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1. Diphtheria

Diphtheria Diphtheria - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Diphtheria Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: March 2019 Summary Diphtheria is endemic in many areas of the world and still occurs sporadically in the US. Early intervention by administering antitoxin is key to preventing systemic manifestations of the disease, which can include respiratory and neurological symptoms, cardiovascular collapse (...) , and death. Prompt administration of antitoxin is necessary to enable it to bind to and de-activate the free toxin in serum. Antitoxin cannot de-activate toxin once it has entered cells, which is signalled by the presence of mucocutaneous symptoms. Patients with respiratory diphtheria are placed in respiratory isolation (masks and standard measures such as hand-washing), and those with cutaneous diphtheria are placed in contact isolation (gloves and gowns), until cultures taken after cessation of therapy

2019 BMJ Best Practice

2. Diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (dTaP/IPV) for pregnant women: patient group direction (PGD) template

Diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (dTaP/IPV) for pregnant women: patient group direction (PGD) template application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document

2019 Public Health England

3. Distinct Genomic Features Characterize Two Clades of Corynebacterium diphtheriae: Proposal of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Subsp. diphtheriae Subsp. nov. and Corynebacterium diphtheriae Subsp. lausannense Subsp. nov. (PubMed)

Distinct Genomic Features Characterize Two Clades of Corynebacterium diphtheriae: Proposal of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Subsp. diphtheriae Subsp. nov. and Corynebacterium diphtheriae Subsp. lausannense Subsp. nov. Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the etiological agent of diphtheria, a disease caused by the presence of the diphtheria toxin. However, an increasing number of records report non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae infections. Here, a C. diphtheriae strain was recovered from a patient (...) with a past history of bronchiectasis who developed a severe tracheo-bronchitis with multiple whitish lesions of the distal trachea and the mainstem bronchi. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS), performed in parallel with PCR targeting the toxin gene and the Elek test, provided clinically relevant results in a short turnaround time, showing that the isolate was non-toxigenic. A comparative genomic analysis of the new strain (CHUV2995) with 56 other publicly available genomes of C. diphtheriae revealed

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2018 Frontiers in microbiology

4. Diphtheria

Diphtheria Diphtheria - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Diphtheria Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: March 2019 Summary Diphtheria is endemic in many areas of the world and still occurs sporadically in the US. Early intervention by administering antitoxin is key to preventing systemic manifestations of the disease, which can include respiratory and neurological symptoms, cardiovascular collapse (...) , and death. Prompt administration of antitoxin is necessary to enable it to bind to and de-activate the free toxin in serum. Antitoxin cannot de-activate toxin once it has entered cells, which is signalled by the presence of mucocutaneous symptoms. Patients with respiratory diphtheria are placed in respiratory isolation (masks and standard measures such as hand-washing), and those with cutaneous diphtheria are placed in contact isolation (gloves and gowns), until cultures taken after cessation of therapy

2018 BMJ Best Practice

6. VAXELIS, hexavalent vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b infections, hepatitis B

VAXELIS, hexavalent vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b infections, hepatitis B Haute Autorité de Santé - VAXELIS, vaccin hexavalent contre diphtérie, tétanos, poliomyélite, coqueluche, infections à Haemophilus influenzae type b, hépatite B Développer la qualité dans le champ sanitaire, social et médico-social Recherche Évaluation & Recommandation La HAS Accréditation & Certification Outils, Guides & Méthodes Agenda Avis sur les

2018 Haute Autorite de sante

7. Whole genome sequencing suggests transmission of <i>Corynebacterium diphtheriae</i>-caused cutaneous diphtheria in two siblings, Germany, 2018. (PubMed)

Whole genome sequencing suggests transmission of Corynebacterium diphtheriae-caused cutaneous diphtheria in two siblings, Germany, 2018. In September 2018, a child who had returned from Somalia to Germany presented with cutaneous diphtheria by toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae biovar mitis. The child's sibling had superinfected insect bites harbouring also toxigenic C. diphtheriae. Next generation sequencing (NGS) revealed the same strain in both patients suggesting very recent human (...) -to-human transmission. Epidemiological and NGS data suggest that the two cutaneous diphtheria cases constitute the first outbreak by toxigenic C. diphtheriae in Germany since the 1980s.

