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1. Diphtheria

Diphtheria Diphtheria - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Diphtheria Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: March 2019 Summary Diphtheria is endemic in many areas of the world and still occurs sporadically in the US. Early intervention by administering antitoxin is key to preventing systemic manifestations of the disease, which can include respiratory and neurological symptoms, cardiovascular collapse (...) , and death. Prompt administration of antitoxin is necessary to enable it to bind to and de-activate the free toxin in serum. Antitoxin cannot de-activate toxin once it has entered cells, which is signalled by the presence of mucocutaneous symptoms. Patients with respiratory diphtheria are placed in respiratory isolation (masks and standard measures such as hand-washing), and those with cutaneous diphtheria are placed in contact isolation (gloves and gowns), until cultures taken after cessation of therapy

2019 BMJ Best Practice

2. Diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (dTaP/IPV) for pregnant women: patient group direction (PGD) template

Diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (dTaP/IPV) for pregnant women: patient group direction (PGD) template application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document

2019 Public Health England

3. Distinct Genomic Features Characterize Two Clades of Corynebacterium diphtheriae: Proposal of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Subsp. diphtheriae Subsp. nov. and Corynebacterium diphtheriae Subsp. lausannense Subsp. nov. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Distinct Genomic Features Characterize Two Clades of Corynebacterium diphtheriae: Proposal of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Subsp. diphtheriae Subsp. nov. and Corynebacterium diphtheriae Subsp. lausannense Subsp. nov. Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the etiological agent of diphtheria, a disease caused by the presence of the diphtheria toxin. However, an increasing number of records report non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae infections. Here, a C. diphtheriae strain was recovered from a patient (...) with a past history of bronchiectasis who developed a severe tracheo-bronchitis with multiple whitish lesions of the distal trachea and the mainstem bronchi. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS), performed in parallel with PCR targeting the toxin gene and the Elek test, provided clinically relevant results in a short turnaround time, showing that the isolate was non-toxigenic. A comparative genomic analysis of the new strain (CHUV2995) with 56 other publicly available genomes of C. diphtheriae revealed

2018 Frontiers in microbiology

4. Diphtheria

Diphtheria Diphtheria - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Diphtheria Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: March 2019 Summary Diphtheria is endemic in many areas of the world and still occurs sporadically in the US. Early intervention by administering antitoxin is key to preventing systemic manifestations of the disease, which can include respiratory and neurological symptoms, cardiovascular collapse (...) , and death. Prompt administration of antitoxin is necessary to enable it to bind to and de-activate the free toxin in serum. Antitoxin cannot de-activate toxin once it has entered cells, which is signalled by the presence of mucocutaneous symptoms. Patients with respiratory diphtheria are placed in respiratory isolation (masks and standard measures such as hand-washing), and those with cutaneous diphtheria are placed in contact isolation (gloves and gowns), until cultures taken after cessation of therapy

2018 BMJ Best Practice

6. VAXELIS, hexavalent vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b infections, hepatitis B

VAXELIS, hexavalent vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b infections, hepatitis B Haute Autorité de Santé - VAXELIS, vaccin hexavalent contre diphtérie, tétanos, poliomyélite, coqueluche, infections à Haemophilus influenzae type b, hépatite B Développer la qualité dans le champ sanitaire, social et médico-social Recherche Évaluation & Recommandation La HAS Accréditation & Certification Outils, Guides & Méthodes Agenda Avis sur les

2018 Haute Autorite de sante

7. Whole genome sequencing suggests transmission of <i>Corynebacterium diphtheriae</i>-caused cutaneous diphtheria in two siblings, Germany, 2018. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Whole genome sequencing suggests transmission of Corynebacterium diphtheriae-caused cutaneous diphtheria in two siblings, Germany, 2018. In September 2018, a child who had returned from Somalia to Germany presented with cutaneous diphtheria by toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae biovar mitis. The child's sibling had superinfected insect bites harbouring also toxigenic C. diphtheriae. Next generation sequencing (NGS) revealed the same strain in both patients suggesting very recent human (...) -to-human transmission. Epidemiological and NGS data suggest that the two cutaneous diphtheria cases constitute the first outbreak by toxigenic C. diphtheriae in Germany since the 1980s.

