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Decontamination in Children

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21. Mouth-rinses for the prevention of chemotherapy induced oral mucositis in children: a systematic review. (PubMed)

Mouth-rinses for the prevention of chemotherapy induced oral mucositis in children: a systematic review. The purpose of this review was to evaluate studies in basic oral care interventions to update evidence based practice guidelines for preventing oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.Pub Med database and Google Scholar were searched for all papers published between 2000 and December 2014 in English that were conducted using the search terms including ''mocusitis (...) , chemotherapy, mouth-rinses, oral care, oral care protocol, dental care,dental cleaning, oral decontamination, oral hygiene", and the combined phrases in order to obtain all relevant studies.The initial search concluded 151 published papers representing both research and clinical work. Review articles, clinical case reports, literature reviews, and other nonresearch articles were excluded from the review. Following this process, 30 papers remained.Among these, chlorhexidine, normal saline, sodium

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2015 Iranian journal of pediatric hematology and oncology

22. Prevention of infectious complications after elective colorectal surgery in children: an American Pediatric Surgical Association Outcomes and Clinical Trials Committee comprehensive review. (PubMed)

Prevention of infectious complications after elective colorectal surgery in children: an American Pediatric Surgical Association Outcomes and Clinical Trials Committee comprehensive review. This goal of this review was to examine the clinical evidence in support of commonly utilized measures intended to reduce complications following elective colorectal surgery.Literature searches were performed to identify relevant studies from Medline, PubMed, and Cochrane databases.The American Pediatric (...) Surgery Association Outcomes and Clinical Trials Committee selected eight questions to address this topic systematically in the context of three management areas: 1) appropriate utilization of systemic antibiotics for colorectal procedures, 2) reduction of stool burden through mechanical bowel preparation, and 3) intraluminal gut decontamination through use of enteral nonabsorbable antibiotics. Primary outcomes of interest included the occurrence of infectious and mechanical complications related

2015 Journal of Pediatric Surgery

23. [The potential of prophylaxis and optimization of the treatment of rhinosinusitis in the children presenting with stenosing laryngotracheitis]. (PubMed)

therapy; moreover, it reduced the requirement for systemic antibiotics by 1.9 times. The treatment with fusaferine prevented the development of acute bilateral rhinosinusitis in the children with ASLT and promoted compete decontamination of the nasopharynx from M. catarrhalis, Str. pneumonia, Str. pyogenes, H. influenza, Cor. s the nasopharynx pecies, E. faecalis, and C. albicans. The frequency of adverse reactions of organoleptic character was estimated at 16.6%. (...) [The potential of prophylaxis and optimization of the treatment of rhinosinusitis in the children presenting with stenosing laryngotracheitis]. The objective of the present work was to estimate the clinical, prophylactic, and microbiological effectiveness of fusafungine applied for the treatment of acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) in the children that develops as a consequence of acute stenosing laryngotracheitis. The study included 61 children presenting with ARS and concomitant acute stenosing

2013 Vestnik otorinolaringologii Controlled trial quality: uncertain

24. Case Series of Mercury Toxicity Among Children in a Hot, Closed Environment. (PubMed)

, respectively (P = 0.003). The 2 children who took the mercury home had the highest blood mercury levels and the most prolonged exposure time. N-acetylcysteine and chelation treatments were started in 21 children who had symptoms of mercury intoxication and high mercury levels in their blood or urine. No adverse effects were observed during chelation therapy. Prompt removal of children from contaminated environments and proper decontamination or elimination of devices containing large amounts of mercury (...) Case Series of Mercury Toxicity Among Children in a Hot, Closed Environment. Mercury poisoning is much more prevalent in the general population than possibly many physicians realize. We present data on 26 pediatric cases with mercury intoxication from exposure to mercury by inhalation or skin contact as a result of a broken thermometer in a school laboratory. This is the largest pediatric series in Turkey. During a 3-month period, the study team observed the children for clinical symptoms

2012 Pediatric Emergency Care

25. Test of environmental exposure to arsenic and hearing changes in exposed children (PubMed)

the source of the emissions was studied. On the basis of the results obtained, the most advantageous material for estimation of nonoccupational exposure to arsenic seems to be hair, in spite of some problems with the decontamination procedure involved. Considerable variability among individual arsenic values in the hair makes group examination a necessity. Hearing changes were analyzed in a group of 56 10-year old children residing near a power plant burning local coal of high arsenic content (...) Test of environmental exposure to arsenic and hearing changes in exposed children Arsenic determination was carried out on hair, urine, and blood samples taken from groups of 10-year-old boys, each numbering 20 to 25 individuals, residing in a region polluted by arsenic. In all the examined materials considerably elevated concentrations of arsenic were found. The relation of the observed levels of arsenic to the distance of the place of residence up to a distance of more than 30 km from

