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41. Concomitant administration of diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and inactivated poliovirus vaccine derived from Sabin strains (DTaP-sIPV) with pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Japanese infants. (PubMed)

Concomitant administration of diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and inactivated poliovirus vaccine derived from Sabin strains (DTaP-sIPV) with pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Japanese infants. Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. Most children are infected with rotavirus, and the health and economic burdens of rotavirus gastroenteritis on healthcare systems and families are considerable. In 2012 pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5 (...) ) and diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and inactivated poliovirus vaccine derived from Sabin strains (DTaP-sIPV) were licensed in Japan. We examined the immunogenicity and safety of DTaP-sIPV when administrated concomitantly with RV5 in Japanese infants. A total of 192 infants 6 to 11 weeks of age randomized to Group 1 (N = 96) received DTaP-sIPV and RV5 concomitantly, and Group 2 (N = 96) received DTaP-sIPV and RV5 separately. Antibody titer to diphtheria toxin, pertussis antigens (PT and FHA

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2018 Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics

42. Seroprevalence of diphtheria and pertussis immunoglobulin G among children with pneumonia in Ji'nan, China. (PubMed)

Seroprevalence of diphtheria and pertussis immunoglobulin G among children with pneumonia in Ji'nan, China. Vaccination is still one of the most important methods to control and prevent childhood infections including diphtheria and pertussis. This study evaluated the level of diphtheria (DT) and pertussis (PT)-related antibodies among children with pneumonia in Ji'nan, China.A total of 484 sera of children from 1 day to 13 years of age were collected from 2014 to 2015 in Ji'nan. Children

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2018 BMC Pediatrics

43. Immunogenicity and safety of a tetanus-diphtheria vaccine and a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine after concomitant vaccination in ≥ 50-year-old adults. (PubMed)

Immunogenicity and safety of a tetanus-diphtheria vaccine and a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine after concomitant vaccination in ≥ 50-year-old adults. When two or more vaccines are administered concurrently, there is concern about safety and immunogenicity from vaccine interaction.Subjects aged ≥50 years were randomized 1:1:1 to receive tetanus-diphtheria (Td) + 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13; Group 1), PCV13 alone (Group 2), or Td alone (Group 3). After single (...) or concomitant vaccination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) were performed to compare immunogenicity for Td and PCV13, respectively.A total of 448 subjects were available for the assessment. After concomitant administration, the non-inferiority criteria of geometric mean titer (GMT) ratios were met for tetanus, diphtheria, and all four pneumococcal serotypes (1, 5, 18C, and 19A). However, subjects in Group 3 (Td alone) were more likely to have a high IgG anti-tetanus

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2018 BMC Infectious Diseases

44. <i>In vitro</i> antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Non-<i>diphtheriae Corynebacterium</i> in Ontario, 2011-2016. (PubMed)

In vitro antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Non-diphtheriae Corynebacterium in Ontario, 2011-2016. Non-diphtheriae Corynebacterium-associated disease has been increasingly observed and often presents a conundrum to the treating physician. Analysis of antibiotic susceptibility testing data for 1,970 clinical Corynebacterium isolates received between 2011 and 2016 revealed that empirical drug treatment options are limited to vancomycin and linezolid. Corynebacterium striatum (...) was the most frequently observed species during this study period, along with C. amycolatum and C. pseudodiphtheriticum/C. propinquum Low levels of susceptibility to penicillin (14.5%), erythromycin (15.1%), and clindamycin (8.7%) were observed for non-diphtheriae Corynebacterium species, while 3.0% of isolates were not susceptible to daptomycin. Similarly, 26.9% and 38.1% of Corynebacterium isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, respectively. Our data show much lower

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2018 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

45. Diphtheria Outbreak in Amerindian Communities, Wonken, Venezuela, 2016-2017. (PubMed)

Diphtheria Outbreak in Amerindian Communities, Wonken, Venezuela, 2016-2017. In February 2017, a diphtheria outbreak occurred among Amerindians of the Pemón ethnic group in Wonken, Venezuela. A field investigation revealed ≈10 cases; clinical presentation did not include cutaneous or neurologic signs or symptoms. To prevent future outbreaks in Venezuela, Amerindian communities need better access to vaccination and healthcare.

