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2881. The mechanism mediating regenerative intercellular Ca2+ waves in the blowfly salivary gland. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The mechanism mediating regenerative intercellular Ca2+ waves in the blowfly salivary gland. Intercellular Ca2+ signaling in intact salivary glands of the blowfly Calliphora erythrocephala was studied by fluorimetric digital imaging combined with microinjection of putative messenger molecules. Iontophoretic injection of D-myo-inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate (InsP3) into salivary gland cells evoked regenerative intercellular Ca2+ waves that spread through the impaled cell and several rows (...) through >10 cells. The phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 blocked 5-HT-induced Ca2+ increases but did not affect InsP3-dependent Ca2+ spiking and intercellular Ca2+ wave propagation. The results demonstrate that propagation of agonist-evoked Ca2+ waves in the blowfly salivary gland requires supra-basal [InsP3] but does not depend on feedback activation of phospholipase C. We conclude that the intra- and intercellular transmission of these Ca2+ waves is mediated by diffusion of Ca2+ and Ca2+-induced Ca2

1999 The EMBO journal

2882. Use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for fingertip analgesia: a pilot study. (Abstract)

if this technique is useful clinically as an alternative or adjunct to digital nerve block anesthesia for fingertip surgical procedures. (...) Use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for fingertip analgesia: a pilot study. To determine if transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) can produce fingertip analgesia.Randomized, crossover trial.Fifteen healthy volunteers, naive to the technique of TENS.TENS stimulation was applied to the middle and ring fingers of each subject's hands by means of small carbon electrodes placed over the digital nerves. Patients received one fingertip puncture from a mechanically driven

1992 Annals of Emergency Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2883. Thiamine and folate treatment of chronic epileptic patients: a controlled study with the Wechsler IQ scale. (Abstract)

% of the patients had subnormal blood thiamine levels and 30% had low folate. The vitamin deficiencies were independent phenomena. It was found that thiamine improved neuropsychological functions in both verbal and non-verbal IQ testing. In particular, higher scores were recorded on the block design, digit symbol, similarities and digit span subtests. Folate treatment was ineffective. These results indicate that, in epileptics chronically treated with PHT, thiamine improves neuropsychological functions

1993 Epilepsy research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2884. Attenuation of the circadian patterns of myocardial ischemia with nifedipine GITS in patients with chronic stable angina. N-CAP Study Group. (Abstract)

Attenuation of the circadian patterns of myocardial ischemia with nifedipine GITS in patients with chronic stable angina. N-CAP Study Group. The Nifedipine Gastro-Intestinal Therapeutic System (GITS) Circadian Anti-ischemia Program (N-CAP) was designed to test the effect of nifedipine GITS as monotherapy or in combination with a beta-adrenergic blocking agent on the circadian pattern of angina and silent ischemia in patients with chronic stable angina. At 118 sites in the United States, 1,174 (...) run-in was followed by up to 5 weeks of single-blind titration with nifedipine GITS, a 4-week efficacy phase with an established dose and a final single-blind 2-week placebo withdrawal period. Ambulatory ECG monitoring was performed at the end of each placebo phase and at the end of the efficacy phase with a digital monitoring device that was validated in a pilot study. Overall, nifedipine GITS significantly reduced the weekly number of anginal episodes from 5.7 to 1.8 (p = 0.0001) and the number

1992 Journal of the American College of Cardiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2885. The contribution of the intrinsic muscles to grip and pinch strength. (Abstract)

data were recorded before injection and after each nerve block was determined to be effective. A computerized dynamometer that simultaneously recorded individual force data from each digit and cumulative grip was used to record grip strength. Grip strength data showed a significant decrease in total grasp at all 3 handle sizes after initial median or ulnar nerve block. The average decrease in grip strength was 38% after ulnar nerve block and 32% after median nerve block. The total grip loss after (...) The contribution of the intrinsic muscles to grip and pinch strength. Profound deficiencies occur in the intrinsic minus hand with loss of the interossei, thenar, hypothenar, and adductor pollicis muscles. The purpose of this study was to define the load-generating deficiencies of grip and pinch after simulated low median and/or low ulnar nerve lesions. Twenty-one healthy volunteers underwent median and ulnar nerve blocks at the wrist level with mepivacaine HCI injection. Key pinch and grip

