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Defensive Medicine

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21. Damage caps and defensive medicine, revisited. (PubMed)

Damage caps and defensive medicine, revisited. Does tort reform reduce defensive medicine and thus healthcare spending? Several (though not all) prior studies, using a difference-in-differences (DiD) approach, find lower Medicare spending for hospital care after states adopt caps on non-economic or total damages ("damage caps"), during the "second" reform wave of the mid-1980s. We re-examine this issue in several ways. We study the nine states that adopted caps during the "third reform wave

2016 Journal of health economics

22. Defensive Medicine in U.S. Spine Neurosurgery. (PubMed)

Defensive Medicine in U.S. Spine Neurosurgery. Observational cross-sectional survey.To compare defensive practices of U.S. spine and nonspine neurosurgeons in the context of state medical liability risk.Defensive medicine is a commonly reported and costly phenomenon in neurosurgery. Although state liability risk is thought to contribute greatly to defensive practice, variation within neurosurgical specialties has not been well explored.A validated, online survey was sent via email to 3344 (...) environment is not a significant driver of increased defensive medicine associated with neurosurgical spine procedures.3.

2016 Spine

23. Defensive medicine in neurosurgery: the Canadian experience. (Full text)

Defensive medicine in neurosurgery: the Canadian experience. OBJECT Recent studies have examined the impact of perceived medicolegal risk and compared how this perception impacts defensive practices within the US. To date, there have been no published data on the practice of defensive medicine among neurosurgeons in Canada. METHODS An online survey containing 44 questions was sent to 170 Canadian neurosurgeons and used to measure Canadian neurosurgeons' perception of liability risk (...) and their practice of defensive medicine. The survey included questions on the following domains: surgeon demographics, patient characteristics, type of physician practice, surgeon liability profile, policy coverage, defensive behaviors, and perception of the liability environment. Survey responses were analyzed and summarized using counts and percentages. RESULTS A total of 75 neurosurgeons completed the survey, achieving an overall response rate of 44.1%. Over one-third (36.5%) of Canadian neurosurgeons paid

2015 Journal of Neurosurgery

24. Medical malpractice, defensive medicine and role of the “media” in Italy (Full text)

Medical malpractice, defensive medicine and role of the “media” in Italy For many years until now, Italy has been subjected to an inconsistent and contradictory media campaign. On one hand the "media" present us with bold and reassuring messages about the progress of medical science; on the other hand they are prone to kneejerk criticism every time medical treatment does not have the desired effect, routinely describing such cases as glaring examples of "malasanità", an Italian word

2015 Multidisciplinary respiratory medicine

25. Chromosome-level genome map provides insights into diverse defense mechanisms in the medicinal fungus Ganoderma sinense (Full text)

Chromosome-level genome map provides insights into diverse defense mechanisms in the medicinal fungus Ganoderma sinense Fungi have evolved powerful genomic and chemical defense systems to protect themselves against genetic destabilization and other organisms. However, the precise molecular basis involved in fungal defense remain largely unknown in Basidiomycetes. Here the complete genome sequence, as well as DNA methylation patterns and small RNA transcriptomes, was analyzed to provide (...) a holistic overview of secondary metabolism and defense processes in the model medicinal fungus, Ganoderma sinense. We reported the 48.96 Mb genome sequence of G. sinense, consisting of 12 chromosomes and encoding 15,688 genes. More than thirty gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, as well as a large array of genes responsible for their transport and regulation were highlighted. In addition, components of genome defense mechanisms, namely repeat-induced point mutation (RIP

2015 Scientific reports

26. ‘From Defensive Paranoia to …Openness to Outside Scrutiny’: Prison Medical Officers in England and Wales, 1979–86 (Full text)

