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Defensive Medicine

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21. Advantage of a Narrow Spectrum Host Defense (Antimicrobial) Peptide Over a Broad Spectrum Analog in Preclinical Drug Development Full Text available with Trip Pro

Advantage of a Narrow Spectrum Host Defense (Antimicrobial) Peptide Over a Broad Spectrum Analog in Preclinical Drug Development The APO-type proline-arginine-rich host defense peptides exhibit potent in vitro killing parameters against Enterobacteriaceae but not to other bacteria. Because of the excellent in vivo properties against systemic and local infections, attempts are regularly made to further improve the activity spectrum. A C-terminal hydrazide analog of the Chex1-Arg20 amide (ARV (...) that the improved efficacy of the narrow-spectrum amide analog is likely associated with increased anti-inflammatory cytokine production and better stimulation of the immune system. Although blood IL-6 and TNF-α levels are frequently used as markers of potential toxicity in drug development, we did not observe any notable increase in mice receiving the toxic polyamide antibiotic colistin.

2018 Frontiers in chemistry

22. The Road from Host-Defense Peptides to a New Generation of Antimicrobial Drugs Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Road from Host-Defense Peptides to a New Generation of Antimicrobial Drugs Host-defense peptides, also called antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), whose protective action has been used by animals for millions of years, fulfill many requirements of the pharmaceutical industry, such as: (1) broad spectrum of activity; (2) unlike classic antibiotics, they induce very little resistance; (3) they act synergically with conventional antibiotics; (4) they neutralize endotoxins and are active in animal (...) models. However, it is considered that many natural peptides are not suitable for drug development due to stability and biodisponibility problems, or high production costs. This review describes the efforts to overcome these problems and develop new antimicrobial drugs from these peptides or inspired by them. The discovery process of natural AMPs is discussed, as well as the development of synthetic analogs with improved pharmacological properties. The production of these compounds at acceptable

2018 Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry

23. A revisit to the effects of zinc salt on skin burn wound healing to reflect the risks in current pharmaceutical care. (Abstract)

responsible for the late adverse effects such as pruritis and inflammation reported with calamine/diphenhydramine lotion, medicated shampoo, Olay Complete defense moisturizing lotion and Zineryt® topical solution. The skin irritation was likely a resultant oxidative stress action of soluble zinc, where a small fraction could be adequate to negate the skin homeostasis. Key messages Zinc is essentially a cofactor for skin collagen formation. Soluble zinc content as low as 10.5 μg/cm2 of skin irritates skin (...) A revisit to the effects of zinc salt on skin burn wound healing to reflect the risks in current pharmaceutical care. The lower limit of soluble zinc content that can possibly be applied onto a wounded skin as a healing promoter was not known. This study examined skin wound healing process of rats inflicted by partial thickness thermal burn wound as a function of applied soluble zinc contents (0.1 ml of zinc chloride solution 0.01% (w/w) or 5.0% (w/w)). The size, surface morphology

2019 Journal of Dermatological Treatment

24. An Evaluation of U.S. Military Non-Medical Counseling Programs Full Text available with Trip Pro

An Evaluation of U.S. Military Non-Medical Counseling Programs This study evaluates two programs offered by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) that provide short-term, solution-focused counseling for common personal and family issues to members of the U.S. military and their families. These counseling services are collectively called non-medical counseling within the DoD and are offered through the Military and Family Life Counseling (MFLC) and Military OneSource programs. RAND's National (...) Defense Research Institute was asked to evaluate these programs to determine whether they are effective in improving outcomes and whether effectiveness varies by problem type and/or population. Two online surveys were provided to program participants-the first two to three weeks after their initial session and the second three months later. Surveys were designed to gain information on 1) problem severity and overall problem resolution, 2) resolution of stress and anxiety, 3) problem interference