1999 The Journal of hand surgery

2886. [Perioperative circulatory side effects of topical 5% phenylephrine for mydriasis]. (Abstract)

[Perioperative circulatory side effects of topical 5% phenylephrine for mydriasis]. To study the systemic effects of topically applied 5% phenylephrine. To investigate intraoperative injection of epinephrine in the anterior chamber as an alternative.75 patients undergoing cataract surgery were randomized into three groups. In group 1, the pupil was dilated using topically 5% phenylephrine and 1% cyclopentolate, the patients blocked the lacrimal drainage system themselves by digital compression (...) . Group 2 received the same drops, digital compression was performed by one of the investigators. In Group 3, no preoperative phenylephrine was used--instead, epinephrine 1:25,000 was injected in the anterior chamber at the beginning of surgery. Retrobulbar anesthesia was performed in a short narcosis with ketamine and propofol.Mean preoperative blood pressure values were higher than the day before. They fell during narcosis, to increase significantly after the injection of the local anesthetics

1999 Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2887. Periprostatic nerve blockade before transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy: the Ankara Numune experience. (Abstract)

into 2 groups of 25 patients each. Group 1 received periprostatic local anesthesia with 1% lidocaine while group 2 received no local anesthesia. Pain scale responses were analyzed for each aspect of the biopsy procedure with a visual analog scale.There was no difference between the 2 groups in pain scores during digital rectal examination, intramuscular injection and probe insertion. The mean pain scores during needle insertion in group 1 receiving periprostatic nerve block and in group 2 receiving

2003 Urologia internationalis Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2888. QT dispersion has no prognostic value in patients with symptomatic heart failure: an ELITE II substudy. (Abstract)

QT dispersion has no prognostic value in patients with symptomatic heart failure: an ELITE II substudy. This study prospectively investigated 3,118 standard 12-lead ECGs recorded in 1,804 patients, who participated in the Losartan Heart Failure Survival Study--ELITE II clinical trial. After exclusion of patients with rhythms other than sinus, or atrioventricular block, or poor quality ECGs, 986 (703 men, mean age 71 +/- 7 years) with baseline ECGs were retained, of whom 615 patients had follow (...) -up ECGs 4 months after randomization. QT intervals were manually measured with a digitizing board. Heart rate, QRS duration, maximum QT and JT intervals, QT and JT dispersion (the interval ranges across all measurable ECG leads) were analyzed. In the overall population, there were 140 (14%) deaths from all causes, including 119 (12%) cardiac and 59 (6%) sudden deaths during a follow-up of 540 +/- 153 days. The mean heart rate was significantly faster in nonsurvivors than in survivors (77 +/- 16

2003 Pacing and clinical electrophysiology : PACE Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2889. Randomized controlled trial of a computer-assisted learning program to improve caries detection from bitewing radiographs. (Abstract)

Randomized controlled trial of a computer-assisted learning program to improve caries detection from bitewing radiographs. To investigate whether using a computer-assisted learning (CAL) calibration program improves the accuracy of dental students in caries detection from bitewing radiographs.Dental students were assigned to an experimental (n=33) and control (n=34) group using a randomized block design. The experimental group used the CAL program with feedback to calibrate themselves against (...) experts in radiographic caries detection and a histological gold standard of the actual clinical condition. Feedback was provided visually of the actual tooth surface condition and in the form of graphics showing diagnostic accuracy performance measures. Performance was tested before the program (for the control group) and after the program (for the experimental group) by assessing surfaces (n=56) from a new independent digital test set of evaluation radiographs for the presence, histologically

2003 Dento maxillo facial radiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2890. Chemokine blockade and chronic inflammatory disease: proof of concept in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Chemokine blockade and chronic inflammatory disease: proof of concept in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Chemokines and their receptors are considered important contributors in cell migration and inflammation in chronic inflammatory disorders. Chemokines affecting monocytes/macrophages are considered potential therapeutic targets, but no studies of the effects of blocking the chemokine repertoire in humans with a chronic inflammatory disease have been reported.To carry out a double blind (...) , placebo controlled, phase Ib clinical trial with a specific, oral CCR1 antagonist.16 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were randomised 3:1 to active:placebo treatment for 14 days. Synovial biopsy specimens were obtained on days 1 and 15. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the presence of various cell types before and after treatment and the results measured by digital image analysis. Results before and after treatment were compared by paired t test, and a two sample t test was used

