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Defensive Medicine

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141. Cryptogenic Stroke and High-Risk Patent Foramen Ovale: The DEFENSE-PFO Trial Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cryptogenic Stroke and High-Risk Patent Foramen Ovale: The DEFENSE-PFO Trial Recent reports showing the favorable role of patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure in patients with cryptogenic stroke have raised the issue of selecting optimal candidates.This study, DEFENSE-PFO (Device Closure Versus Medical Therapy for Cryptogenic Stroke Patients With High-Risk Patent Foramen Ovale), evaluated whether the benefits of PFO closure can be determined on the basis of the morphologic characteristics (...) . (Device Closure Versus Medical Therapy for Cryptogenic Stroke Patients With High-Risk Patent Foramen Ovale [DEFENSE-PFO]; NCT01550588).Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2018 EvidenceUpdates

142. Research "recover from illness defense complex" helper T cell immune mechanisms based on the "Fuxie" theory clearing away heat evil thoroughly nourishing kidney treatment of recurrent blood-heat syndrome Psoriasis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Research "recover from illness defense complex" helper T cell immune mechanisms based on the "Fuxie" theory clearing away heat evil thoroughly nourishing kidney treatment of recurrent blood-heat syndrome Psoriasis. Psoriasis vulgaris (PV) is a chronic, painful, disfiguring, and disabling dermatological disease, which affects the physical and mental health of patients and impacts their quality of life. Current conventional systemic therapies can be costly, present risks of side effects, have (...) limited efficacy and commonly recur following treatment cessation. Some Chinese herbal medicine therapies have shown therapeutic benefits for psoriasis vulgaris, including relieving symptoms and improving quality of life, and a potential of reducing relapse rate. However, explicit evidence has not yet been obtained.This is a pilot randomized controlled trial with the objective of investigating the effect of Jia Wei Liang Xue Xiao Feng San granules on relapse rate of recurrent PV and the correlation

2020 Medicine

143. The effects of military-wide introduction of advanced tourniquets in the Israel Defense Forces. (Abstract)

The effects of military-wide introduction of advanced tourniquets in the Israel Defense Forces. Early application of tourniquets has reduced injury death rates. At the end of 2013, the Israel Defense Forces Medical Corps completed a military-wide introduction of the Combat Application Tourniquet as the standard-issued tourniquet. The accompanying clinical practice guideline encouraged combat soldiers and medical teams towards a liberal use of tourniquets for extremity injuries, even when (...) in doubt.This study aimed to assess the effects of the wide introduction of advanced tourniquets on the rate of tourniquet applications, the type of tourniquet applied, and the differences in hospitalisation outcomes following the introduction.The study population was composed of hospitalised military casualties with an extremity injury treated by military medical teams between 2006 and 2015. Prehospital data were extracted from the Israel Defense Forces Trauma Registry and matched to corresponding hospital

2020 Injury

144. Enhancing Patient Activation and Self-Management Activities in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Using the US Department of Defense Mobile Health Care Environment: Feasibility Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Department of Defense's Mobile Health Care Environment (MHCE) in a patient-centered medical home setting.A multisite study, including a user-centered design and a controlled trial, was conducted within the US Military Health System. Phase I assessed preferences regarding the enhancement of the enabling technology. Phase II was a single-blinded 12-month feasibility study that randomly assigned 240 patients to either the intervention (n=123, received mHealth technology and behavioral messages tailored (...) Enhancing Patient Activation and Self-Management Activities in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Using the US Department of Defense Mobile Health Care Environment: Feasibility Study. Past mobile health (mHealth) efforts to empower type 2 diabetes (T2D) self-management include portals, text messaging, collection of biometric data, electronic coaching, email, and collection of lifestyle information.The primary objective was to enhance patient activation and self-management of T2D using the US