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2019 Euro Surveillance

8. Update on Immunization and Pregnancy Tetanus Diphtheria and Pertussis Vaccination

Update on Immunization and Pregnancy Tetanus Diphtheria and Pertussis Vaccination Update on Immunization and Pregnancy Tetanus Diphtheria and Pertussis Vaccination - ACOG Menu ▼ Update on Immunization and Pregnancy Tetanus Diphtheria and Pertussis Vaccination Page Navigation ▼ Number 718, September 2017 (Replaces Committee Opinion 566, June 2013) Committee on Obstetric Practice Immunization and Emerging Infections Expert Work Group This Committee Opinion was developed by the Immunization (...) , or consequential damages, incurred in connection with this publication or reliance on the information presented. Update on Immunization and Pregnancy: Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Vaccination ABSTRACT: The overwhelming majority of morbidity and mortality attributable to pertussis infection occurs in infants who are 3 months and younger. Infants do not begin their own vaccine series against pertussis until approximately 2 months of age. This leaves a window of significant vulnerability for newborns, many

2017 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

9. Diphtheria vaccine: WHO position paper – August 2017– Vaccin antidiphtérique: Note de synthèse de l’OMS – août 2017

Diphtheria vaccine: WHO position paper – August 2017– Vaccin antidiphtérique: Note de synthèse de l’OMS – août 2017 Diphtheria vaccine: WHO position paper – August 2017– Vaccin antidiphtérique: Note de synthèse de l’OMS – août 2017 JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Toggle navigation Toggle navigation Search Browse Statistics Related Links Diphtheria vaccine: WHO position paper – August 2017– Vaccin antidiphtérique: Note de synthèse de (...) l’OMS – août 2017 View/ Open View Statistics Altmetrics Share Citation World Health Organization = Organisation mondiale de la Santé . (‎2017)‎. Diphtheria vaccine: WHO position paper – August 2017– Vaccin antidiphtérique: Note de synthèse de l’OMS – août 2017. Weekly Epidemiological Record = Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire, 92 (‎31)‎, 417 - 435. World Health Organization = Organisation mondiale de la Santé. Journal Weekly Epidemiological Record = Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire, 92 (‎31

2017 WHO

10. Changes in MLST profiles and biotypes of Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates from the diphtheria outbreak period to the period of invasive infections caused by nontoxigenic strains in Poland (1950-2016). (PubMed)

Changes in MLST profiles and biotypes of Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates from the diphtheria outbreak period to the period of invasive infections caused by nontoxigenic strains in Poland (1950-2016). Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a re-emerging pathogen in Europe causing invasive infections in vaccinated persons and classical diphtheria in unvaccinated persons. In the presented study we analysed genetic changes in C. diphtheriae isolates collected in Poland from the period before (...) the introduction of the mass anti-diphtheria vaccination to the present time when over 98% of the population is vaccinated.A total of 62 C. diphtheriae isolates collected in the 1950s-1960s, 1990s and 2000-2016 in Poland were investigated. Examined properties of the isolates included toxigenic status, presence of tox gene, biotype, MLST type (ST) and type of infection.A total of 12 sequence types (STs) were identified among the analysed C. diphtheriae isolates. The highest variability of STs was observed among

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2018 BMC Infectious Diseases

11. Six-month follow up of a randomized clinical trial-phase I study in Indonesian adults and children: Safety and immunogenicity of Salmonella typhi polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid (Vi-DT) conjugate vaccine. (PubMed)

Six-month follow up of a randomized clinical trial-phase I study in Indonesian adults and children: Safety and immunogenicity of Salmonella typhi polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid (Vi-DT) conjugate vaccine. There is a high global incidence of typhoid fever, with an annual mortality rate of 200,000 deaths. Typhoid fever also affects younger children, particularly in resource-limited settings in endemic countries. Typhoid vaccination is an important prevention tool against typhoid fever. However (...) , the available polysaccharide typhoid vaccines are not recommended for children under 2 years of age. A new typhoid conjugate Vi-diphtheria toxoid (Vi-DT) vaccine has been developed for infant immunization. We aimed to define the safety and immunogenicity of the Vi-DT vaccine among adults and children in Indonesia.An observational, blinded, comparative, randomized, phase I safety study in two age de-escalating cohorts was conducted in East Jakarta, Indonesia, from April 2017 to February 2018. We enrolled 100