‘From Defensive Paranoia to …Openness to Outside Scrutiny’: Prison Medical Officers in England and Wales, 1979–86 This article examines how a branch of medicine based within the criminal justice system responded to a society which by the 1970s and 1980s was increasingly critical of the prison system and medical authority. The Prison Medical Service, responsible for the health care of prisoners in England and Wales, was criticised by prison campaigners and doctors alike for being (...) unethical, isolated, secretive, and beholden to the interests of the Home Office rather than those of their patients. While prison doctors responded defensively to criticisms in the 1970s and 1980s, comparing their own standards of practice favourably with those found in the NHS, and arguing that doctors from outside would struggle to cope in the prison environment, by 1985 their attitudes had changed. Giving evidence to a House of Commons committee, prison doctors displayed a much greater willingness

2018 Medical history

27. Airway Epithelial Cell Function and Respiratory Host Defense in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Full text)

Airway Epithelial Cell Function and Respiratory Host Defense in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 29692382 2018 10 29 2018 11 14 2542-5641 131 9 2018 May 05 Chinese medical journal Chin. Med. J. Airway Epithelial Cell Function and Respiratory Host Defense in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 1099-1107 10.4103/0366-6999.230743 Amatngalim Gimano D GD Department of Pulmonology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden; Department of Pediatrics, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, Regenerative (...) Medicine Center Utrecht, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Hiemstra Pieter S PS Department of Pulmonology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. eng Journal Article China Chin Med J (Engl) 7513795 0366-6999 IM Epithelial Cells immunology Humans Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive physiopathology Respiratory System physiopathology There are no conflicts of interest 2018 4 26 6 0 2018 4 26 6 0 2018 10 30 6 0 ppublish 29692382

2018 Chinese medical journal

28. In Defense of Best Interests: When Parents and Clinicians Disagree (Full text)

In Defense of Best Interests: When Parents and Clinicians Disagree 30133405 2019 03 12 2019 03 12 1536-0075 18 8 2018 08 The American journal of bioethics : AJOB Am J Bioeth In Defense of Best Interests: When Parents and Clinicians Disagree. 67-69 10.1080/15265161.2018.1485766 Coulson-Smith Peta P a University of Southampton, Faculty of Medicine. Fenwick Angela A a University of Southampton, Faculty of Medicine. Lucassen Anneke A a University of Southampton, Faculty of Medicine. eng Journal

2018 The American Journal of Bioethics

29. In-vivo Effects of E-cigarette Aerosol on Innate Lung Host Defense

In-vivo Effects of E-cigarette Aerosol on Innate Lung Host Defense In-vivo Effects of E-cigarette Aerosol on Innate Lung Host Defense - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. In-vivo Effects of E (...) -cigarette Aerosol on Innate Lung Host Defense (Cinimic) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03700892 Recruitment Status : Recruiting First Posted : October 9, 2018 Last Update Posted : October 24, 2018 See Sponsor

2018 Clinical Trials

30. Salvia castanea Hairy Roots are More Tolerant to Phosphate Deficiency than Salvia miltiorrhiza Hairy Roots Based on the Secondary Metabolism and Antioxidant Defenses (Full text)

Salvia castanea Hairy Roots are More Tolerant to Phosphate Deficiency than Salvia miltiorrhiza Hairy Roots Based on the Secondary Metabolism and Antioxidant Defenses Salvia miltiorrhiza is a well-known traditional Chinese herb which is used to treat heart disease. Salvia castanea is a substitute product for S. miltiorrhiza in the medicinal field. Previous study has shown that phosphate (Pi) deficiency could promote the accumulation of secondary metabolism in herbs, and it has also developed (...) the antioxidant activity in these two Salvia species. The data demonstrated that Pi deficiency increased the quality of the medicinal material in the plant. The hairy roots of S. castanea were more adaptive to Pi deficiency than those of S. miltiorrhiza in terms of biomass, secondary metabolism, and antioxidant activity. The results of this study provide insights into breeding herbs that are better adapted to Pi deficiency, which could increase the yield of active ingredients in herbs and save Pi resources.

