 2016 using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). C. diphtheriae isolates were identified and biotyped using the API Coryne (...) kit, while the toxigenicity was determined by PCR and the Elek test. All of the 2016 isolates belonged to biotype mitis, caused respiratory diphtheria and were toxigenic strains. MLST analysis identified 17 sequence types (STs), including 11 new ones. ST453 was the most common clone (7/30, 23.3 %), followed by ST141 (5/30, 16.7 %), ST451 (3/30, 10.0 %) and ST248 (2/30, 6.7 %). The clones identified in 2016 had not been detected in previous isolations and they were phylogenetically distinct. Our

2018 Journal of Medical Microbiology

47. Transmission of toxigenic <i>Corynebacterium diphtheriae</i> by a fully immunised resident returning from a visit to West Africa, United Kingdom, 2017. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Transmission of toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae by a fully immunised resident returning from a visit to West Africa, United Kingdom, 2017. In early 2017, a United Kingdom (UK)-born person in their 20s presented with a skin ulcer on the foot 3 weeks after returning from Ghana. The patient had last received a diphtheria-containing vaccine in 2013, completing the recommended course. MALDI-TOF of a cutaneous swab identified Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Real-time PCR ascertained (...) the species and presence of the diphtheria toxin gene. An Elek test confirmed toxigenicity. The isolate was macrolide sensitive and penicillin resistant. The local Public Health England (PHE) Health Protection Team obtained the patient's clinical history and traced contacts to inform appropriate public health action. One close contact (in their early 80s with uncertain immunisation status who had not recently travelled) had a positive throat swab for toxigenic C. diphtheriae and reported a history of mild

2018 Euro Surveillance

48. Protein Labeling via a Specific Lysine-Isopeptide Bond using the Pilin Polymerizing Sortase from Corynebacterium diphtheriae Full Text available with Trip Pro

Protein Labeling via a Specific Lysine-Isopeptide Bond using the Pilin Polymerizing Sortase from Corynebacterium diphtheriae Proteins that are site-specifically modified with peptides and chemicals can be used as novel therapeutics, imaging tools, diagnostic reagents and materials. However, there are few enzyme-catalyzed methods currently available to selectively conjugate peptides to internal sites within proteins. Here we show that a pilus-specific sortase enzyme from Corynebacterium (...) diphtheriae (CdSrtA) can be used to attach a peptide to a protein via a specific lysine-isopeptide bond. Using rational mutagenesis we created CdSrtA3M, a highly activated cysteine transpeptidase that catalyzes in vitro isopeptide bond formation. CdSrtA3M mediates bioconjugation to a specific lysine residue within a fused domain derived from the corynebacterial SpaA protein. Peptide modification yields greater than >95% can be achieved. We demonstrate that CdSrtA3M can be used in concert

2018 Journal of the American Chemical Society

49. Intracellular trafficking of diphtheria toxin and its mutated form, CRM197, in the endocytic pathway Full Text available with Trip Pro

Intracellular trafficking of diphtheria toxin and its mutated form, CRM197, in the endocytic pathway Diphtheria toxin (DTx) is a well-characterized bacterial toxin. However, the endocytic pathway of the mutant of DTx, CRM197, which is used as an immunological adjuvant, has not yet been fully explained. The aim of this study was to investigate the intracellular trafficking of CRM197-loaded endosomes.Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used in a cell culture. The effective

2018 Northern clinics of Istanbul

50. Iron and Zinc Regulate Expression of a Putative ABC Metal Transporter in Corynebacterium diphtheriae Full Text available with Trip Pro

Iron and Zinc Regulate Expression of a Putative ABC Metal Transporter in Corynebacterium diphtheriae Corynebacterium diphtheriae, a Gram-positive, aerobic bacterium, is the causative agent of diphtheria and cutaneous infections. While mechanisms required for heme iron acquisition are well known in C. diphtheriae, systems involved in the acquisition of other metals such as zinc and manganese remain poorly characterized. In this study, we identified a genetic region that encodes an ABC-type (...) for the DtxR-dependent and iron-responsive activation of the iutE gene. These findings indicate that transcription of iutE is controlled by a complex mechanism that involves multiple regulatory factors whose activity is impacted by both Zn and Fe.IMPORTANCE Vaccination against diphtheria prevents toxin-related symptoms but does not inhibit bacterial colonization of the human host by the bacterium. Thus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae remains an important human pathogen that poses a significant health risk