2019 Euro Surveillance

8. Fever After Influenza, Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis, and Pneumococcal Vaccinations

Fever After Influenza, Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis, and Pneumococcal Vaccinations Fever After Influenza, Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis, and Pneumococcal Vaccinations - PubMed This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine National Center for Biotechnology (...) Actions . 2020 Mar;145(3):e20191909. doi: 10.1542/peds.2019-1909. Epub 2020 Feb 6. Fever After Influenza, Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis, and Pneumococcal Vaccinations , , , , , , , , Affiliations Expand Affiliations 1 Department of Pediatrics and walte002@mc.duke.edu. 2 Duke Human Vaccine Institute, School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. 3 Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California; and. 4 Immunization Safety Office

2020 EvidenceUpdates

9. Diphtheria vaccine: WHO position paper – August 2017– Vaccin antidiphtérique: Note de synthèse de l’OMS – août 2017

Diphtheria vaccine: WHO position paper – August 2017– Vaccin antidiphtérique: Note de synthèse de l’OMS – août 2017 Diphtheria vaccine: WHO position paper – August 2017– Vaccin antidiphtérique: Note de synthèse de l’OMS – août 2017 JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Toggle navigation Toggle navigation Search Browse Statistics Related Links Diphtheria vaccine: WHO position paper – August 2017– Vaccin antidiphtérique: Note de synthèse de (...) l’OMS – août 2017 View/ Open View Statistics Altmetrics Share Citation World Health Organization = Organisation mondiale de la Santé . (‎2017)‎. Diphtheria vaccine: WHO position paper – August 2017– Vaccin antidiphtérique: Note de synthèse de l’OMS – août 2017. Weekly Epidemiological Record = Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire, 92 (‎31)‎, 417 - 435. World Health Organization = Organisation mondiale de la Santé. Journal Weekly Epidemiological Record = Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire, 92 (‎31

2017 WHO

10. Update on Immunization and Pregnancy Tetanus Diphtheria and Pertussis Vaccination

Update on Immunization and Pregnancy Tetanus Diphtheria and Pertussis Vaccination Update on Immunization and Pregnancy Tetanus Diphtheria and Pertussis Vaccination - ACOG Menu ▼ Update on Immunization and Pregnancy Tetanus Diphtheria and Pertussis Vaccination Page Navigation ▼ Number 718, September 2017 (Replaces Committee Opinion 566, June 2013) Committee on Obstetric Practice Immunization and Emerging Infections Expert Work Group This Committee Opinion was developed by the Immunization (...) , or consequential damages, incurred in connection with this publication or reliance on the information presented. Update on Immunization and Pregnancy: Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Vaccination ABSTRACT: The overwhelming majority of morbidity and mortality attributable to pertussis infection occurs in infants who are 3 months and younger. Infants do not begin their own vaccine series against pertussis until approximately 2 months of age. This leaves a window of significant vulnerability for newborns, many

2017 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

11. Changes in MLST profiles and biotypes of Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates from the diphtheria outbreak period to the period of invasive infections caused by nontoxigenic strains in Poland (1950-2016). Full Text available with Trip Pro

Changes in MLST profiles and biotypes of Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates from the diphtheria outbreak period to the period of invasive infections caused by nontoxigenic strains in Poland (1950-2016). Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a re-emerging pathogen in Europe causing invasive infections in vaccinated persons and classical diphtheria in unvaccinated persons. In the presented study we analysed genetic changes in C. diphtheriae isolates collected in Poland from the period before (...) the introduction of the mass anti-diphtheria vaccination to the present time when over 98% of the population is vaccinated.A total of 62 C. diphtheriae isolates collected in the 1950s-1960s, 1990s and 2000-2016 in Poland were investigated. Examined properties of the isolates included toxigenic status, presence of tox gene, biotype, MLST type (ST) and type of infection.A total of 12 sequence types (STs) were identified among the analysed C. diphtheriae isolates. The highest variability of STs was observed among