2018 Rand health quarterly

25. Off-label prescribing of psychotropic medication to children and adolescents

often prescribed off-label for children and adolescents? Marketing authorisation (the product license) is required in order for a manufacturer to sell, advertise and promote a drug for the defined condition and population. Potential new medicines developed by pharmaceutical companies are typically tested first for safety and efficacy in the population most likely to represent the major areas of use, and most commonly, this will be in adults. Very few psychotropic medications are developed (...) of medicines for children and adolescents remains a common and important issue for prescribing practice across child and adolescent psychiatry, paediatrics and primary care. This editorial focusses on psychotropic drug treatment, which plays an essential part in the comprehensive management of a range of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders. Despite a growing evidence base for drug treatment in child and adolescent psychiatric disorders, much psychotropic medication continues to be prescribed off

2017 British Association for Psychopharmacology

26. Medical malpractice, defensive medicine and role of the “media” in Italy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Medical malpractice, defensive medicine and role of the “media” in Italy For many years until now, Italy has been subjected to an inconsistent and contradictory media campaign. On one hand the "media" present us with bold and reassuring messages about the progress of medical science; on the other hand they are prone to kneejerk criticism every time medical treatment does not have the desired effect, routinely describing such cases as glaring examples of "malasanità", an Italian word (...) of recent coinage used to denote medical malpractice. Newspaper reports of legal proceedings involving health treatment are frequently full of errors and lack any scientific basis.The published data confirm the unsustainably high number of lawsuits against doctors and medical structures, accompanied by demands for compensation arising from true or alleged medical errors or mistakes blamed on the work of health structures.Currently Italian citizens have a greater awareness of their right to health than

2015 Multidisciplinary respiratory medicine

27. Medical School Hotline: John A. Burns School of Medicine University of Hawai‘i at Manoa, Convocation Ceremony Keynote Address, May 14, 2017 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Medical School Hotline: John A. Burns School of Medicine University of Hawai‘i at Manoa, Convocation Ceremony Keynote Address, May 14, 2017 28721314 2019 01 07 2019 01 07 2165-8242 76 7 2017 07 Hawai'i journal of medicine & public health : a journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health Hawaii J Med Public Health Medical School Hotline: John A. Burns School of Medicine University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Convocation Ceremony Keynote Address, May 14, 2017. 199-200 Bono Raquel C RC Director (...) , Defense Health Agency Medical Corps, United States Navy; Robert T. Wong, MD Endowed Lecturer. eng Journal Article United States Hawaii J Med Public Health 101579076 2165-8242 IM Education, Medical, Undergraduate methods Hawaii Humans Leadership 2017 7 20 6 0 2017 7 20 6 0 2019 1 8 6 0 ppublish 28721314 PMC5511338

2017 Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health

28. Association Between Use of Acid-Suppressive Medications and Antibiotics During Infancy and Allergic Diseases in Early Childhood Full Text available with Trip Pro

diseases in early childhood.A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 792 130 children who were Department of Defense TRICARE beneficiaries with a birth medical record in the Military Health System database between October 1, 2001, and September 30, 2013, with continued enrollment from within 35 days of birth until at least age 1 year. Children who had an initial birth stay of greater than 7 days or were diagnosed with any of the outcome allergic conditions within the first 6 months of life were (...) Association Between Use of Acid-Suppressive Medications and Antibiotics During Infancy and Allergic Diseases in Early Childhood Allergic diseases are prevalent in childhood. Early exposure to medications that can alter the microbiome, including acid-suppressive medications and antibiotics, may influence the likelihood of allergy.To determine whether there is an association between the use of acid-suppressive medications or antibiotics in the first 6 months of infancy and development of allergic