2003 Annals of the rheumatic diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2891. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in a sample of cognitively intact older adults: neuropsychological findings. Full Text available with Trip Pro

on the following standardized neuropsychological measures: Selective Reminding Test (SRT), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III Block Design (WAIS-III BD) and Digit Symbol-Coding (WAIS-III DS) subtests, and the Wechsler Memory Scale-III Faces I (WMS-III FI) and Faces II (WMS-III FII) subtests. A subjective Follow-up Self-report Questionnaire was also administered to participants just prior to termination of the treatment phase. Analyses of covariance indicated that cognitively intact participants who received

2002 Human psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

2892. Smoker reactions to a "radio message" that Light cigarettes are as dangerous as Regular cigarettes. (Abstract)

Smoker reactions to a "radio message" that Light cigarettes are as dangerous as Regular cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to examine in a systematic, controlled fashion the reactions of smokers to scientifically correct information about the risks of smoking Light cigarettes (about 6-15 mg tar by the FTC method). Random-digit dialing, computer-assisted telephone interviews were used to locate daily smokers of Light cigarettes. In an experimental design, smokers were randomly assigned (...) that there should be a warning on packs that vent blocking increases tar; 61% agreed that the location of filter vents should be marked. The majority of smokers of Light cigarettes seem to value being informed that Light cigarettes are as dangerous for them as Regular cigarettes, and this information increases their intentions to quit smoking.

1999 Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2893. Differential demands on working memory for guiding a simple action sequence: evidence from closed-head-injured subjects. (Abstract)

Differential demands on working memory for guiding a simple action sequence: evidence from closed-head-injured subjects. In the present study, a working memory paradigm was used to assess coordinative abilities required for the flexible control of a sequence of actions. Subjects had to maintain and recall a list of digits that functioned as an ensemble of activity cues used for guiding a sequence of forced-choice responses. In three task conditions, the demand on the selection of the activity (...) cues was varied parametrically to manipulate the requirement of coordinating maintenance and processing operations of working memory for guiding the response sequences. A comparison between subjects suffering from severe closed head injury (CHI) and matched controls in a blocked presentation of task conditions revealed that patients, in contrast to controls, did not preplan the sequence by rearranging the ensemble of activity cues prior to execution of the action sequence. Patients' performance

2000 Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology

2894. Repeated administration of the D1/5 antagonist ecopipam fails to attenuate the subjective effects of cocaine. (Abstract)

Repeated administration of the D1/5 antagonist ecopipam fails to attenuate the subjective effects of cocaine. Dopaminergic compounds have been targeted as potential treatments for cocaine abuse because of the known role of dopamine systems in drug reinforcement. Recent preclinical and human data have focused on the D1/5 antagonist, SCH 39166 (ecopipam), as a potential therapeutic agent.The objective of the present study was to determine whether treatment with chronic ecopipam can blunt or block (...) the subjective effects of cocaine in the absence of significant behavioral impairment or toxic physiological effects.Four doses of ecopipam (0, 10, 25, and 100 mg p.o.) were administered daily for 1 week each in double-blind, random order to inpatient cocaine-dependent volunteers (n = 10). Cocaine challenge doses (0, 25, and 50 mg/70 kg i.v.) were administered on the 7th day in ascending order, 1 h apart.Ecopipam alone produced reliable dose-dependent deficits in performance on the digit symbol substitution

2001 Psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2895. Bone tunnel enlargement following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a randomised comparison of hamstring and patellar tendon grafts with 2-year follow-up. (Abstract)

immediately proximal to the articular surface. Patients were reviewed after 4 months and 1 and 2 years. Tunnel enlargement was determined by measuring the widths of the femoral and tibial tunnels with a digital caliper in both lateral and anteroposterior radiographs. Because of the presence of the interference screw and the proximity of the bone block to the tibial articular surface, the tibial tunnel could not be reliably measured in the PT group. Measurements were corrected for magnification (...) undergoing primary ACL reconstruction (n = 65) were randomised to receive either a PT or HS autograft. Femoral fixation in both groups was by means of an Endobutton. On the tibial side the PT grafts were fixed using a metallic interference screw, and the HS tendons by sutures tied to a fixation post. The PT grafts were inserted such that the proximal end of the distal bone block was within 10 mm of the tibial articular surface, resulting in a portion of free patellar tendon in the femoral tunnel