2018 Journal of bacteriology

51. A Pilot Study: Factors Influencing Compliance With Tetanus–Diphtheria Vaccine in Katsina State, Northwestern Nigeria Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Pilot Study: Factors Influencing Compliance With Tetanus–Diphtheria Vaccine in Katsina State, Northwestern Nigeria Tetanus-diphtheria vaccine (Td+) coverage has been steadily declining in Katsina State, Nigeria. The pilot study was guided by The Andersen and Newman Framework of Health Services Utilization. The goal of the pilot study was to identify the Td+ vaccination coverage and identify any association between maternal residence, educational status, occupational status, access

2018 Health services research and managerial epidemiology

52. Seroprevalence of Maternal and Cord Antibodies Specific for Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Measles, Mumps and Rubella in Shunyi, Beijing Full Text available with Trip Pro

Seroprevalence of Maternal and Cord Antibodies Specific for Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Measles, Mumps and Rubella in Shunyi, Beijing Maternal antibodies contribute to the protection of young infants from infectious diseases during the early life. However, vaccinations for women of child-bearing age are not routine in China. Therefore, we investigated the level of protective immunity against vaccine preventable diseases in pregnant women and newborns in China. A total of 194 paired maternal (...) and cord blood samples were collected in Beijing from 2016 to 2017. Antibodies specific for the antigens covered by diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine were determined by ELISA (Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany). The cut off value of ≥0.1 IU/ml (anti-diphtheria), >0.1 IU/ml (anti-tetanus), >40 IU/ml (anti-pertussis toxin), ≥200 IU/l (anti-measles), ≥45 RU/ml (anti-mumps) and ≥10 IU/ml (anti-rubella) were used to assess the percentage of newborns with protective IgG

2018 Scientific reports

53. A SNP-based phylogenetic analysis of Corynebacterium diphtheriae in Malaysia Full Text available with Trip Pro

A SNP-based phylogenetic analysis of Corynebacterium diphtheriae in Malaysia There is a lack of study in Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates in Malaysia. The alarming surge of cases in year 2016 lead us to evaluate the local clinical C. diphtheriae strains in Malaysia. We conducted single nucleotide polymorphism phylogenetic analysis on the core and pan-genome as well as toxin and diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR) genes of Malaysian C. diphtheriae isolates from the year 1986-2016 (...) .The comparison between core and pan-genomic comparison showed variation in the distribution of C. diphtheriae. The local isolates portrayed a heterogenous trait and a close relationship between Malaysia's and Belarus's, Africa's and India's strains were observed. A toxigenic C. diphtheriae clone was noted to be circulating in the Malaysian population for nearly 30 years and from our study, the non-toxigenic and toxigenic C. diphtheriae strains can be differentiated significantly into two large clusters

2018 BMC research notes

54. Biosynthesis of organic photosensitizer Zn-porphyrin by diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR)-mediated global upregulation of engineered heme biosynthesis pathway in Corynebacterium glutamicum Full Text available with Trip Pro

Biosynthesis of organic photosensitizer Zn-porphyrin by diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR)-mediated global upregulation of engineered heme biosynthesis pathway in Corynebacterium glutamicum Zn-porphyrin is a promising organic photosensitizer in various fields including solar cells, interface and biomedical research, but the biosynthesis study has been limited, probably due to the difficulty of understanding complex biosynthesis pathways. In this study, we developed a Corynebacterium glutamicum (...) , the dtxR gene encoding the transcriptional regulator diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR) was first overexpressed in C. glutamicum with hemAM and hemL genes, and its combinatorial expression was improved by using effective genetic tools. This engineered strain biosynthesized 68.31 ± 2.15 mg/l of Zn-CP III. Finally, fed-batch fermentation allowed for the production of 132.09 mg/l of Zn-CP III. This titer represents the highest in bacterial production of Zn-CP III reported to date, to our knowledge

2018 Scientific reports

55. Barriers to Receipt of Prenatal Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Among Mothers of Infants Aged <4 Months with Pertussis — California, 2016 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Barriers to Receipt of Prenatal Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Among Mothers of Infants Aged <4 Months with Pertussis — California, 2016 Vaccination with tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine is recommended for all pregnant women to protect infants who are too young for vaccination from severe pertussis-related outcomes (1-3). However, Tdap vaccine coverage among pregnant women remains suboptimal