2018 EvidenceUpdates

29. Is High-Flow Nasal Cannula More Effective Than Conventional Oxygen Therapy for Preventing Escalation of Respiratory Support in Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure? (SRS Therapy)

among patients with acute respiratory failure who are undergoing treatment for greater than or equal to 24 hours. Is High-Flow Nasal Cannula More Effective Than Conventional Oxygen Therapy for Preventing Escalation of Respiratory Support in Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure? EBEM Commentators Brit Long, MD Michael D. April, MD, DPhil Department of Emergency Medicine San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium Fort Sam, Houston, TX Results Results of included trials. Outcome (...) with a third author. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Two investigators independently extracted data from included studies. Authors expressed rate of escalation in respiratory care and intubation as risk ratios with 95% con?dence intervals. They assessed study quality with the Jadad score, risk of bias according to the Cochrane Handbook, and PULMONARY/SYSTEMATIC REVIEW SNAPSHOT 716 Annals of Emergency Medicine Volume 72, no. 6 : December 2018the conventional oxygen therapy and high-?ow nasal cannula groups

2018 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

30. The Use of Liquids Ionic Fluids as Pharmaceutically Active Substances Helpful in Combating Nosocomial Infections Induced by Klebsiella Pneumoniae New Delhi Strain, Acinetobacter Baumannii and Enterococcus Species Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Use of Liquids Ionic Fluids as Pharmaceutically Active Substances Helpful in Combating Nosocomial Infections Induced by Klebsiella Pneumoniae New Delhi Strain, Acinetobacter Baumannii and Enterococcus Species This review deals with various microbiological activities of ionic liquids, which constitute the first anti-infective defense against multi-drug-resistant bacteria-with a particular emphasis placed on medicine and pharmacology. The quoted data on the biological activity of ionic (...) , and the relevant burden on the health systems of the European Union member states induces the search for new, effective methods of treatment. Ionic liquids, due to their antibacterial effect, can be considered topical and general medications and may provide the basis for treatment to eliminate the antibiotic resistance phenomenon in the future. At present, the number of infections with resistant pathogens in hospitals and outpatient clinics in the European Union is growing. In 2015⁻2017, a significant

2018 International journal of molecular sciences

31. Unhealthy Drug Use: Screening

feasible in busy primary care settings. Longer tools (eg, the 8-item ASSIST [Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test]) that assess risks associated with unhealthy drug use or comorbid conditions. The PRO (Prenatal Risk Overview) for pregnant people. Providers should be aware of state requirements and best practices on informed consent for screening, documenting screening results in medical records, and confidentiality protections. For adolescents: Evidence is insufficient, so (...) or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Many people in the US experience problems related to unhealthy drug use, defined in this recommendation statement as the use of illegal drugs and the nonmedical use of prescription psychoactive medications (ie, use of medications for reasons, for duration, in amounts, or with frequency other than prescribed or use by persons other than the prescribed individual). In 2018, an estimated 12% of US residents 18 years or older reported current unhealthy

2020 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

32. Investigation of Japan Disaster Medical Assistance Team response guidelines assuming catastrophic damage from a Nankai Trough earthquake Full Text available with Trip Pro

(definitely, possibly, and non-affected areas). A survey of DMATs and the locations of emergency base hospitals and intensive care units (ICUs) in each area was carried out, and the ability to support disaster areas was investigated. Next, a survey of wide-area medical transport by Self-Defense Force aircraft and the medical transport abilities of helicopter ambulances was carried out. The numbers of ICU beds in each area were compared, and the capacity to accept patients was investigated. Finally (...) , subjects for further study were examined.The number of DMATs that could be sent from non-affected areas was insufficient. The number of patients that can be transported by Self-Defense Force aircraft and helicopter ambulance during the first 3 days was determined to be 1,443. The number of patients that can be accepted by ICUs in non-affected areas was insufficient. A system needs to be developed to provide medical treatment for critically ill patients within disaster areas during the acute phase

