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21. Determinants of delayed or incomplete diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination in parallel urban and rural birth cohorts of 30,956 infants in Tanzania. (Full text)

Determinants of delayed or incomplete diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination in parallel urban and rural birth cohorts of 30,956 infants in Tanzania. Delayed vaccination increases the time infants are at risk for acquiring vaccine-preventable diseases. Factors associated with incomplete vaccination are relatively well characterized in resource-limited settings; however, few studies have assessed immunization timeliness.We conducted a prospective cohort study examining Diphtheria-Tetanus

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases PubMed

22. A Phase III Study to Evaluate the Immunogenicity and Safety of GC1107 (Adult Tetanus Diphtheria Vaccine) in Healthy Adults. (Full text)

A Phase III Study to Evaluate the Immunogenicity and Safety of GC1107 (Adult Tetanus Diphtheria Vaccine) in Healthy Adults. This study was conducted to assess the immunogenicity and safety of GC1107 (adult tetanus diphtheria [Td] vaccine). The primary goal was to evaluate the non-inferiority of the immunogenicity of GC1107 compared to the control vaccine. Additionally, the safety profiles of GC1107 and the control vaccine were compared.The subjects were adults ≥ 18 years old who were (...) not injected with Td or adult tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis (TdaP) vaccine within the recent 5 years. A total of 253 subjects were enrolled and randomized to either the GC1107 group or the control group. For immunogenicity assessment, blood samples were collected at baseline and 28 days after vaccination and antibody titer of diphtheria and tetanus were assessed.The seroprotection rates of diphtheria and tetanus were 89.76% and 91.34%, respectively, in the GC1107 group, and 87.80% and 86.99% in the control

2019 Journal of Korean medical science PubMed

23. Real-time analysis of the diphtheria outbreak in forcibly displaced Myanmar nationals in Bangladesh. (Full text)

Real-time analysis of the diphtheria outbreak in forcibly displaced Myanmar nationals in Bangladesh. Between August and December 2017, more than 625,000 Rohingya from Myanmar fled into Bangladesh, settling in informal makeshift camps in Cox's Bazar district and joining 212,000 Rohingya already present. In early November, a diphtheria outbreak hit the camps, with 440 reported cases during the first month. A rise in cases during early December led to a collaboration between teams from Médecins (...) sans Frontières-who were running a provisional diphtheria treatment centre-and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine with the goal to use transmission dynamic models to forecast the potential scale of the outbreak and the resulting resource needs.We first adjusted for delays between symptom onset and case presentation using the observed distribution of reporting delays from previously reported cases. We then fit a compartmental transmission model to the adjusted incidence stratified

2019 BMC Medicine PubMed

24. Duration of Immunity and Effectiveness of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis Vaccines in Children. (PubMed)

Duration of Immunity and Effectiveness of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis Vaccines in Children. The United States has experienced a nationwide resurgence of pertussis since the mid-1970s, despite high estimated vaccine coverage. Short-lived immunity induced by diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines in young children is widely believed to be responsible for this growing burden, but the duration of protection conferred by DTaP vaccines remains incompletely quantified.To

2019 JAMA pediatrics

25. Risk of Measles and Diphtheria Introduction and Transmission on Bonaire, Caribbean Netherlands, 2018. (PubMed)

Risk of Measles and Diphtheria Introduction and Transmission on Bonaire, Caribbean Netherlands, 2018. Endemic transmission of measles has been reestablished in Venezuela, and outbreaks of diphtheria remain ongoing across Latin America (LA). Hence, a large cross-sectional population-based serosurveillance study was conducted on Bonaire, one of the Dutch Leeward Antilles, to assess specific age and population groups at risk. Participants (aged 0-90 years) donated a blood sample and completed (...) a questionnaire (n = 1,129). Antibodies against measles and diphtheria were tested using bead-based multiplex immunoassays. Our data revealed that immunity against measles is suboptimal, especially for those aged less than 5 years from Suriname, Aruba, and former Dutch Antilles (SADA), and adolescents from LA; and against diphtheria for persons aged more than 30 years, particularly among females and residents from SADA and LA. As refugees arrive persistently, health authorities on the Dutch Leeward Antilles

2019 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

26. Further investigations of the IgE response to tetanus and diphtheria following covaccination with acellular rather than cellular Bordetella pertussis. (PubMed)