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2018 Emerging Infectious Diseases

46. Geographically Diverse Clusters of Nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae Infection, Germany, 2016-2017. (PubMed)

Geographically Diverse Clusters of Nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae Infection, Germany, 2016-2017. From 2016 through the middle of 2017, the German Consiliary Laboratory on Diphtheria noted an increase in nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates submitted from cities in northern Germany. Many patients for whom epidemiologic data were available were homeless, alcohol or drug abusers, or both. After performing routine diagnostics and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), we analyzed (...) -nucleotide polymorphisms. We identified patient characteristics and detected transmission events, providing evidence that nontoxigenic C. diphtheriae infection is a potential public health threat in industrialized countries.

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2018 Emerging Infectious Diseases

47. A single booster dose of diphtheria vaccine is effective for travelers regardless of time interval since previous doses. (PubMed)

A single booster dose of diphtheria vaccine is effective for travelers regardless of time interval since previous doses. Our study showed the immune response before and after a booster against diphtheria given within the 20-year interval recommended in Sweden or after a prolonged interval. Of 40 travellers, 10/13 in recommended interval group were immune before booster and 19/27 with a delayed interval. After booster, 13/13 versus 26/27 were protected. One booster was sufficient to achieve

2018 Journal of Travel Medicine

48. A case of respiratory toxigenic diphtheria: contact tracing results and considerations following a 30-year disease-free interval, Catalonia, Spain, 2015. (PubMed)

A case of respiratory toxigenic diphtheria: contact tracing results and considerations following a 30-year disease-free interval, Catalonia, Spain, 2015. In May 2015, following a 30-year diphtheria-free interval in Catalonia, an unvaccinated 6-year-old child was diagnosed with diphtheria caused by toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae. After a difficult search for equine-derived diphtheria antitoxin (DAT), the child received the DAT 4 days later but died at the end of June. Two hundred (...) and seventeen contacts were identified in relation to the index case, and their vaccination statuses were analysed, updated and completed. Of these, 140 contacts underwent physical examination and throat swabs were taken from them for analysis. Results were positive for toxigenic C. diphtheriae in 10 contacts; nine were asymptomatic vaccinated children who had been in contact with the index case and one was a parent of one of the nine children. Active surveillance of the 217 contacts was initiated

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2018 Euro Surveillance

49. Effectiveness of Prenatal Tetanus, Diphtheria, Acellular Pertussis Vaccination in the Prevention of Infant Pertussis in the U.S. (PubMed)

Effectiveness of Prenatal Tetanus, Diphtheria, Acellular Pertussis Vaccination in the Prevention of Infant Pertussis in the U.S. It is recommended that all pregnant women in the U.S. receive tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) immunization to prevent infant pertussis. This study's objective was to examine the clinical effectiveness of prenatal Tdap, and whether effectiveness varies by gestational age at immunization.A nationwide cohort study of pregnant women with deliveries in 2010

2018 American journal of preventive medicine

50. Safety Surveillance of Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis (DTaP) Vaccines. (PubMed)

Safety Surveillance of Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis (DTaP) Vaccines. To assess the safety of currently licensed diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines in the United States by using data from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a spontaneous reporting surveillance system.We searched VAERS for US reports of DTaP vaccinations occurring from January 1, 1991, through December 31, 2016, and received by March 17, 2017. We reviewed available

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2018 Pediatrics

51. Cardiac complications in diphtheria and predictors of outcomes. (PubMed)

Cardiac complications in diphtheria and predictors of outcomes. To study the cardiac complications in diphtheria patients and to study the predictors of outcomes.Single centre prospective analysis of cardiac complications in diphtheria patients.In this study, there were 60 patients diagnosed with diphtheria with ECG changes. The ECG changes seen were sinus tachycardia (68.3%), T wave inversion (20%), ST segment depression (13.3%), right bundle branch block (5%), multiple atrial ectopics (3.3 (...) %). The case fatality rate in our study was 25% (15 patients). High CPK-MB, myoglobulin and cardiac troponin levels were associated with cardiac mortality. In our study, cardiac troponin T had the highest sensitivity (80%) and CK-MB had the highest specificity (95.56%).Cardiac involvement is a common complication of infection with C. diphtheria and is associated with high mortality. As diphtheria can be prevented by adequate vaccination, efforts should be maximized for high vaccine coverage with booster