2020 Journal of medical Internet research

145. Suboxone for Drug Detoxification: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines

, Cockayne L. Medically assisted recovery from opiate dependence within the context of the UK drug strategy: methadone and Suboxone (buprenorphine-naloxone) patients compared. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2012 Jun 15. Epub ahead of print. PubMed: PM22703715 Suboxone for Drug Detoxification 3 7. Steele A, Cunningham P. A comparison of Suboxone and clonidine treatment outcomes in opiate detoxification. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2012 Aug;26(4):316-23. PubMed: PM22835751 8. Rapeli P, Fabritius C, Alho H, Salaspuro M (...) . J Subst Use. 2011;16(3):171-8. 29. Maremmani I, Gerra G. Buprenorphine-based regimens and methadone for the medical management of opioid dependence: Selecting the appropriate drug for treatment. Am J Addict. 2010;19(6):557-68. PubMed: PM20958853 30. Sullivan LE, Fiellin DA. Narrative review: buprenorphine for opioid-dependent patients in office practice. Ann Intern Med. 2008 May 6;148(9):662-70. PubMed: PM18458279 31. Stock C, Shum JH. Bupreorphine: a new pharmacotherapy for opioid addictions

2012 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

146. Remembering the Host in Tuberculosis Drug Development. (Abstract)

Remembering the Host in Tuberculosis Drug Development. New therapeutics to augment current approaches and shorten treatment duration are of critical importance for combating tuberculosis (TB), especially those with novel mechanisms of action to counter the emergence of drug-resistant TB. Host-directed therapy (HDT) offers a novel strategy with mechanisms that include activating immune defense mechanisms or ameliorating tissue damage. These and related concepts will be discussed along (...) with issues that emerged from the workshop organized by the Stop TB Working Group on New Drugs, held at the Gordon Research Conference for Tuberculosis Drug Development in Lucca, Italy in June 2017, titled "Strategic Discussion on Repurposing Drugs & Host Directed Therapies for TB." In this review, we will highlight recent data regarding drugs, pathways, and concepts that are important for successful development of HDTs for TB.

2018 Journal of Infectious Diseases

147. A3, a Scorpion Venom Derived Peptide Analogue with Potent Antimicrobial and Potential Antibiofilm Activity against Clinical Isolates of Multi-Drug Resistant Gram Positive Bacteria Full Text available with Trip Pro

A3, a Scorpion Venom Derived Peptide Analogue with Potent Antimicrobial and Potential Antibiofilm Activity against Clinical Isolates of Multi-Drug Resistant Gram Positive Bacteria Current research in the field of antimicrobials is focused on developing novel antimicrobial agents to counteract the huge dilemma that the human population is mainly facing in regards to the rise of bacterial resistance and biofilm infections. Host defense peptides (HDPs) are a promising group of molecules (...) and in combination with four different types of conventional antibiotics against clinical isolates of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-positive bacteria. A3 was also evaluated for its cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. A3 managed to selectively inhibit the growth of a wide range of resistant strains of Gram-positive bacteria. Our results also showed that combining A3 with conventional antibiotics caused a synergistic antimicrobial behavior that resulted in decreasing the MIC value for A3 peptide as low

2018 Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry

148. Hepatoprotective Evaluation of Trapa natans against Drug-induced Hepatotoxicity of Antitubercular Agents in Rats Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hepatoprotective Evaluation of Trapa natans against Drug-induced Hepatotoxicity of Antitubercular Agents in Rats Medicinal herbs are significantly effective against a variety of liver disorders and Trapa natans was traditionally used for the treatment of anti-inflammatory, pain disorder, and various types of hepatic ailment.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of T. natans fruit peel extract against antitubercular drugs (isoniazid + rifampicin [INH + RIF (...) liver marker enzymes and antioxidant defense status and thereby contributed to its antihepatotoxic potential.Hepatotoxicity was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of antitubercular drugs (Isoniazid + Rifampicin at dose level of 50 mg/kg each) for 15 daysThe liver was screened for various marker enzymes and antioxidant parameters, which showed significant increase in the level of marker enzymes confirming induced hepatotoxicityHepatotoxic rats on treatment with T. natans peel extract (200