2018 BMC Infectious Diseases

12. Mapping diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine coverage in Africa, 2000-2016: a spatial and temporal modelling study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mapping diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine coverage in Africa, 2000-2016: a spatial and temporal modelling study. Routine childhood vaccination is among the most cost-effective, successful public health interventions available. Amid substantial investments to expand vaccine delivery throughout Africa and strengthen administrative reporting systems, most countries still require robust measures of local routine vaccine coverage and changes in geographical inequalities over time.This analysis (...) drew from 183 surveys done between 2000 and 2016, including data from 881 268 children in 49 African countries. We used a Bayesian geostatistical model calibrated to results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017, to produce annual estimates with high-spatial resolution (5 ×    5 km) of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) vaccine coverage and dropout for children aged 12-23 months in 52 African countries from 2000 to 2016.Estimated third-dose (DPT3) coverage

2019 Lancet

13. Vaxelis - diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (acellular, component), hepatitis B (rDNA), poliomyelitis (inactivated) and Haemophilus type b conjugate vaccine (adsorbed)

Vaxelis - diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (acellular, component), hepatitis B (rDNA), poliomyelitis (inactivated) and Haemophilus type b conjugate vaccine (adsorbed) 17 December 2015 EMA/CHMP/72003/2016 Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) Assessment report Vaxelis Common name: diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (acellular, component), hepatitis B (rDNA), poliomyelitis (inactivated) and haemophilus type b conjugate vaccine (adsorbed) Procedure No. EMEA/H/C/003982/0000 Note (...) 132 4. Recommendations 139 Assessment report EMA/CHMP/72003/2016 Page 4/140 List of abbreviations AAHS Aluminium Hydroxyphosphate Sulfate AlPO4 aluminium phosphate aP acellular pertussis BAP Bulk alum Product BSA Bovine Serum Albumin CHO Chinese Hamster Ovary CPP Critical Process Parameters CPVS Concentrated Purified Viral Suspension CQAs Critical Quality Attributes D Diphtheria DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid DP Drug Product dPRP derivatised Polyribosyl Ribitol Phosphate DS Drug substance ELISA Enzyme

2016 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

14. Biophysical comparison of diphtheria and tetanus toxins with the formaldehyde-detoxified toxoids, the main components of diphtheria and tetanus vaccines Full Text available with Trip Pro

Biophysical comparison of diphtheria and tetanus toxins with the formaldehyde-detoxified toxoids, the main components of diphtheria and tetanus vaccines 28430538 2018 10 09 2018 11 13 2150-5608 8 8 2017 11 17 Virulence Virulence Biophysical comparison of diphtheria and tetanus toxins with the formaldehyde-detoxified toxoids, the main components of diphtheria and tetanus vaccines. 1880-1889 10.1080/21505594.2017.1321726 Alsarraf Husam H a Department of Microbiology and Infection Control (...) Vaccine Department , Statens Serum Institut , Copenhagen S. , Denmark. Jørgensen René R a Department of Microbiology and Infection Control , Statens Serum Institut , Copenhagen S. , Denmark. eng Comparative Study Journal Article Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 2017 05 16 United States Virulence 101531386 2150-5594 0 Diphtheria Toxin 0 Diphtheria Toxoid 0 Tetanus Toxin 0 Tetanus Toxoid 0 Toxoids 1HG84L3525 Formaldehyde IM Clostridium tetani genetics physiology Corynebacterium diphtheriae genetics

2017 Virulence

15. Characterization of serum anti-diphtheria antibody activity following administration of equine anti-toxin for suspected diphtheria Full Text available with Trip Pro

Characterization of serum anti-diphtheria antibody activity following administration of equine anti-toxin for suspected diphtheria There is a global shortage of equine-derived diphtheria anti-toxin (DAT) for diphtheria treatment. There are few existing data on serum antibody concentrations and neutralizing activity post-treatment to support development of new therapeutics. Antibody concentrations were quantified by ELISA and anti-toxin neutralizing activity by cytotoxicity assay in serum from 4 (...) patients receiving DAT for suspected diphtheria. Using linear mixed effects modeling, estimated mean (SE) half-life was 78.2 (20.0) hours. Maximum serum neutralizing activity ranged from 28.42-38.64 AU/mL with an estimated mean AUC1-72 of 1396.7 (399.3) AU/mL*hr. These data provide a standard of comparison for development of novel anti-toxins to replace DAT.