2018 International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

52. Iron and Zinc Regulate Expression of a Putative ABC Metal Transporter in Corynebacterium diphtheriae (PubMed)

Iron and Zinc Regulate Expression of a Putative ABC Metal Transporter in Corynebacterium diphtheriae Corynebacterium diphtheriae, a Gram-positive, aerobic bacterium, is the causative agent of diphtheria and cutaneous infections. While mechanisms required for heme iron acquisition are well known in C. diphtheriae, systems involved in the acquisition of other metals such as zinc and manganese remain poorly characterized. In this study, we identified a genetic region that encodes an ABC-type (...) for the DtxR-dependent and iron-responsive activation of the iutE gene. These findings indicate that transcription of iutE is controlled by a complex mechanism that involves multiple regulatory factors whose activity is impacted by both Zn and Fe.IMPORTANCE Vaccination against diphtheria prevents toxin-related symptoms but does not inhibit bacterial colonization of the human host by the bacterium. Thus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae remains an important human pathogen that poses a significant health risk

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2018 Journal of bacteriology

53. Prevention of Pertussis, Tetanus, and Diphtheria with Vaccines in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) (PubMed)

Prevention of Pertussis, Tetanus, and Diphtheria with Vaccines in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) This report compiles and summarizes all recommendations from CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding prevention and control of tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis in the United States. As a comprehensive summary of previously published recommendations, this report does not contain any new recommendations (...) and replaces all previously published reports and policy notes; it is intended for use by clinicians and public health providers as a resource. ACIP recommends routine vaccination for tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis. Infants and young children are recommended to receive a 5-dose series of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines, with one adolescent booster dose of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine. Adults who have never

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2018 MMWR Recommendations and Reports

54. Pharmacists’ Attitudes and Practices Regarding Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccination in Pregnancy and Surrounding Newborns (PubMed)

Pharmacists’ Attitudes and Practices Regarding Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccination in Pregnancy and Surrounding Newborns Bordetella pertussis or whooping cough is a serious and vaccine-preventable illness. Despite widespread vaccination in the pediatric population, pertussis still infects approximately 100,000 infants each year in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine gaps in pharmacists’ understanding, attitudes, practices, and barriers (...) surrounding the tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) vaccination recommendation for patients who are pregnant or planning to come in close contact with infants.This study was a descriptive, exploratory electronic survey. The survey assessed three major areas; the role of the pharmacist in Tdap vaccination, perceived barriers to vaccination, and understanding the recommendations.A total of 225 pharmacists responded to the survey. Pharmacists who responded to this survey agreed that pharmacists should

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2018 Pharmacy: Journal of Pharmacy Education and Practice

55. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the basic reproduction number of diphtheria: a case study of a Rohingya refugee camp in Bangladesh, November–December 2017 (PubMed)

Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the basic reproduction number of diphtheria: a case study of a Rohingya refugee camp in Bangladesh, November–December 2017 A Rohingya refugee camp in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh experienced a large-scale diphtheria epidemic in 2017. The background information of previously immune fraction among refugees cannot be explicitly estimated, and thus we conducted an uncertainty analysis of the basic reproduction number, R0.A renewal process model was devised

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2018 PeerJ

56. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A165b Restores Normal Glomerular Water Permeability in a Diphtheria-Toxin Mouse Model of Glomerular Injury (PubMed)

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A165b Restores Normal Glomerular Water Permeability in a Diphtheria-Toxin Mouse Model of Glomerular Injury Genetic cell ablation using the human diphtheria toxin receptor (hDTR) is a new strategy used for analysing cellular function. Diphtheria toxin (DT) is a cytotoxic protein that leaves mouse cells relatively unaffected, but upon binding to hDTR it ultimately leads to cell death. We used a podocyte-specific hDTR expressing (Pod-DTR) mouse to assess the anti

