How to Trip Rapid Review

Step 1: Select articles relevant to your search (remember the system is only optimised for single intervention studies)

Step 2: press

Step 3: review the result, and maybe amend the or if you know better! If we're unsure of the overall sentiment of the trial we will display the conclusion under the article title. We then require you to tell us what the correct sentiment is.

8,298 results for

Defensive Medicine

by
...
Latest & greatest
Alerts

Export results

Use check boxes to select individual results below

SmartSearch available

Trip's SmartSearch engine has discovered connected searches & results. Click to show

5061. South American Blastomycosis (Treatment)

Honoraria Speaking and teaching; Astellas Honoraria Speaking and teaching; Cubist Honoraria Speaking and teaching; Forest Pharmaceuticals Speaking and teaching Norman Levine, MD Private Practice, Tucson, AZ Norman Levine is a member of the following medical societies: Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Jeffrey J Miller, MD Associate Professor of Dermatology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine; Staff Dermatologist, Pennsylvania State Milton S Hershey Medical Center Jeffrey J Miller, MD (...) is a member of the following medical societies: , , , , and Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Christina M Schofield, MD Instructor of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences; Consulting Staff, Department of Infectious Disease, Wilford Hall Medical Center, Lackland Air Force Base Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference Disclosure

2014 eMedicine.com

5062. Somogyi Phenomenon (Treatment)

University Gregory William Rutecki, MD is a member of the following medical societies: , , , , and Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference Disclosure: Medscape Salary Employment Kent Wehmeier, MD Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, St Louis University School of Medicine Kent Wehmeier, MD (...) Hospital Michael Cooperman, MD is a member of the following medical societies: , , , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Chief Editor George T Griffing, MD Professor Emeritus of Medicine, St Louis University School of Medicine George T Griffing, MD is a member of the following medical societies: , , , , , , , , , , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Acknowledgements Gregory William Rutecki, MD Associate Professor, Program Director, Department of Internal Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern

2014 eMedicine.com

5063. Social Phobia (Treatment)

Drug Reference Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape. Chief Editor Caroly Pataki, MD Health Sciences Clinical Professor of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine Caroly Pataki, MD is a member of the following medical societies: , , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Additional Contributors Mohammed A Memon, MD Psychiatrist/Geriatric Psychiatrist, Carolina Center for Behavioral Health; Assistant (...) becoming the standard first-line medication for social phobia. Paroxetine received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for this indication in 1999, the first SSRI to gain such approval. In 2003, sertraline received FDA approval for short- and long-term (20-wk) treatment of social phobia in adults. It is also FDA-approved for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children older than 12 years. Serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), such as venlafaxine, were

2014 eMedicine.com

5064. Smallpox (Treatment)

: and Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Michelle Pelle, MD Clinical Assistant Professor, Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego Michelle Pelle, MD is a member of the following medical societies: , , , and Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference Disclosure: Medscape Salary Employment Victoria P Werth, MD Professor (...) is 770-488-7100 or 404-639-3532. General clinician information regarding smallpox and smallpox vaccine can be obtained from the CDC Web site or by calling 877-554-4625. Previous Next: Medical Care The first drug for the treatment of smallpox, tecovirimat, was approved in July 2018 should smallpox ever be used as a bioweapon. Tecovirimat is an antiviral that inhibits the activity of the orthopoxvirus VP37 protein. The effectiveness of tecovirimat against smallpox was established by studies in animals

2014 eMedicine.com

5065. Smallpox (Treatment)

: and Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Michelle Pelle, MD Clinical Assistant Professor, Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego Michelle Pelle, MD is a member of the following medical societies: , , , and Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference Disclosure: Medscape Salary Employment Victoria P Werth, MD Professor (...) is 770-488-7100 or 404-639-3532. General clinician information regarding smallpox and smallpox vaccine can be obtained from the CDC Web site or by calling 877-554-4625. Previous Next: Medical Care The first drug for the treatment of smallpox, tecovirimat, was approved in July 2018 should smallpox ever be used as a bioweapon. Tecovirimat is an antiviral that inhibits the activity of the orthopoxvirus VP37 protein. The effectiveness of tecovirimat against smallpox was established by studies in animals