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2019 PLoS ONE Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12. Mapping diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine coverage in Africa, 2000-2016: a spatial and temporal modelling study. (PubMed)

Mapping diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine coverage in Africa, 2000-2016: a spatial and temporal modelling study. Routine childhood vaccination is among the most cost-effective, successful public health interventions available. Amid substantial investments to expand vaccine delivery throughout Africa and strengthen administrative reporting systems, most countries still require robust measures of local routine vaccine coverage and changes in geographical inequalities over time.This analysis (...) drew from 183 surveys done between 2000 and 2016, including data from 881 268 children in 49 African countries. We used a Bayesian geostatistical model calibrated to results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017, to produce annual estimates with high-spatial resolution (5 ×    5 km) of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) vaccine coverage and dropout for children aged 12-23 months in 52 African countries from 2000 to 2016.Estimated third-dose (DPT3) coverage

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2019 Lancet

13. Vaxelis - diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (acellular, component), hepatitis B (rDNA), poliomyelitis (inactivated) and Haemophilus type b conjugate vaccine (adsorbed)

Vaxelis - diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (acellular, component), hepatitis B (rDNA), poliomyelitis (inactivated) and Haemophilus type b conjugate vaccine (adsorbed) 17 December 2015 EMA/CHMP/72003/2016 Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) Assessment report Vaxelis Common name: diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (acellular, component), hepatitis B (rDNA), poliomyelitis (inactivated) and haemophilus type b conjugate vaccine (adsorbed) Procedure No. EMEA/H/C/003982/0000 Note (...) 132 4. Recommendations 139 Assessment report EMA/CHMP/72003/2016 Page 4/140 List of abbreviations AAHS Aluminium Hydroxyphosphate Sulfate AlPO4 aluminium phosphate aP acellular pertussis BAP Bulk alum Product BSA Bovine Serum Albumin CHO Chinese Hamster Ovary CPP Critical Process Parameters CPVS Concentrated Purified Viral Suspension CQAs Critical Quality Attributes D Diphtheria DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid DP Drug Product dPRP derivatised Polyribosyl Ribitol Phosphate DS Drug substance ELISA Enzyme

2016 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

14. Biophysical comparison of diphtheria and tetanus toxins with the formaldehyde-detoxified toxoids, the main components of diphtheria and tetanus vaccines (PubMed)

Biophysical comparison of diphtheria and tetanus toxins with the formaldehyde-detoxified toxoids, the main components of diphtheria and tetanus vaccines 28430538 2018 10 09 2018 11 13 2150-5608 8 8 2017 11 17 Virulence Virulence Biophysical comparison of diphtheria and tetanus toxins with the formaldehyde-detoxified toxoids, the main components of diphtheria and tetanus vaccines. 1880-1889 10.1080/21505594.2017.1321726 Alsarraf Husam H a Department of Microbiology and Infection Control (...) Vaccine Department , Statens Serum Institut , Copenhagen S. , Denmark. Jørgensen René R a Department of Microbiology and Infection Control , Statens Serum Institut , Copenhagen S. , Denmark. eng Comparative Study Journal Article Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 2017 05 16 United States Virulence 101531386 2150-5594 0 Diphtheria Toxin 0 Diphtheria Toxoid 0 Tetanus Toxin 0 Tetanus Toxoid 0 Toxoids 1HG84L3525 Formaldehyde IM Clostridium tetani genetics physiology Corynebacterium diphtheriae genetics

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2017 Virulence

15. Characterization of serum anti-diphtheria antibody activity following administration of equine anti-toxin for suspected diphtheria (PubMed)

Characterization of serum anti-diphtheria antibody activity following administration of equine anti-toxin for suspected diphtheria There is a global shortage of equine-derived diphtheria anti-toxin (DAT) for diphtheria treatment. There are few existing data on serum antibody concentrations and neutralizing activity post-treatment to support development of new therapeutics. Antibody concentrations were quantified by ELISA and anti-toxin neutralizing activity by cytotoxicity assay in serum from 4 (...) patients receiving DAT for suspected diphtheria. Using linear mixed effects modeling, estimated mean (SE) half-life was 78.2 (20.0) hours. Maximum serum neutralizing activity ranged from 28.42-38.64 AU/mL with an estimated mean AUC1-72 of 1396.7 (399.3) AU/mL*hr. These data provide a standard of comparison for development of novel anti-toxins to replace DAT.