2018 Pharmacognosy magazine

149. Structure-Function Relationships of the Neisserial EptA Enzyme Responsible for Phosphoethanolamine Decoration of Lipid A: Rationale for Drug Targeting Full Text available with Trip Pro

Structure-Function Relationships of the Neisserial EptA Enzyme Responsible for Phosphoethanolamine Decoration of Lipid A: Rationale for Drug Targeting Bacteria cause disease by two general mechanisms: the action of their toxins on host cells and induction of a pro-inflammatory response that can lead to a deleterious cytokine/chemokine response (e.g., the so-called cytokine storm) often seen in bacteremia/septicemia. These major mechanisms may overlap due to the action of surface structures (...) defense peptides termed cationic antimicrobial peptides. This review concentrates on the phosphoethanolamine (PEA) decoration of lipid A in the pathogenic species of the genus Neisseria [N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis]. PEA decoration of lipid A is mediated by the enzyme EptA (formerly termed LptA) and promotes resistance to innate defense systems, induces the pro-inflammatory response and can influence the in vivo fitness of bacteria during infection. These important biological properties have

2018 Frontiers in microbiology

150. PLA-PEG Nanoparticles Improve the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Rosiglitazone on Macrophages by Enhancing Drug Uptake Compared to Free Rosiglitazone Full Text available with Trip Pro

PLA-PEG Nanoparticles Improve the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Rosiglitazone on Macrophages by Enhancing Drug Uptake Compared to Free Rosiglitazone Among cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis remains the first cause of death in the United States of America and Europe, as it leads to myocardial infarction or stroke. The high prevalence of heart diseases is due to the difficulty in diagnosing atherosclerosis, since it can develop for decades before symptoms occur, and to the complexity (...) of the treatment since targets are also important components of the host defenses. The antidiabetics thiazolidinediones, among which is rosiglitazone (RSG), have demonstrated anti-atherosclerotic effect in animal models, and are therefore promising candidates for the improvement of atherosclerosis management. Nevertheless, their administration is hindered by the insurgence of severe side effects. To overcome this limitation, rosiglitazone has been encapsulated into polymeric nanoparticles, which permit

2018 Materials

151. The Role of Systems Biologic Approach in Cell Signaling and Drug Development Responses—A Mini Review Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Role of Systems Biologic Approach in Cell Signaling and Drug Development Responses—A Mini Review The immune system is an integral aspect of the human defense system and is primarily responsible for and involved in the communication between the immune cells. It also plays an important role in the protection of the organism from foreign invaders. Recent studies in the literature have described its role in the process of hematopoiesis, lymphocyte recruitment, T cell subset differentiation (...) and inflammation. However, the specific molecular mechanisms underlying these observations remain elusive, impeding the elaborate manipulation of cytokine sequential delivery in tissue repair. Previously, the discovery of new drugs and systems biology went hand in hand; although Systems biology as a term has only originated in the last century. Various new chemicals were tested on the human body, and studied through observation. Animal models replaced humans for initial trials, but the interactions, response

2018 Medical Sciences

152. Peptide-Like Nylon-3 Polymers with Activity against Phylogenetically Diverse, Intrinsically Drug-Resistant Pathogenic Fungi Full Text available with Trip Pro

Peptide-Like Nylon-3 Polymers with Activity against Phylogenetically Diverse, Intrinsically Drug-Resistant Pathogenic Fungi Understanding the dimensions of fungal diversity has major implications for the control of diseases in humans, plants, and animals and in the overall health of ecosystems on the planet. One ancient evolutionary strategy organisms use to manage interactions with microbes, including fungi, is to produce host defense peptides (HDPs). HDPs and their synthetic analogs have been (...) (with the exception of Aspergillus species), yeasts, dermatophytes, dimorphic fungi, and molds were all sensitive to the effects of these polymers. Even fungi intrinsically resistant to current antifungal drugs, such as the causative agents of mucormycosis (Rhizopus spp.) and those with acquired resistance to azole drugs, showed nylon-3 polymer sensitivity. In addition, the emerging pathogens Pseudogymnoascus destructans (cause of white nose syndrome in bats) and Candida auris (cause of nosocomial infections