2018 Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry

31. A Growth-Promoting Bacteria, Paenibacillus yonginensis DCY84T Enhanced Salt Stress Tolerance by Activating Defense-Related Systems in Panax ginseng (Full text)

A Growth-Promoting Bacteria, Paenibacillus yonginensis DCY84T Enhanced Salt Stress Tolerance by Activating Defense-Related Systems in Panax ginseng Panax ginseng (C.A. Mayer) is a well-known medicinal plant used in traditional medicine in Korea that experiences serious salinity stress related to weather changes or incorrect fertilizer application. In ginseng, the use of Paenibacillus yonginensis DCY84T to improve salt stress tolerance has not been thoroughly explored. Therefore, we studied (...) hydrolyzing enzymes and inducing osmolyte production. Upon exposure to salinity stress (oxidative and ionic stress), strain DCY84T-primed ginseng seedlings were protected by the induction of defense-related systems such as ion transport, ROS scavenging enzymes, proline content, total sugars, and ABA biosynthetic genes, as well as genes involved in root hair formation. Additionally, ginseng primed with DCY84T and exposed to 300 mM NaCl showed the same metabolite profile as control ginseng plants

2018 Frontiers in plant science

32. Therapeutic Potential of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma against Human Diseases Based on Activation of Nrf2-Mediated Antioxidant Defense System: Bioactive Constituents and Mechanism of Action (Full text)

Therapeutic Potential of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma against Human Diseases Based on Activation of Nrf2-Mediated Antioxidant Defense System: Bioactive Constituents and Mechanism of Action Oxidative stress plays a central role in the pathogenesis of many human diseases. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcription factor regulating the intracellular antioxidant response and is an emerging target for the prevention and therapy of oxidative stress (...) -related diseases. Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (SMRR) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and is commonly used for the therapy of cardiac cerebral diseases. Cumulative evidences indicated that the extract of SMRR and its constituents, represented by lipophilic diterpenoid quinones and hydrophilic phenolic acids, were capable of activating Nrf2 and inhibiting oxidative stress. These bioactive constituents demonstrated a therapeutic potential against human diseases, exemplified

2018 Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity

33. Evolutionary stability of antibiotic protection in a defensive symbiosis (Full text)

Evolutionary stability of antibiotic protection in a defensive symbiosis The increasing resistance of human pathogens severely limits the efficacy of antibiotics in medicine, yet many animals, including solitary beewolf wasps, successfully engage in defensive alliances with antibiotic-producing bacteria for millions of years. Here, we report on the in situ production of 49 derivatives belonging to three antibiotic compound classes (45 piericidin derivatives, 3 streptochlorin derivatives

2018 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

34. Correction for Wu et al., “Salmonella Utilizes Zinc To Subvert Antimicrobial Host Defense of Macrophages via Modulation of NF-κB Signaling” (Full text)

Correction for Wu et al., “Salmonella Utilizes Zinc To Subvert Antimicrobial Host Defense of Macrophages via Modulation of NF-κB Signaling” 29463686 2018 09 10 1098-5522 86 3 2018 03 Infection and immunity Infect. Immun. Correction for Wu et al., "Salmonella Utilizes Zinc To Subvert Antimicrobial Host Defense of Macrophages via Modulation of NF-κB Signaling". e00881-17 10.1128/IAI.00881-17 Wu Aimin A Department of Internal Medicine II, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (...) . Animal Nutrition Institute, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya'an, Sichuan, People's Republic of China. Tymoszuk Piotr P Department of Internal Medicine II, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. Haschka David D Department of Internal Medicine II, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. Heeke Simon S Department of Internal Medicine II, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. Dichtl Stefanie S Department of Internal Medicine

2018 Infection and immunity

35. NiO nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity mediated through ROS generation and impairing the antioxidant defense in the human lung epithelial cells (A549): Preventive effect of Pistacia lentiscus essential oil (Full text)

NiO nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity mediated through ROS generation and impairing the antioxidant defense in the human lung epithelial cells (A549): Preventive effect of Pistacia lentiscus essential oil Nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO NPs) have attracted increasing attention owing to potential capacity to penetrate to several human cell systems and exert a toxic effect. Elsewhere, the use of medicinal plants today is the form of the most widespread medicine worldwide. Utilizing aromatic