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2017 Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics

16. Prenatal Tetanus, Diphtheria, Acellular Pertussis Vaccination and Autism Spectrum Disorder

Prenatal Tetanus, Diphtheria, Acellular Pertussis Vaccination and Autism Spectrum Disorder : media-1vid110.1542/5803567555001PEDS-VA_2018-0120Video Abstract BACKGROUND: Increasing vaccination of pregnant women makes it important to assess safety events potentially linked to prenatal vaccination. This study investigates the association between prenatal tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in offspring.This is a retrospective cohort

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2018 EvidenceUpdates

17. An integrative in-silico approach for therapeutic target identification in the human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae. (PubMed)

An integrative in-silico approach for therapeutic target identification in the human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Cd) is a Gram-positive human pathogen responsible for diphtheria infection and once regarded for high mortalities worldwide. The fatality gradually decreased with improved living standards and further alleviated when many immunization programs were introduced. However, numerous drug-resistant strains emerged recently that consequently decreased (...) the efficacy of current therapeutics and vaccines, thereby obliging the scientific community to start investigating new therapeutic targets in pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, our contributions include the prediction of modelome of 13 C. diphtheriae strains, using the MHOLline workflow. A set of 463 conserved proteins were identified by combining the results of pangenomics based core-genome and core-modelome analyses. Further, using subtractive proteomics and modelomics approaches for target

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2017 PLoS ONE

18. Risk factors for diphtheria infection and persistent transmission: a systematic review

Risk factors for diphtheria infection and persistent transmission: a systematic review Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites

2019 PROSPERO

19. Tetrabik (adsorbed diphtheria-purified pertussis-tetanus-inactivated polio (Sabin strain) combined vaccine)

Tetrabik (adsorbed diphtheria-purified pertussis-tetanus-inactivated polio (Sabin strain) combined vaccine) This English version of the Japanese review report is intended to be a reference material to provide convenience for users. In the event of inconsistency between the Japanese original and this English translation, the former shall prevail. The PMDA will not be responsible for any consequence resulting from the use of this English version. Report on the Deliberation Results July 23, 2012 (...) Evaluation and Licensing Division, Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare [Brand name] Tetrabik Subcutaneous Injection Syringe [Non-proprietary name] Adsorbed Diphtheria-Purified Pertussis-Tetanus-Inactivated Polio (Sabin strain) Combined Vaccine [Applicant] The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University [Date of application] December 27, 2011 [Results of deliberation] In the meeting held on July 20, 2012, the Second Committee on New Drugs

2012 Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, Japan

20. Quattrovac (adsorbed diphtheria-purified pertussis-tetanus-inactivated polio (Sabin strain) combined vaccine)

Quattrovac (adsorbed diphtheria-purified pertussis-tetanus-inactivated polio (Sabin strain) combined vaccine) This English version of the Japanese review report is intended to be a reference material to provide convenience for users. In the event of inconsistency between the Japanese original and this English translation, the former shall prevail. The PMDA will not be responsible for any consequence resulting from the use of this English version. Report on the Deliberation Results July 23, 2012 (...) Evaluation and Licensing Division, Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare [Brand name] Quattrovac Subcutaneous Injection Syringe [Non-proprietary name] Adsorbed Diphtheria-Purified Pertussis-Tetanus-Inactivated Polio (Sabin strain) Combined Vaccine [Applicant] The Chemo-Sero-Therapeutic Research Institute (KAKETSUKEN) [Date of application] January 27, 2012 [Results of deliberation] In the meeting held on July 20, 2012, the Second Committee on New Drugs concluded

2012 Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, Japan

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