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1977 Environmental health perspectives

26. Evaluation of Vickers-Trexler isolator in children undergoing bone marrow transplantation. (PubMed)

Evaluation of Vickers-Trexler isolator in children undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Four children, 5 months to 15 years of age, underwent bone marrow transplantation in Vickers-Trexler isolator tents. Two grafts were elective. During 170 days of isolation no clinical infections due to exogenous micro-organisms developed despite severe immunodeficiency. The decontamination regimen and sterile procedures used, as well as the microbiological results, are described. This form of isolation

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1977 Archives of Disease in Childhood

27. Surgical site infections: prevention and treatment

information 27 Surgical site infections: prevention and treatment (NG125) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights ( conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 27This guideline replaces CG74. This guideline is the basis of QS49. Ov Overview erview This guideline covers preventing and treating surgical site infections in adults, young people and children who are having a surgical procedure involving a cut through the skin. It focuses on methods used (...) surgery on a dirty or infected wound. [2008] [2008] 1.2.18 Inform patients before the operation, whenever possible, if they will need antibiotic prophylaxis, and afterwards if they have been given antibiotics during their operation. [2008] [2008] 1.3 Intraoperative phase Hand decontamination Hand decontamination 1.3.1 The operating team should wash their hands prior to the first operation on the list using an aqueous antiseptic surgical solution, with a single-use brush or pick for the nails

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

28. Infection Control for Haemodialysis Units

Immunisation Guidelines (1B). b) We suggest that HBsAg positive patients be dialysed in isolation or cohorted in an area that is separate to that where patients who are HBsAg negative receive dialysis (2C). c) We suggest that HBsAg positive patients use a dedicated dialysis machine and single-use dialysers. When dialysers are to be reused, they should be decontaminated and disinfected (2C). d) We suggest that in a routine setting, patients who are known to be positive for HIV or anti-HCV need (...) important in preventing contamination and interrupting the behaviours and practices that may propagate transmission, such as the reuse of syringes and the use of multi-dose drug vials. HCV can survive on surfaces at room temperature for up to 16 hours [27], underscoring the importance of adequate surface decontamination and disinfection. Screening Screening for HCV infection is usually performed using a third-generation enzyme immunoassays (EIA) test for HCV antibodies (anti-HCV), followed

2019 KHA-CARI Guidelines

29. Management of Blood Borne Viruses within the Haemodialysis Unit

within the guideline that the efficacy of the vaccine is significantly improved when delivered within the pre dialysis setting - though the implementation of this is beyond the scope of the guideline. This guideline does not cover treatment of BBV in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or prevention of BBV infection in patients receiving kidney transplants. These guidelines also apply to children less than 16yrs of age even though there is a paucity of published data relating specifically (...) 2.1 – BBV Infection: Machine segregation for patients infected with HBV We recommend that separate machines must be used for patients known to be infected with HBV (or at high risk of new HBV infection). A machine that has been used for patients infected with HBV can be used again for non-infected patients only after it has been decontaminated using a regime deemed effective against HBV. Healthcare workers dialysing patients with known HBV infection should not dialyse patients without HBV

2019 Renal Association

30. Istradefylline (Nourianz) - Parkinson's disease

Leonard P. Kapcala, M.D. NDA 22075, NOURIANZ/ISTRADEFYLLINE Glossary CDER Clinical Review Template Version date: September 6, 2017 for all NDAs and BLAs Reference ID: 4482928 Reference ID: 4484018 10 Clinical Review Leonard P. Kapcala, M.D. NDA 22075, NOURIANZ/ISTRADEFYLLINE AC advisory committee AE adverse event AR adverse reaction BLA biologics license application BPCA Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act BRF Benefit Risk Framework CBER Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research CDER Center