2014 eMedicine.com

5066. Septic Shock (Treatment)

, angiotensin II may be an emerging treatment to increase blood pressure. [ , ] The study had limitations and further research is needed. Results are awaiting US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) consideration for approval. Goals and principles of treatment in septic shock The treatment of patients with septic shock has the following major goals: Start adequate antibiotic therapy (proper dosage and spectrum) as early as possible Identify the source of infection, and treat with antimicrobial therapy (...) be initiated within the first hour after the recognition of septic shock or severe sepsis; delays in administration are associated with increased mortality. [ , , ] Selection of antibiotic agents is empiric, based on an assessment of the patient’s underlying host defenses, the potential source of infection, and the most likely responsible organisms. (See Empiric Antimicrobial Therapy.) When the source is unknown, the antibiotic chosen must be a broad-spectrum agent that covers gram-positive, gram-negative

2014 eMedicine.com

5067. Neonatal Meningitis (Overview)

School of Medicine J Stephen Huff, MD is a member of the following medical societies: , , , and Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference Disclosure: Medscape Salary Employment What would you like to print? What would you like to print? Sections Neonatal Meningitis Find Us On About Membership WebMD Network Editions All material on this website (...) Professor, Departments of Neuroscience and Pediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina David A Griesemer, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine, American Academy of Neurology , American Epilepsy Society, Child Neurology Society, and Society for Neuroscience Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. J Stephen Huff, MD Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine and Neurology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Virginia

2014 eMedicine.com

5068. Munchausen Syndrome (Overview)

Virginia Medical School; Attending Physician, Division of Emergency Medicine, Children's Hospital of The King's Daughters Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference Disclosure: Medscape Salary Employment What would you like to print? What would you like to print? Sections Factitious Disorder Imposed on Self (Munchausen's Syndrome) Find Us On About (...) helpful. Options include the following: Family therapy Cognitive-behavioral therapy Supportive psychotherapy There is little evidence to support the efficacy of any particular pharmacologic intervention in treating factitious disorder; however, the following principles should apply: Pharmacologic therapy may be indicated for concurrent psychiatric diagnoses Drugs may also be considered for treatment of the presenting symptoms Caregivers should routinely copy each other on every progress note

2014 eMedicine.com

5069. Multisystem Organ Failure of Sepsis (Overview)

adequate supportive measures and antimicrobial therapy is a harbinger of a poor outcome. There is a graded severity from SIRS to sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock, with associated 28-day mortality rates of approximately 10%, 20%, 20-40%, and 40-60%, respectively. [ ] A multicenter prospective study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association reported a mortality of 56% during ICU stay. [ ] Of all deaths, 27% occurred within 2 days of the onset of severe sepsis, and 77% of all (...) , progressive, or sequential systems failure. A syndrome of the 1970s. Arch Surg . 1975 Jul. 110(7):779-81. . Gustot T. Multiple organ failure in sepsis: prognosis and role of systemic inflammatory response. Curr Opin Crit Care . 2011 Apr. 17(2):153-9. . Bone RC, Balk RA, Cerra FB, et al. Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. The ACCP/SCCM Consensus Conference Committee. American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine

2014 eMedicine.com

5070. Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (Overview)

rates for those groups are as follows: Low risk – 99% Intermediate risk – 85-88% High risk – 72% Patients with early-stage MALToma may be curable with chemotherapy. The risks and benefits of surgical or radiation therapy for MALTomas should be considered before the decision is made to proceed with such treatment. Previous References Glickman MS, Pamer EG. Cell-Mediated Defense against Infection. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice (...) types of lymphomas. of 2 Tables Contributor Information and Disclosures Author Sara J Grethlein, MD Associate Dean for Undergraduate Medical Education, Indiana University School of Medicine Sara J Grethlein, MD is a member of the following medical societies: , , , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Chief Editor Emmanuel C Besa, MD Professor Emeritus, Department of Medicine, Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College