2001 Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy : official journal of the ESSKA Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2896. Role of advanced 2 and 3-dimensional ultrasound for detecting prostate cancer. (Abstract)

frequency data necessary for 2 and 3-dimensional (D) computer reconstruction of the prostate were digitally recorded at transrectal ultrasound and prostate biopsy. The data were spectrally processed and 2-D tissue typing images were generated based on a pre-trained neural network classification. We used manually masked 2-D tissue images as building blocks for generating 3-D tissue images and the images were tissue type color coded using custom software. Radio frequency data on the study cohort were

2002 Journal of Urology

2897. NMDA receptor regulation of nNOS phosphorylation and induction of neuron death. (Abstract)

phosphorylation by a mechanism that is blocked specifically by NMDA receptor antagonists and inhibitors of the Ca2+-regulated phosphatases calcineurin and PP1/PP2A. Using quantitative digital microscopy, we show that NMDA receptor activation induces the accumulation of nitrotyrosine, a measure of nNOS activity, and TdT-mediated fluorescein-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) positivity, a measure of cell death. A calcineurin inhibitor blocked the increase in both TUNEL and nitrotyrosine positivity. Notably, TUNEL

2003 Neurobiology of Aging

2898. Suppressive effects of selectin inhibitor SKK-60060 on the leucocyte infiltration during endotoxin induced uveitis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Suppressive effects of selectin inhibitor SKK-60060 on the leucocyte infiltration during endotoxin induced uveitis. It is well known that selectin is involved in the development of endotoxin induced uveitis (EIU), and has a major role in leucocyte infiltration. Recently, a novel selectin inhibitor (SKK-60060) that can block P and L selectins in vitro has been developed. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of SKK-60060 on the inflammatory reaction during EIU (...) in rats by studying leucocyte-endothelium interactions.EIU was induced in Lewis rats by footpad injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). SKK-60060 was administered 15 minutes before LPS injection, and its suppressive effects on inflammatory leucocyte behaviour were evaluated in vivo with acridine orange digital fluorography; the diameters of retinal arteries and veins were also measured. After these studies, aqueous humour was collected to evaluate leucocyte infiltration and protein leakage.After LPS

2003 British Journal of Ophthalmology

2899. Morphine-3-glucuronide's neuro-excitatory effects are mediated via indirect activation of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors: mechanistic studies in embryonic cultured hippocampal neurones. (Abstract)

Morphine-3-glucuronide's neuro-excitatory effects are mediated via indirect activation of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors: mechanistic studies in embryonic cultured hippocampal neurones. Indirect evidence indicates that morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) may contribute significantly to the neuro-excitatory side effects (myoclonus and allodynia) of large-dose systemic morphine. To gain insight into the mechanism underlying M3G's excitatory behaviors, we used fluo-3 fluorescence digital imaging (...) -pretreatment decreased the proportion of M3G-responsive neurones by 10%-25%, implicating a predominantly non-opioidergic mechanism. Although the naloxone-insensitive M3G-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](CYT) were completely blocked by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) antagonists and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid/kainate antagonist), CNQX did not block the large increase in [Ca(2+)](CYT) evoked by NMDA (as expected), confirming that M3G

2003 Anesthesia and Analgesia

2900. Hypertension and changes of cognitive function in 81-year-old men: a 13-year follow-up of the population study "Men born in 1914", Sweden. (Abstract)

) on cognitive function, while controlling for confounding factors.A longitudinal cohort study of men born in 1914 and residing in the municipality of Malmö studied at age 68 and 81 years.Probands invited to a university clinic.One hundred and eighty-six out of 281 invited men still alive in 1995/6 participated in the most recent follow-up.Change of the cognitive performance in the verbal (Paired Associates and Synonyms), spatial (Block Design and Benton Visual Retention test) and speed (Digit Symbol (...) Substitution) functions.DBP by tertiles at 68 years, but not HT, was inversely related to verbal, spatial and speed performance at 81 years. Only spatial function was related to SBP at 68 years. The association between DBP and SBP by tertiles, and spatial functions (Block Design and Benton Visual Retention test) remained after controlling for education, marital status, smoking, alcohol and physical activity, and intermediates such as arteriosclerotic manifestations (block design, beta = 0.17; = 0.029

2003 Journal of Hypertension

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