2019 FDA - Drug Approval Package

31. Acute flaccid paralysis: clinical management guidance

not been systematically studied, with data limited to case reports or case series (1). In agammaglobulinaemic children, enteroviral infection has been associated with severe neurological disease, suggesting that antibody helps prevent severe disease (4). IVIG preparations have been shown to contain antibody against circulating enteroviruses (EV), including EV-D68 (5). In rodents, IVIG has been found to have some efficacy in preventing progression to neuroinvasive disease (1). In order to be effective (...) with non-polio enteroviruses since 2014 had full recovery (15). Clinical management of acute flaccid paralysis / acute flaccid myelitis (AFP/AFM): Information for health professionals 7 Rehabilitation Early physiotherapy and occupational therapy to maintain supple passive range of movement in the affected limbs during the period of paralysis is key to treatment. Evidence suggests that children with acute flaccid myelitis and other forms of myelitis can continue to regain strength and function

2019 Public Health England

32. Interventions for paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose. (PubMed)

from the gastrointestinal tract (decontamination), removal of paracetamol from the vascular system, and antidotes to prevent the formation of, or to detoxify, metabolites.To assess the benefits and harms of interventions for paracetamol overdosage irrespective of the cause of the overdose.We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register (January 2017), CENTRAL (2016, Issue 11), MEDLINE (1946 to January 2017), Embase (1974 to January 2017), and Science Citation Index Expanded (...) studied included decontamination, extracorporeal measures, and antidotes to detoxify paracetamol's toxic metabolite; which included methionine, cysteamine, dimercaprol, or acetylcysteine. There were no randomised clinical trials of agents that inhibit cytochrome P-450 to decrease the activation of the toxic metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine.Of the 11 trials, only two had two common outcomes, and hence, we could only meta-analyse two comparisons. Each of the remaining comparisons included

2018 Cochrane

33. Organophosphate poisoning

is usually based on a history of exposure, with characteristic signs of cholinergic excess, but can be difficult when the patient is inadvertently exposed or is unconscious or confused. Standard treatment is resuscitation, supportive care, decontamination, and use of atropine. Accidental or occupational exposures nearly always have a favourable outcome. Definition Poisoning occurs after dermal, respiratory, or oral exposure to either organophosphate pesticides (e.g., chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, malathion (...) of Clinical Pharmacology Pharmacology Department Sydney Medical School University of Sydney Sydney New South Wales Australia Disclosures NB declares that he has no competing interests. Peer reviewers Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine Division of Medical Toxicology University of Massachusetts Medical School North Worcester MA Disclosures SBB declares that he has no competing interests. Program Director Medical Toxicology Regional Poison Center Children's Hospital of Michigan Detroit MI Disclosures

2018 BMJ Best Practice

35. Handbook on tuberculosis laboratory diagnostic methods in the European Union

45 4.9.1 Quality control parameters 45 References 45 5. Culture tests for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex 47 5.1 Background and principles 47 5.2 Biohazards and biosafety in the TB laboratory 47 5.2.1 Minimum WHO recommendations for TB culture/drug susceptibility testing facilities 48 5.3 Specimen collection, storage and transport 49 5.3.1 Sample collection 49 5.3.2 Storage of specimens 50 5.3.3 Transportation of specimens 50 5.4 Homogenisation and decontamination of specimens 50 5.4.1 (...) Digestion and decontamination of sputum samples 51 5.4.2 Digestion and decontamination of specimens other than sputum 53 5.5 Culture media: principles 54 5.6 Solid media 54 5.6.1 Egg-based media 54 5.6.2 Agar-based media 54 5.6.3 Liquid media 55 5.6.4 Quality control of media 55 5.7 Culture tube inoculation 55 5.7.1 Solid media 55 5.7.2 Liquid media 56 5.8 Culture incubation 56 5.9 Culture examination 56 References 58 6. Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and drug resistance in cultures

2018 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Technical Guidance

36. Prevention and Control of Methecillin-Resistant Staphylcoccus Aureus (MRSA)

or infected with MRSA in residential care facilities 92 Appendix IX MRSA- Information for schools and day care facilities for children 95 Appendix X Matrix for work restrictions in colonised healthcare workers 99 Appendix XI MRSA surveillance definitions 100 Appendix XII MRSA- Related process indicators 102 Appendix XIII Areas for Further Research 103 Appendix XIV Ambulance transportation of patients colonised/infected with MRSA 105 Appendix XV Economic impact report 106 5.0 References 122 Tables Table 1 (...) be carried out regularly by patients themselves. Grade C Recommendation 9 Patients/residents/visitors should be encouraged to decontaminate their hands at regular intervals with assistance given if necessary. Grade C Recommendation 10 A risk assessment should be undertaken on activities undertaken in a patient’s room and appropriate PPE selected. Grade C14 Prevention and Control MRSA A National Clinical Guideline Practical Guidance General issues a) Bed spacing should be planned and managed in a way