2018 Toxicology reports

36. Endophyte-Mediated Modulation of Defense-Related Genes and Systemic Resistance in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal under Alternaria alternata Stress (Full text)

Endophyte-Mediated Modulation of Defense-Related Genes and Systemic Resistance in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal under Alternaria alternata Stress Endophytes have been explored and found to perform an important role in plant health. However, their effects on the host physiological function and disease management remain elusive. The present study aimed to assess the potential effects of endophytes, singly as well as in combination, in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, on various physiological (...) parameters and systemic defense mechanisms against Alternaria alternata Seeds primed with the endophytic bacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Pseudomonas fluorescens individually and in combination demonstrated an enhanced vigor index and germination rate. Interestingly, plants treated with the two-microbe combination showed the lowest plant mortality rate (28%) under A. alternata stress. Physiological profiling of treated plants showed improved photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, and stomatal

2018 Applied and environmental microbiology

37. Enhancing the defensibility of examiners’ marks in high stake OSCEs (Full text)

Enhancing the defensibility of examiners’ marks in high stake OSCEs Most assessments in health professions education consist of knowledge-based examinations as well as practical and clinical examinations. Among the most challenging aspects of clinical assessments is decision making related to borderline grades assigned by examiners. Borderline grades are commonly used by examiners when they do not have sufficient information to make clear pass/fail decisions. The interpretation (...) of these borderline grades is rarely discussed in the literature. This study reports the application of the Objective Borderline Method (version 2, henceforth: OBM2) to a high stakes Objective Structured Clinical Examination undertaken at the end of the final year of a Medicine program in Australia.The OBM2 uses all examination data to reclassify borderline grades as either pass or fail. Factor analysis was used to estimate the suitability of data for application of OBM2. Student's t-tests, utilising

2018 BMC medical education

38. HEALTH AND EXERCISE IN THE DEFENSE FORCES

HEALTH AND EXERCISE IN THE DEFENSE FORCES HEALTH AND EXERCISE IN THE DEFENSE FORCES - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. HEALTH AND EXERCISE IN THE DEFENSE FORCES The safety and scientific (...) Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: Arms and Interventions Go to Arm Intervention/treatment Experimental: Encouraging physical activity Encouraging physical activity by using motion sensor and feedback. Other: Encouraging physical activity. Encouraging physical activity with motion sensor's feedback. No Intervention: CONTROL GROUP No intervention. Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Better physical condition. [ Time Frame: 6 months. ] 12-minutes

2018 Clinical Trials

39. Improving Postamputation Functioning by Decreasing Phantom Pain With Perioperative Continuous Peripheral Nerve Blocks: A Department of Defense Funded Multicenter Study

Improving Postamputation Functioning by Decreasing Phantom Pain With Perioperative Continuous Peripheral Nerve Blocks: A Department of Defense Funded Multicenter Study Improving Postamputation Functioning by Decreasing Phantom Pain With Perioperative Continuous Peripheral Nerve Blocks: A Department of Defense Funded Multicenter Study - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search (...) for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Improving Postamputation Functioning by Decreasing Phantom Pain With Perioperative Continuous Peripheral Nerve Blocks: A Department of Defense Funded Multicenter Study The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been

2018 Clinical Trials

40. Cryoanalgesia to Treat Post-Amputation Phantom Limb Pain: A Department of Defense Funded Multicenter Study

Cryoanalgesia to Treat Post-Amputation Phantom Limb Pain: A Department of Defense Funded Multicenter Study Cryoanalgesia to Treat Post-Amputation Phantom Limb Pain: A Department of Defense Funded Multicenter Study - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100 (...) ). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Cryoanalgesia to Treat Post-Amputation Phantom Limb Pain: A Department of Defense Funded Multicenter Study The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03449667

2018 Clinical Trials

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