Further investigations of the IgE response to tetanus and diphtheria following covaccination with acellular rather than cellular Bordetella pertussis. It has previously been shown in an uncontrolled study that the IgE response to vaccine antigens is downregulated by co-vaccination with cellular Bordetella pertussis vaccine.In the present study we compared in a controlled trial the humoral immune response to diphtheria toxoid (D) and tetanus toxoid (T) in relation to co-vaccinated cellular (...) to be more persistent than the IgG antibodies. These diphtheria findings were mirrored by those for tetanus. Only minor differences between vaccine groups were found with regard to D-IgG and T-IgG. No immediate-type allergic reactions were observed.Cellular (but not acellular) B. pertussis vaccine down-regulates IgE to co-vaccinated antigens in infants. We assume that the absence of immediate-type allergic reactions is due to the high levels of IgG antibodies competing with IgE antibodies. This article

2019 Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

27. Impact of nutritional supplementation during pregnancy on antibody responses to diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination in infants: A randomised trial in The Gambia. (PubMed)

Impact of nutritional supplementation during pregnancy on antibody responses to diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination in infants: A randomised trial in The Gambia. Exposure to a nutritionally deficient environment during fetal life and early infancy may adversely alter the ontogeny of the immune system and affect an infant's ability to mount an optimal immune response to vaccination. We examined the effects of maternal nutritional supplementation during pregnancy on infants' antibody (...) responses to the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine included in the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI).The Early Nutrition and Immune Development (ENID) trial was a randomised, partially blinded trial conducted between April 2010 and February 2015 in the rural West Kiang region of The Gambia, a resource-poor region affected by chronic undernutrition. Pregnant women (<20 weeks' gestation) with a singleton pregnancy (n = 875) were randomised to receive one of four supplements: iron-folic

2019 PLoS medicine

28. Global Epidemiology of Diphtheria, 2000-2017<sup>1</sup>. (PubMed)

Global Epidemiology of Diphtheria, 2000-20171. In 2017, a total of 8,819 cases of diphtheria were reported worldwide, the most since 2004. However, recent diphtheria epidemiology has not been well described. We analyzed incidence data and data from the literature to describe diphtheria epidemiology. World Health Organization surveillance data were 81% complete; completeness varied by region, indicating underreporting. As national diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) 3 coverage (...) diphtheria incidence. Collection and use of data on subnational and booster dose coverage, enhanced laboratory capacity, and case-based surveillance would improve data quality.

2019 Emerging Infectious Diseases

29. Effectiveness of booster dose of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) vaccine in management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a prospective, randomized, triple-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial. (PubMed)

Effectiveness of booster dose of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) vaccine in management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a prospective, randomized, triple-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial. Background: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common oral disease. The activation of the immune system by vaccines might reduce the interactions between oral mucosa and microorganisms. Aim: To evaluate the effect of the tetanus-diphtheria toxoids (Td) vaccine in management of RAS

2019 Journal of Dermatological Treatment

30. Diphtheria in Belgium: 2010-2017. (PubMed)

Diphtheria in Belgium: 2010-2017. In Western Europe, the incidence of both respiratory and cutaneous diphtheria, caused by toxin-producing Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Corynebacterium ulcerans or Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, has been low over the past few decades thanks to the use of an effective vaccine and a high level of vaccination coverage. However, the disease has still not been eradicated and continues to occur in all of Europe. In order to prevent sequelae or a fatal outcome (...) , diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) should be administered to suspected diphtheria patients as soon as possible, but economic factors and issues concerning regulations have led to poor availability of DAT in many countries. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and World Health Organization have called for European Union-wide solutions to this DAT-shortage. In order to illustrate the importance of these efforts and underline the need for continued diphtheria surveillance, we present data on all

2019 Journal of Medical Microbiology

31. Improved quadruplex real-time PCR assay for the diagnosis of diphtheria. (PubMed)

Improved quadruplex real-time PCR assay for the diagnosis of diphtheria. Introduction. Diphtheria is caused by toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Corynebacterium ulcerans and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. For diagnostic purposes, species identification and detection of toxigenic strains (diphtheria toxin (tox)-positive strains) is typically performed using end-point PCR. A faster quadruplex real-time PCR (qPCR) was recently developed (De Zoysa et al. J.Med.Microbiol (...) was assessed.Results. The method allows detection of the tox gene and distinguishing C. diphtheriae (including the newly described species Corynebacterium belfantii) from C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis. Complete diagnostic specificity, sensitivity and experimental robustness were demonstrated. The lower limit of detection for C. diphtheriae, C. ulcerans and tox targets was 1.86 genome copies per 5 µl reaction volume. The method was successfully used on two distinct qPCR technologies (LightCycler 480, Roche