2018 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

56. Evaluation of Potency on Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoid for Adult Vaccines by In Vivo Toxin Neutralization Assay Using National Reference Standards Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of Potency on Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoid for Adult Vaccines by In Vivo Toxin Neutralization Assay Using National Reference Standards Vaccinations against diphtheria and tetanus are essential in providing immunity against these bacterial infections. The potency of diphtheria and tetanus toxoid vaccines can be measured using the in vivo toxin neutralization assay. The limit of potency of this assay was determined only for children. Therefore, we assessed the potency of adult (...) vaccines using this assay to identify the feasibility of limit for adult vaccines.Fifteen lots of tetanus-reduced diphtheria and tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccines were used. In vivo toxin neutralization and lethal challenge assays were conducted on each vaccine to calculate the potencies of the toxoids. National reference standards for toxins and antitoxins were used for in vivo toxin neutralization assay.All 15 lots satisfied the limits of potency for lethal challenge assay. The potency

2018 Osong public health and research perspectives

57. Corynebacterium diphtheriae Native Aortic Valve Endocarditis in a Patient With Prosthetic Mitral Valve: A Rare Presentation Full Text available with Trip Pro

Corynebacterium diphtheriae Native Aortic Valve Endocarditis in a Patient With Prosthetic Mitral Valve: A Rare Presentation Infective endocarditis due to non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae is uncommon. We describe the case of a 42-year-old male with a history of mitral valve replacement with prosthetic valve for 4 years. He presented with fever, weight loss, dyspnea on exertion and orthopnea. The echocardiography demonstrated large vegetation attached on the left coronary cusp (...) of the aortic valve with moderately severe aortic regurgitation but sparing of the prosthetic mitral valve. Three separate blood cultures grew Corynebacterium species. The patient underwent aortic valve replacement due to valvular dysfunction and congestive heart failure. C. diphtheriae DNA was detected by 16 S rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the heart valve tissue. The patient recovered completely with combine antibiotics and surgical intervention. He was discharged from the hospital with good

2018 Cardiology Research

58. Coated and Hollow Microneedle-Mediated Intradermal Immunization in Mice with Diphtheria Toxoid Loaded Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Full Text available with Trip Pro

Coated and Hollow Microneedle-Mediated Intradermal Immunization in Mice with Diphtheria Toxoid Loaded Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles To examine the immunogenicity of diphtheria toxoid (DT) loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) after coated and hollow microneedle-mediated intradermal immunization in mice.DT was loaded into MSNs and the nanoparticle surface was coated with a lipid bilayer (LB-MSN-DT). To prepare coated microneedles, alternating layers of negatively charged LB-MSN-DT

2018 Pharmaceutical research

59. Pharmacists’ Attitudes and Practices Regarding Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccination in Pregnancy and Surrounding Newborns Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pharmacists’ Attitudes and Practices Regarding Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccination in Pregnancy and Surrounding Newborns Bordetella pertussis or whooping cough is a serious and vaccine-preventable illness. Despite widespread vaccination in the pediatric population, pertussis still infects approximately 100,000 infants each year in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine gaps in pharmacists’ understanding, attitudes, practices, and barriers (...) surrounding the tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) vaccination recommendation for patients who are pregnant or planning to come in close contact with infants.This study was a descriptive, exploratory electronic survey. The survey assessed three major areas; the role of the pharmacist in Tdap vaccination, perceived barriers to vaccination, and understanding the recommendations.A total of 225 pharmacists responded to the survey. Pharmacists who responded to this survey agreed that pharmacists should

2018 Pharmacy: Journal of Pharmacy Education and Practice

60. Prevention of Pertussis, Tetanus, and Diphtheria with Vaccines in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevention of Pertussis, Tetanus, and Diphtheria with Vaccines in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) This report compiles and summarizes all recommendations from CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding prevention and control of tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis in the United States. As a comprehensive summary of previously published recommendations, this report does not contain any new recommendations (...) and replaces all previously published reports and policy notes; it is intended for use by clinicians and public health providers as a resource. ACIP recommends routine vaccination for tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis. Infants and young children are recommended to receive a 5-dose series of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines, with one adolescent booster dose of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine. Adults who have never

2018 MMWR Recommendations and Reports

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