2017 Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics

16. Prenatal Tetanus, Diphtheria, Acellular Pertussis Vaccination and Autism Spectrum Disorder Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prenatal Tetanus, Diphtheria, Acellular Pertussis Vaccination and Autism Spectrum Disorder : media-1vid110.1542/5803567555001PEDS-VA_2018-0120Video Abstract BACKGROUND: Increasing vaccination of pregnant women makes it important to assess safety events potentially linked to prenatal vaccination. This study investigates the association between prenatal tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in offspring.This is a retrospective cohort

2018 EvidenceUpdates

17. Six-month follow up of a randomized clinical trial-phase I study in Indonesian adults and children: Safety and immunogenicity of Salmonella typhi polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid (Vi-DT) conjugate vaccine. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Six-month follow up of a randomized clinical trial-phase I study in Indonesian adults and children: Safety and immunogenicity of Salmonella typhi polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid (Vi-DT) conjugate vaccine. There is a high global incidence of typhoid fever, with an annual mortality rate of 200,000 deaths. Typhoid fever also affects younger children, particularly in resource-limited settings in endemic countries. Typhoid vaccination is an important prevention tool against typhoid fever. However (...) , the available polysaccharide typhoid vaccines are not recommended for children under 2 years of age. A new typhoid conjugate Vi-diphtheria toxoid (Vi-DT) vaccine has been developed for infant immunization. We aimed to define the safety and immunogenicity of the Vi-DT vaccine among adults and children in Indonesia.An observational, blinded, comparative, randomized, phase I safety study in two age de-escalating cohorts was conducted in East Jakarta, Indonesia, from April 2017 to February 2018. We enrolled 100

2019 PLoS ONE Controlled trial quality: uncertain

18. Further investigations of the IgE response to tetanus and diphtheria following covaccination with acellular rather than cellular Bordetella pertussis. (Abstract)

Further investigations of the IgE response to tetanus and diphtheria following covaccination with acellular rather than cellular Bordetella pertussis. It has previously been shown in an uncontrolled study that the IgE response to vaccine antigens is downregulated by co-vaccination with cellular Bordetella pertussis vaccine.In the present study we compared in a controlled trial the humoral immune response to diphtheria toxoid (D) and tetanus toxoid (T) in relation to co-vaccinated cellular (...) to be more persistent than the IgG antibodies. These diphtheria findings were mirrored by those for tetanus. Only minor differences between vaccine groups were found with regard to D-IgG and T-IgG. No immediate-type allergic reactions were observed.Cellular (but not acellular) B. pertussis vaccine down-regulates IgE to co-vaccinated antigens in infants. We assume that the absence of immediate-type allergic reactions is due to the high levels of IgG antibodies competing with IgE antibodies. This article

2019 Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

19. Diphtheria in Belgium: 2010-2017. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Diphtheria in Belgium: 2010-2017. In Western Europe, the incidence of both respiratory and cutaneous diphtheria, caused by toxin-producing Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Corynebacterium ulcerans or Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, has been low over the past few decades thanks to the use of an effective vaccine and a high level of vaccination coverage. However, the disease has still not been eradicated and continues to occur in all of Europe. In order to prevent sequelae or a fatal outcome (...) , diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) should be administered to suspected diphtheria patients as soon as possible, but economic factors and issues concerning regulations have led to poor availability of DAT in many countries. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and World Health Organization have called for European Union-wide solutions to this DAT-shortage. In order to illustrate the importance of these efforts and underline the need for continued diphtheria surveillance, we present data on all

2019 Journal of Medical Microbiology

20. Effectiveness of booster dose of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) vaccine in management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a prospective, randomized, triple-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial. (Abstract)

Effectiveness of booster dose of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) vaccine in management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a prospective, randomized, triple-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial. Background: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common oral disease. The activation of the immune system by vaccines might reduce the interactions between oral mucosa and microorganisms. Aim: To evaluate the effect of the tetanus-diphtheria toxoids (Td) vaccine in management of RAS

2019 Journal of Dermatological Treatment Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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