2019 Journal of Medical Microbiology

32. An integrative in-silico approach for therapeutic target identification in the human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae. (Full text)

An integrative in-silico approach for therapeutic target identification in the human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Cd) is a Gram-positive human pathogen responsible for diphtheria infection and once regarded for high mortalities worldwide. The fatality gradually decreased with improved living standards and further alleviated when many immunization programs were introduced. However, numerous drug-resistant strains emerged recently that consequently decreased (...) the efficacy of current therapeutics and vaccines, thereby obliging the scientific community to start investigating new therapeutic targets in pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, our contributions include the prediction of modelome of 13 C. diphtheriae strains, using the MHOLline workflow. A set of 463 conserved proteins were identified by combining the results of pangenomics based core-genome and core-modelome analyses. Further, using subtractive proteomics and modelomics approaches for target

2017 PLoS ONE PubMed

33. Combined DTP-HBV-HIB vaccine versus separately administered DTP-HBV and HIB vaccines for primary prevention of diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae B (HIB). (PubMed)

Combined DTP-HBV-HIB vaccine versus separately administered DTP-HBV and HIB vaccines for primary prevention of diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae B (HIB). Advantages to combining childhood vaccines include reducing the number of visits, injections and patient discomfort, increasing compliance and optimising prevention. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that routine infant immunisation programmes include a vaccination against Haemophilus (...) influenzae (H. influenzae) type B (HIB) in the combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP)-hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination. The effectiveness and safety of the combined vaccine should be carefully and systematically assessed to ensure its acceptability by the community.To compare the effectiveness of combined DTP-HBV-HIB vaccines versus combined DTP-HBV and separate HIB vaccinations.We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 4), which

2012 Cochrane

34. Tetrabik (adsorbed diphtheria-purified pertussis-tetanus-inactivated polio (Sabin strain) combined vaccine)

Tetrabik (adsorbed diphtheria-purified pertussis-tetanus-inactivated polio (Sabin strain) combined vaccine) This English version of the Japanese review report is intended to be a reference material to provide convenience for users. In the event of inconsistency between the Japanese original and this English translation, the former shall prevail. The PMDA will not be responsible for any consequence resulting from the use of this English version. Report on the Deliberation Results July 23, 2012 (...) Evaluation and Licensing Division, Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare [Brand name] Tetrabik Subcutaneous Injection Syringe [Non-proprietary name] Adsorbed Diphtheria-Purified Pertussis-Tetanus-Inactivated Polio (Sabin strain) Combined Vaccine [Applicant] The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University [Date of application] December 27, 2011 [Results of deliberation] In the meeting held on July 20, 2012, the Second Committee on New Drugs

2012 Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, Japan

35. Quattrovac (adsorbed diphtheria-purified pertussis-tetanus-inactivated polio (Sabin strain) combined vaccine)

Quattrovac (adsorbed diphtheria-purified pertussis-tetanus-inactivated polio (Sabin strain) combined vaccine) This English version of the Japanese review report is intended to be a reference material to provide convenience for users. In the event of inconsistency between the Japanese original and this English translation, the former shall prevail. The PMDA will not be responsible for any consequence resulting from the use of this English version. Report on the Deliberation Results July 23, 2012 (...) Evaluation and Licensing Division, Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare [Brand name] Quattrovac Subcutaneous Injection Syringe [Non-proprietary name] Adsorbed Diphtheria-Purified Pertussis-Tetanus-Inactivated Polio (Sabin strain) Combined Vaccine [Applicant] The Chemo-Sero-Therapeutic Research Institute (KAKETSUKEN) [Date of application] January 27, 2012 [Results of deliberation] In the meeting held on July 20, 2012, the Second Committee on New Drugs concluded

2012 Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, Japan

36. Evaluation of Vaccines Injection Order on Pain Score of Intramuscular Injection of Diphtheria, Whole Cell Pertussis and Tetanus Vaccine. (PubMed)

Evaluation of Vaccines Injection Order on Pain Score of Intramuscular Injection of Diphtheria, Whole Cell Pertussis and Tetanus Vaccine. To determine, whether or not intramuscular injection of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DwPT) vaccine should be given first and subcutaneous injection of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) thereafter or vice versa and can this cause less pain of DwPT vaccine injection.In a randomized parallel group clinical trial, seventy 18-mo-old healthy children who were