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2018 Nephron. Clinical practice

57. Transcriptome sequencing of the human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae NCTC 13129 provides detailed insights into its transcriptional landscape and into DtxR-mediated transcriptional regulation (PubMed)

Transcriptome sequencing of the human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae NCTC 13129 provides detailed insights into its transcriptional landscape and into DtxR-mediated transcriptional regulation The human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the causative agent of diphtheria. In the 1990s a large diphtheria outbreak in Eastern Europe was caused by the strain C. diphtheriae NCTC 13129. Although the genome was sequenced more than a decade ago, not much is known about its transcriptome. Our (...) aim was to use transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) to close this knowledge gap and gain insights into the transcriptional landscape of a C. diphtheriae tox+ strain.We applied two different RNA-Seq techniques, one to retrieve 5'-ends of primary transcripts and the other to characterize the whole transcriptional landscape in order to gain insights into various features of the C. diphtheriae NCTC 13129 transcriptome. By examining the data we identified 1656 transcription start sites (TSS), of which

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2018 BMC genomics

58. Complete Closed Genome Sequence of Nontoxigenic Invasive Corynebacterium diphtheriae bv. mitis Strain ISS 3319 (PubMed)

Complete Closed Genome Sequence of Nontoxigenic Invasive Corynebacterium diphtheriae bv. mitis Strain ISS 3319 The genome sequence of the human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae bv. mitis strain ISS 3319 was determined and closed in this study. The genome is estimated to have 2,404,936 bp encoding 2,257 proteins. This strain also possesses a plasmid of 1,960 bp.Copyright © 2018 Azevedo Antunes et al.

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2018 Genome Announcements

59. Immunogenicity and safety of a second booster dose of an acellular pertussis vaccine combined with reduced antigen content diphtheria-tetanus toxoids 10 years after a first booster in adolescence: An open, phase III, non-randomized, multi-center study (PubMed)

Immunogenicity and safety of a second booster dose of an acellular pertussis vaccine combined with reduced antigen content diphtheria-tetanus toxoids 10 years after a first booster in adolescence: An open, phase III, non-randomized, multi-center study Pertussis is a highly contagious disease, for which periodic peaks in incidence and an increasing number of outbreaks have been observed over the last decades. The reduced-antigen-content tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) can (...) be used to boost individuals aged ≥10 years, vaccinated in infancy with a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), to reduce pertussis morbidity and maintain protection against diphtheria and tetanus throughout adolescence and adulthood. This phase III, open-label, non-randomized, multicenter follow-up study (NCT01738477) enrolled 19-30-year-old participants from the United States who had received booster vaccination 10 years earlier with either Tdap (Tdap group) or Td (Td group

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2018 Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics

60. Protein Labeling via a Specific Lysine-Isopeptide Bond using the Pilin Polymerizing Sortase from Corynebacterium diphtheriae (PubMed)

Protein Labeling via a Specific Lysine-Isopeptide Bond using the Pilin Polymerizing Sortase from Corynebacterium diphtheriae Proteins that are site-specifically modified with peptides and chemicals can be used as novel therapeutics, imaging tools, diagnostic reagents and materials. However, there are few enzyme-catalyzed methods currently available to selectively conjugate peptides to internal sites within proteins. Here we show that a pilus-specific sortase enzyme from Corynebacterium (...) diphtheriae (CdSrtA) can be used to attach a peptide to a protein via a specific lysine-isopeptide bond. Using rational mutagenesis we created CdSrtA3M, a highly activated cysteine transpeptidase that catalyzes in vitro isopeptide bond formation. CdSrtA3M mediates bioconjugation to a specific lysine residue within a fused domain derived from the corynebacterial SpaA protein. Peptide modification yields greater than >95% can be achieved. We demonstrate that CdSrtA3M can be used in concert

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2018 Journal of the American Chemical Society

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