2019 National Clinical Guidelines (Ireland)

37. Surveillance, Diagnosis and Management of Clostridium Difficile Infection in Ireland

in a healthcare facility? 54 2.6.2 What infection prevention and control measures should be taken for patients/residents with diarrhoea who are GDH EIA (or NAAT) positive but Clostridium difficile toxin negative? 55 2.6.3 Who should inform the patient/resident they have CDI? 55 2.6.4 How should patients/residents with confirmed CDI be managed in a healthcare facility and how should the environment/equipment be decontaminated? 56 2.6.5 What can you do if you have no single room available? 63 2.6.6 When can (...) of C. difficile PCR ribotypes detected in recent research studies 12 Table 2.1: Elements of a CDI control programme to ensure that patient/resident care is reliable, designed to keep patients/residents safe and of high quality 25 Table 2.2: Two-step testing algorithms in use in Irish microbiology laboratories – 2011 28 Table 2.3: SIGHT Mnemonic protocol 54 Table 2.4: Summary of international recommendations on environmental decontamination of rooms/bed spaces of patients/residents with CDI 60 Table

2019 National Clinical Guidelines (Ireland)

38. Axicabtagene ciloleucel (Yescarta) - diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL); primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL)

Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection There is no clinical experience in patients with active HIV, HBV or HCV infection. Paediatric population The safety and efficacy of YESCARTA in children and adolescents below 18 years of age have not yet been established. No data are available. Elderly No dose adjustment is required in patients = 65 years of age. Efficacy was consistent with the overall treated patient population. Method (...) not irradiate. For intravenous use only. Gently mix the contents of the bag while thawing. Do not filter. STOP confirm patient ID prior to infusion. 6. SPECIAL WARNING THAT THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT MUST BE STORED OUT OF THE SIGHT AND REACH OF CHILDREN Keep out of the sight and reach of children. 7. OTHER SPECIAL WARNING(S), IF NECESSARY For autologous use only. 8. EXPIRY DATE EXP: 25 9. SPECIAL STORAGE CONDITIONS Store frozen in vapour phase of liquid nitrogen = -150°C. Do not refreeze. 10. SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS

2018 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

39. Varicella Zoster Virus glycoprotein E antigen (Shingrix) - Herpes Zoster

varicella vaccination immunization programs will impact the incidence of herpes zoster, theoretically by reducing exposure to circulating wild virus and subsequent boosting. Whilst an increase in herpes zoster incidence has been observed in the US and in other countries with childhood varicella vaccine programs, increasing trends have been noted in countries not using varicella vaccine universally in children. Additionally, in the US, the trend precedes the introduction of universal varicella (...) occur intermittently in immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals with detection of VZV DNA in the blood with consequent boosting in immunity (endogenous boosting) or after exposure to varicella or HZ (exogenous boosting). Some studies have found that re- exposure to varicella-zoster virus or to children 20 skin lesions outside a single dermatome), secondary bacterial infection with Staphylococcus aureus and, rarely, purpura and necrosis are also reported. 2.1.5. Management Treatment of HZ

2018 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

40. Surveillance of healthcare-associated infections and prevention indicators in European intensive care units: HAI-Net ICU protocol, version 2.2

hours after prescription ? prevention of pneumonia in intubated patients: control of cuff pressure, oral decontamination, patient position ? CVC maintenance care: catheter site dressing is not damp, loose or visibly soiled. Patient data (standard surveillance option only): addition of a variable allowing to select a second severity score (from a list, in addition to SAPS II) and enter its value, deletion of: APACHE II, date of hospital admission, coronary care, site of previous surgery, parenteral (...) controlled and/or corrected at least twice a day ? oral decontamination using oral antiseptics at least twice a day. The percentage of correct cuff pressure and oral decontamination records is collected by 30 consecutive reviews of the files of intubated patients (each patient is observed once per day, the same patient is observed for several consecutive days) during the evaluation period ? position of the patient not supine (direct observation). ? Prevention of central line associated bloodstream

2017 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Technical Guidance

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