2017 Acute medicine & surgery

33. Refusal of Medically Recommended Treatment During Pregnancy

consequences of their refusal. Although in most cases such court orders give legal permission for but do not require obstetrician–gynecologists’ participation in forced medical interventions, obstetrician–gynecologists who find themselves in this situation should familiarize themselves with the specific circumstances of the case. It is not ethically defensible to evoke conscience as a justification to attempt to coerce a patient into accepting care that she does not desire. The College strongly discourages (...) refuses recommended medical treatments or chooses not to follow medical recommendations, there can be a range of minor to major risks to the patient or the fetus. In certain situations, a pregnant woman might refuse therapies that the medical professional believes are necessary for her health or survival, that of her fetus, or both. Examples of these situations include a pregnant woman refusing to treat a fetal condition or infection in utero or to undergo cesarean delivery when it is thought

2016 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

34. Dialectical behavior therapy skills training affects defense mechanisms in borderline personality disorder: An integrative approach of mechanisms in psychotherapy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dialectical behavior therapy skills training affects defense mechanisms in borderline personality disorder: An integrative approach of mechanisms in psychotherapy. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by immature defense mechanisms. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an effective treatment for BPD. However, understanding the underlying mechanisms of change is still limited. Using a transtheoretical framework, we investigated the effect of DBT skills training on defense (...) mechanisms.In this randomized controlled trial, 16 of 31 BPD outpatients received DBT skills training adjunctive to individual treatment as usual (TAU), while the remaining 15 received only individual TAU. Pre-post changes of defense mechanisms, assessed with the Defense Mechanism Rating Scale, were compared between treatment conditions using ANCOVAs. Partial correlations and linear regressions were conducted to explore associations between defenses and symptom outcome.Overall defense function improved

2018 Psychotherapy research : journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

35. Defeating Cancers’ Adaptive Defensive Strategies Using Thermal Therapies: Examining Cancer’s Therapeutic Resistance, Ablative, and Computational Modeling Strategies as a means for Improving Therapeutic Outcome Full Text available with Trip Pro

Defeating Cancers’ Adaptive Defensive Strategies Using Thermal Therapies: Examining Cancer’s Therapeutic Resistance, Ablative, and Computational Modeling Strategies as a means for Improving Therapeutic Outcome Diverse thermal ablative therapies are currently in use for the treatment of cancer. Commonly applied with the intent to cure, these ablative therapies are providing promising success rates similar to and often exceeding "gold standard" approaches. Cancer-curing prospects may (...) of the strategies used by cancer cells to avoid destruction by immunologic surveillance. Further, these discoveries are now providing insight into the success of the diverse types of ablative therapies utilized in the clinical arena today and into how they directly and indirectly overcome many of the cancers' defensive strategies. Additionally, the manner in which minimally invasive thermal therapy is enabled by imaging, which facilitates anatomical features reconstruction, insertion guidance of thermal probes

2018 Technology in cancer research & treatment

36. Drugs for improving esophageal mucosa defense: where are we now and where are we going? Full Text available with Trip Pro

of symptoms. Among these, impaired mucosal integrity, particularly in most patients with non-erosive reflux disease, has recently been reincluded and the reinforcement of defensive mechanisms and/or its protection has been reappointed as a renewed therapeutic target for the management of GERD patients. In this review we will summarize the existing knowledge of the old and novel compounds able to produce this therapeutic effect, including sucralfate, alginate-based drugs, and a new medical device (...) Drugs for improving esophageal mucosa defense: where are we now and where are we going? In the past, the attention of physiologists and doctors has been mainly focused on the key role of acid in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), but increasing evidence that 20-40% of reflux patients respond not at all or only partially to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) has underlined the concept that factors other than acid are implicated in its development and the elicitation