2014 eMedicine.com

5071. Mucormycosis (Overview)

, and long-term isavuconazole therapy was initiated for salvage/maintenance therapy. of 9 Tables Contributor Information and Disclosures Author Philip J McDonald, MD Fellow, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Detroit Medical Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine Philip J McDonald, MD is a member of the following medical societies: , , , , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Coauthor(s) Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar, MBBS, MD Professor, Chief of Infectious Disease (...) , Department of Internal Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar, MBBS, MD is a member of the following medical societies: , , , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Specialty Editor Board Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape. John L Brusch, MD, FACP Assistant Professor

2014 eMedicine.com

5072. Mucormycosis (Overview)

, and long-term isavuconazole therapy was initiated for salvage/maintenance therapy. of 9 Tables Contributor Information and Disclosures Author Philip J McDonald, MD Fellow, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Detroit Medical Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine Philip J McDonald, MD is a member of the following medical societies: , , , , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Coauthor(s) Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar, MBBS, MD Professor, Chief of Infectious Disease (...) , Department of Internal Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar, MBBS, MD is a member of the following medical societies: , , , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Specialty Editor Board Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape. John L Brusch, MD, FACP Assistant Professor

2014 eMedicine.com

5073. Meningitis (Treatment)

≥0.12 µg/mL – Resistant With the new meningitis criteria (≥0.12 μg/mL), the prevalence of resistance was 34.8% in 2008, whereas with the old criteria (≥2 μg/mL), it was 12.3% for CSF. [ ] The geographic distribution of this resistance is variable, and it is important to know the regional patterns when deciding on local empiric antibiotic therapy (see Medication). A large observational study of 548 pneumococcal meningitis cases from Brazil showed that penicillin resistance was associated with higher (...) . At times, obtaining serum drug concentrations may be necessary to ensure adequate levels and to avoid toxicity in drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (eg, vancomycin and aminoglycosides). The patient must also be monitored for complications from the disease (eg, hydrocephalus, seizures, or hearing defects). Antibiotic therapy: neonates to age 1 month In the first month of life, the most common microorganisms are group B or D streptococci, Enterobacteriaceae (eg, E coli ), and L monocytogenes

2014 eMedicine.com

5074. Majocchi Granuloma (Treatment)

. Courtesy of Hon Pak, MD. of 1 Tables Contributor Information and Disclosures Author Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH Professor and Head of Dermatology, Professor of Pathology, Pediatrics, Medicine, and Preventive Medicine and Community Health, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School; Visiting Professor, Rutgers University School of Public Affairs and Administration Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: , , , , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Coauthor(s) Camila K Janniger, MD (...) Dermatopathologist, South Texas Dermatopathology Laboratory Lester F Libow, MD is a member of the following medical societies: , , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Chief Editor Dirk M Elston, MD Professor and Chairman, Department of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina College of Medicine Dirk M Elston, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Additional Contributors David P Fivenson, MD Associate Director, St Joseph Mercy Hospital

2014 eMedicine.com

5075. Laparoscopic and Robotic Radical Prostatectomy (Treatment)

, placement of stitch in dorsal vein complex, dissection of prostate off bladder, dissection around prostate; development of plane between prostate and rectum, preservation of neurovascular bundles and division of dorsal vein complex and urethra. Procedure performed by Samuel Sterrett, DO, Bon Secours Medical Group, Greenville, SC. Courtesy of BroadcastMed (http://uro.broadcastmed.com/4120/videos/robotic-prostatectomy). See , a Critical Images slideshow, to help determine the best diagnostic approach (...) of 402 mL. The authors also reported a decreased mean hospital stay, due predominantly to earlier removal of the Foley catheter. Even in the hands of these skilled laparoscopists, nerve-sparing dissection and construction of the urethrovesical anastomosis were demanding. With advances in medical technology, improved optics, and the widespread use of new laparoscopic instrumentation such as ultrasonic cutting and coagulating devices (eg, Harmonic scalpel), laparoscopic radical prostatectomy began

2014 eMedicine.com

5076. Klebsiella Infections (Treatment)

College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape. John W King, MD Professor of Medicine, Chief, Section of Infectious Diseases, Director, Viral Therapeutics Clinics for Hepatitis, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center; Consultant in Infectious Diseases, Overton Brooks Veterans Affairs Medical Center John W King, MD is a member of the following medical societies: , , , Association of Subspecialty Professors (...) of cholangitis. Few comparative data exist to establish this as the optimal therapy. Ciprofloxacin monotherapy is as effective as combination therapy for acute suppurative cholangitis. Antimicrobials are administered for at least 10 days. Biliary decompression may be required. Klebsiella meningitis in adults is rare. Nosocomial disease complicates shunts in children. Third-generation cephalosporins are the drugs of choice because of superior central nervous system penetration. Reports indicate success