2018 mSphere

153. Mesobuthus Venom-Derived Antimicrobial Peptides Possess Intrinsic Multifunctionality and Differential Potential as Drugs Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mesobuthus Venom-Derived Antimicrobial Peptides Possess Intrinsic Multifunctionality and Differential Potential as Drugs Animal venoms are a mixture of peptides and proteins that serve two basic biological functions: predation and defense against both predators and microbes. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a common component extensively present in various scorpion venoms (herein abbreviated as svAMPs). However, their roles in predation and defense against predators and potential as drugs (...) . Unlike AMPs from other origins, these venom-derived AMPs seem to be unsuitable as anti-infective drugs due to their high hemolysis and low serum stability. However, MeuTXKβ1, a known two-domain Mesobuthus AMP, is an exception since it exhibits high activity toward antibiotic resistant Staphylococci clinical isolates with low hemolysis and high serum stability. The findings that the classical AMPs play predatory and defensive roles indicate that the multifunctionality of scorpion venom components

2018 Frontiers in microbiology

154. Synthesis of Functionalized 10-nm Polymer-coated Gold Particles for Endothelium Targeting and Drug Delivery Full Text available with Trip Pro

Synthesis of Functionalized 10-nm Polymer-coated Gold Particles for Endothelium Targeting and Drug Delivery Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been used extensively in medical research due to their size, biocompatibility, and modifiable surface. Specific targeting and drug delivery are some of the applications of these AuNPs, but endothelial extracellular matrices' defensive properties hamper particle uptake. To address this issue, we describe a synthesis method for ultrasmall gold nanoparticles

2018 Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE

155. Exploring Ugi-Azide Four-Component Reaction Products for Broad-Spectrum Influenza Antivirals with a High Genetic Barrier to Drug Resistance Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Subsequent structure-activity relationship studies led to the discovery of compound 12a, which had broad-spectrum antiviral activity and a higher in vitro genetic barrier to drug resistance than oseltamivir. Overall, the discovery of compound 12a as a broad-spectrum influenza antiviral with a high in vitro genetic barrier to drug resistance is significant, as it offers a second line of defense to combat the next influenza epidemics and pandemics if vaccines and oseltamivir fail to confine the disease (...) Exploring Ugi-Azide Four-Component Reaction Products for Broad-Spectrum Influenza Antivirals with a High Genetic Barrier to Drug Resistance Influenza viruses are respiratory pathogens that are responsible for seasonal influenza and sporadic influenza pandemic. The therapeutic efficacy of current influenza vaccines and small molecule antiviral drugs is limited due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant influenza viruses. In response to the urgent need for the next generation of influenza

2018 Scientific reports

156. Impediment of selenite-induced cataract in rats by combinatorial drug laden liposomal preparation Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impediment of selenite-induced cataract in rats by combinatorial drug laden liposomal preparation Cataract is the leading cause of blindness globally with surgery being the only form of treatment. But cataract surgery is accompanied by complications, chiefly intra-ocular infections. Hence, preventive nanoformulations may be extremely beneficial. In the present study, novel chitosan-coated liposomal formulations encapsulating a combination of drugs, lanosterol and hesperetin were prepared (...) and characterized. The combinatorial liposomes were prepared by thin film evaporation active extrusion method. The characterization of liposomes was done by transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, stability, cytotoxicity and in vitro release studies. The main difference between the chitosan-coated and uncoated combinatorial liposomes is the release of drugs as indicated by the in vitro release studies. The slow and sustained release of the drugs from chitosan-coated ones