2018 Indian journal of pediatrics

37. Immunogenicity and safety of the quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine MenACWY-TT co-administered with a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine versus their separate administration in adolescents and young adults: A phase III, randomized stu (Full text)

Immunogenicity and safety of the quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine MenACWY-TT co-administered with a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine versus their separate administration in adolescents and young adults: A phase III, randomized stu This study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine using tetanus (T) toxoid as carrier protein (MenACWY-TT) co-administered with combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap (...) ) versus their separate administration in adolescents and young adults.In this phase III, randomized, partially-blind study (NCT01767376), healthy 11-25-year-olds (N = 660) were randomized (1:1:1) to receive MenACWY-TT and Tdap at Month 0 (Co-ad group), MenACWY-TT at Month 0 and Tdap at Month 1 (ACWY_Tdap group) or Tdap at Month 0 and MenACWY-TT at Month 1 (Tdap_ACWY group). Immune responses to MenACWY-TT were measured by serum bactericidal assay using rabbit complement (rSBA). Anti-diphtheria (D

2018 Vaccine PubMed

38. A phase III, open-label, randomised multicentre study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of two different reduced antigen diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-polio vaccines, when co-administered with measles-mumps-rubella vacci (Full text)

A phase III, open-label, randomised multicentre study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of two different reduced antigen diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-polio vaccines, when co-administered with measles-mumps-rubella vacci To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a reduced antigen diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus (dTap-IPVB) vaccine (Boostrix-IPV, GSK) as a pre-school booster in 3-4 year old children as compared to dTap-IPVR (...) (Repevax, Sanofi Pasteur), when co-administered with mumps-measles-rubella vaccine (MMRV).This phase III, open label, randomised study was conducted in the UK between April 2011 and April 2012. Children due their pre-school dTap-IPV booster vaccination were randomised 2:1 to receive one of two different dTap-IPV vaccines (dTap-IPVB or dTap-IPVR) with blood sample for immunogenicity assessment just prior and one month after vaccination. Immune responses to diphtheria, tetanus and polio antigens were

2018 Vaccine PubMed

39. Randomized Controlled Trial of the Safety and Immunogenicity of Revaccination With Tetanus-Diphtheria-Acellular Pertussis Vaccine (Tdap) in Adults 10 Years After a Previous Dose. (Full text)

Randomized Controlled Trial of the Safety and Immunogenicity of Revaccination With Tetanus-Diphtheria-Acellular Pertussis Vaccine (Tdap) in Adults 10 Years After a Previous Dose. Reduced-antigen-content tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine is recommended in many countries for boosting immunity in adolescents and adults. Although immunity to these antigens wanes with time, currently available Tdap products are not labeled for repeat administration in the United States.We (...) performed an observer-blinded, randomized controlled trial in 1330 adults aged 18 to <65 years who received either the Tdap (n = 1002) or tetanus-diphtheria (Td) (n = 328) vaccine 8 to 12 years after a dose of Tdap vaccine administered previously. Solicited adverse events following immunization were documented for 7 days after vaccination, and serious adverse events and adverse events of medical significance were documented for 6 months after vaccination. Levels of antibodies against component vaccine

2018 Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society PubMed

40. Antibody persistence and safety and immunogenicity of a second booster dose nine years after a first booster vaccination with a reduced antigen diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) in adults. (PubMed)

Antibody persistence and safety and immunogenicity of a second booster dose nine years after a first booster vaccination with a reduced antigen diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) in adults. Over the last decades, pertussis showed periodic increases in its incidence among adults, despite being a vaccine-preventable disease.This phase III, multicenter, extension study (NCT00489970) was conducted in adults from the United States, followed at Year (Y) 5 and Y9 post-vaccination (...) with a dose of reduced-antigen-content tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine containing either 3 (Tdap-B group) or 5 pertussis components (Tdap-A group). Willing participants in Tdap groups and newly-recruited participants (Control group) received one Tdap-B dose at Y9. Antibody persistence (at Y5 and Y9) and safety of Tdap-B at Y9 were assessed. Non-inferiority of immune response elicited by 2 Tdap doses was evaluated at Y9: (i) versus one Tdap-B dose for diphtheria and tetanus in terms

2018 Vaccine

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