2014 eMedicine.com

5077. Keratosis Palmaris et Plantaris (Treatment)

, University of Illinois College of Medicine Jacob W Charny, MD is a member of the following medical societies: , , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Coauthor(s) William D James, MD Paul R Gross Professor of Dermatology, Vice-Chairman, Residency Program Director, Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine William D James, MD is a member of the following medical societies: , Disclosure: Received income in an amount equal to or greater than $250 from: Elsevier; WebMD. Specialty (...) with internal malignancy, PPK due to inflammatory and reactive dermatoses, PPK caused by infections, drug-related PPK, and systemic disease–associated PPK. See the images below. Focal palmoplantar keratoderma. Courtesy of Professor Raimo Suhonen and DermNet New Zealand (https://www.dermnetnz.org/assets/Uploads/scaly/s/focal-kd2.jpg). Diffuse palmoplantar keratoderma. Courtesy of Professor Raimo Suhonen and DermNet New Zealand (https://www.dermnetnz.org/assets/Uploads/scaly/s/keratoder5.jpg). Next: Diffuse

2014 eMedicine.com

5078. Leishmaniasis (Treatment)

reported treatments include topical imiquimod cream, cryotherapy, thermotherapy, ketoconazole, photodynamic therapy, itraconazole, and allopurinol. However, these are effective only when used in combination with the first-line drugs Because Leishmania species are temperature-sensitive, local treatment with heat or cold provides an alternative to pharmaceutical therapy in some cases. Cryotherapy can be used on small, uncomplicated Old World lesions. A 15- to 20-second freeze-thaw-refreeze cycle repeated (...) occurs, the immunologic status of the patient, and the previous attempts at treatment when therapy is started. Treatment options In general, if the case is not advanced with serious gastroenterologic, hematologic, or infectious issues, care can be accomplished on an outpatient basis. However, daily visits to a physician for medication may be required. Multiple medical treatment options are used throughout the world for cutaneous disease. In addition to parenteral and oral medications (see Medication

2014 eMedicine.com

5079. Leishmaniasis (Treatment)

for economic reasons. In the city of Kabul, Afghanistan, which has a population of less than 2 million, an estimated 270,000 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurred in 1996. The resurgence of visceral leishmaniasis has occurred because of deficiencies in the control of the vector (sandfly), absence of a vaccine, and lack of access to medical treatment due to cost and increasing drug resistance to first-line treatment. Coexistence of leishmaniasis with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (...) individuals with intact immune systems, full recovery from visceral disease is expected after treatment with the appropriate medication. With early therapy and supportive care, mortality in patients with visceral disease is reduced to approximately 5%; without therapy, most patients with visceral disease (kala-azar) (75-95%) die within 2 years, often from malnutrition and secondary infection, such as bacterial pneumonia, septicemia, dysentery, tuberculosis, cancrum oris, and uncontrolled hemorrhage or its

2014 eMedicine.com

5080. Asthma (Treatment)

to an inhaled glucocorticoid in the add-on therapy trial. [ ] The results of these two trials suggests that a leukotriene antagonist is equivalent to both comparison drugs with regard to asthma-related quality of life at 2 months, but equivalence was not proven at 2 years. A Cochrane review found that inhaled corticosteroids are superior to anti-leukotrienes when used as monotherapy in adults and children with persistent asthma. The superiority of inhaled corticosteroids is most pronounced in asthma (...) for medication in a 2003 meta-analysis of 75 randomized controlled trials by Abramson et al. [ ] Another study showed improved peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and decreased use of medications in a highly selected group of children, but only for the first year of therapy. Patients receiving subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) demonstrated improved medical outcomes and cost savings in one study designed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of SCIT in addition to symptomatic therapy (ST), compared with ST alone

2014 eMedicine.com

To help you find the content you need quickly, you can filter your results via the categories on the right-hand side >>>>