2018 The Libyan journal of medicine

157. Multi-drug resistant Enterobacter bugandensis species isolated from the International Space Station and comparative genomic analyses with human pathogenic strains Full Text available with Trip Pro

Multi-drug resistant Enterobacter bugandensis species isolated from the International Space Station and comparative genomic analyses with human pathogenic strains The antimicrobial resistance (AMR) phenotypic properties, multiple drug resistance (MDR) gene profiles, and genes related to potential virulence and pathogenic properties of five Enterobacter bugandensis strains isolated from the International Space Station (ISS) were carried out and compared with genomes of three clinical strains (...) , vitamins, prosthetic groups, pigments (275 genes), membrane transport (247 genes), and RNA metabolism (239 genes). In addition, 112 genes identified in the ISS strains were involved in virulence, disease, and defense. Genes associated with resistance to antibiotics and toxic compounds, including the MDR tripartite system were also identified in the ISS strains. A multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) locus or MAR operon encoding MarA, MarB, MarC, and MarR, which regulate more than 60 genes, including

2018 BMC microbiology

158. Drug Resistance and Gene Transfer Mechanisms in Respiratory/Oral Bacteria. (Abstract)

in the bloodstream (circulating nucleic acids) can integrate into the host cell genome by up-regulation of DNA damage and repair pathways. With multidrug resistant bacteria on the rise, new drugs have been developed to combate bacterial antibiotic resistance, such as innate defense regulators, reactive oxygen species and microbial volatile compounds. This review summaries various aspects and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in the respiratory/oral microbiota. A better understanding of these mechanisms (...) Drug Resistance and Gene Transfer Mechanisms in Respiratory/Oral Bacteria. Growing evidence suggests the existence of new antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Recent studies have revealed that quorum-quenching enzymes, such as MacQ, are involved in both antibiotic resistance and cell-cell communication. Furthermore, some small bacterial regulatory RNAs, classified into RNA attenuators and small RNAs, modulate the expression of resistance genes. For example, small RNA sprX, can shape bacterial

2018 Journal of Dental Research

159. Fungicidal potency and mechanisms of θ-defensins against multi-drug resistant <i>Candida</i> species. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fungicidal potency and mechanisms of θ-defensins against multi-drug resistant Candida species. Systemic candidiasis is a growing health care concern that is becoming even more challenging due to the growing frequency of infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Candida species. Thus, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic approaches to candidiasis, including strategies bioinspired by insights into natural host defense against fungal pathogens. The antifungal properties of θ (...) -defensins, macrocyclic peptides expressed in tissues of Old World monkeys, were investigated against a panel of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant clinical isolates of Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species. Rhesus θ-defensin 1 (RTD-1), the prototype θ-defensin, was rapidly and potently fungicidal against drug-sensitive and MDR C. albicans strains. Fungal killing occurred by cell permeabilization that was temporally correlated with ATP release and intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen

2018 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

160. The gene expression profile of a drug metabolism system and signal transduction pathways in the liver of mice treated with tert-butylhydroquinone or 3-(3'-tert-butyl-4'-hydroxyphenyl)propylthiosulfonate of sodium. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The gene expression profile of a drug metabolism system and signal transduction pathways in the liver of mice treated with tert-butylhydroquinone or 3-(3'-tert-butyl-4'-hydroxyphenyl)propylthiosulfonate of sodium. Tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) is a highly effective phenolic antioxidant used in edible oils and fats in foods as well as in medicines and cosmetics. TBHQ has been shown to have both chemoprotective and carcinogenic effects. Furthermore, it has potential anti-inflammatory (...) was used to measure protein levels and a fluorometric assay was employed to study activities of CYPs. Genes that were affected more than 1.5-fold by tBHQ or TS-13 treatment compared with vehicle were identified. Analysis of the gene expression data revealed changes in various genes that are important for drug metabolism, cellular defense mechanisms, inflammation, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation. Novel target genes were identified, including xenobiotic metabolism genes encoding CYPs, phase II/III

2017 PLoS ONE

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