2017 Annals of Gastroenterology

37. Is tenofovir monotherapy a sufficient defense line against multi-drug resistant hepatitis B virus? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Is tenofovir monotherapy a sufficient defense line against multi-drug resistant hepatitis B virus? 28942622 2018 12 19 2018 12 19 2287-285X 23 3 2017 09 Clinical and molecular hepatology Clin Mol Hepatol Is tenofovir monotherapy a sufficient defense line against multi-drug resistant hepatitis B virus? 219-221 10.3350/cmh.2017.0045 Lee Yun Bin YB Department of Internal Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Korea. Lee Jeong-Hoon JH 0000-0002-0315-2080 Department (...) of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. eng Editorial Comment 2017 09 19 Korea (South) Clin Mol Hepatol 101586730 2287-2728 2T8Q726O95 Lamivudine 5968Y6H45M entecavir 5Z93L87A1R Guanine 99YXE507IL Tenofovir IM Clin Mol Hepatol. 2017 Sep;23(3):230-238 28669175 Guanine analogs & derivatives Hepatitis B virus Hepatitis B, Chronic Humans Lamivudine Tenofovir Chronic hepatitis B Entecavir Multi-drug resistance Rescue therapy Tenofovir 2017

2017 Clinical and molecular hepatology

38. An acquired mechanism of antifungal drug resistance simultaneously enables Candida albicans to escape from intrinsic host defenses Full Text available with Trip Pro

An acquired mechanism of antifungal drug resistance simultaneously enables Candida albicans to escape from intrinsic host defenses The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans frequently produces genetically altered variants to adapt to environmental changes and new host niches in the course of its life-long association with the human host. Gain-of-function mutations in zinc cluster transcription factors, which result in the constitutive upregulation of their target genes, are a common (...) cause of acquired resistance to the widely used antifungal drug fluconazole, especially during long-term therapy of oropharyngeal candidiasis. In this study, we investigated if C. albicans also can develop resistance to the antimicrobial peptide histatin 5, which is secreted in the saliva of humans to protect the oral mucosa from pathogenic microbes. As histatin 5 has been shown to be transported out of C. albicans cells by the Flu1 efflux pump, we screened a library of C. albicans strains

2017 PLoS pathogens

39. Death by intravenous “turmeric”: Naturopaths circle the wagons and the chair of the Naturopathic Medical Committee of California looks for dirt on conventional medicine

that no medication or medical treatment is 100% safe, including some that are commonly used by many people every day. For example, there over 1,000 FDA-approved drugs that list the terms “fatal” and “anaphylaxis” (pertaining to Type 1 allergy) in their adverse event section. Even a commonly used medicine such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) presents significant risks, with more than 56,000 emergency room visits, 2,600 hospitalizations, and an estimated 458 deaths due to acute liver failure from the use (...) Death by intravenous “turmeric”: Naturopaths circle the wagons and the chair of the Naturopathic Medical Committee of California looks for dirt on conventional medicine Death by intravenous "turmeric": Naturopaths circle the wagons and the chair of the Naturopathic Medical Committee of California looks for dirt on conventional medicine | ScienceBlogs Advertisment Search Search Toggle navigation Main navigation Death by intravenous "turmeric": Naturopaths circle the wagons and the chair

2017 Respectful Insolence

40. Future scenarios about drug development and drug pricing

for? It’s a societal debate that we didn’t have so far. What is that we expect from tomorrow's medicine? (…) But there’s no real questioning about: what is good health about? What are we trying to achieve with our medical research?” 2.5 The scenario development process The scenario development process essentially was structured in four steps: 1. Refinement of the purpose served by the projected drug development and pricing systems; 2. Refinement of the collection of functional building blocks; 3 (...) Collaborating Centre for Pharmaceutical Policy and Regulation), Francis Arickx (RIZIV – INAMI), Peter Bach (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre, NY), Sharon Batt (Dalhousie University, Halifax), Marcel Canoy (Autoriteit Consument & Markt / Erasmus School of Accounting and Assurance / Longkanker Nederland), Irina Cleemput (KCE), Lydia de Heij (Zorginstituut Nederland), Ri De Ridder (RIZIV – INAMI), Hans-Georg Eichler (European Medicines Agency), Silvio Garattini (Instituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario

2016 Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre

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