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121. Trans fats consumption in Australia

, and popcorn. Conversely, available data suggest that the levels of iTFA are currently relatively low in takeaway foods in Australia. Based on the latest nationally representative dietary survey conducted in 2011–2012, it was ascertained that Australians on average have intakes of TFA at 0.6% of daily energy, with an estimated 60–75% coming from ruminant (natural) sources, and the rest being iTFA. While TFA intake is relatively low in Australia compared to other countries, about one in ten Australians (...) continue to exceed the current World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommended limit of 1% daily energy from TFA. Analyses based on the national survey further identified a social-economic gradient for TFA consumption. Among Australians in the lowest fifth of income and education brackets, about 1/7 exceeded the WHO recommended TFA limit. Epidemiologic modeling was conducted using these up-to-date estimates of TFA consumption in Australia and the known association between TFA and CHD risk

2018 Sax Institute Evidence Check

122. International food service initiatives

that the $45 billion Australian food service sector³ is engaged in a meaningful way to improve the nutritional profile of the products they offer and market to consumers. While some food service companies are taking action – for example, reducing the salt, saturated fat, added sugar or energy content of their products and adding more fruit and vegetables to their offerings – these are largely ad hoc measures that aren’t applied across the sector. The Healthy Food Partnership, though its Food Service (...) and halting of the progression of overweight and obesity) therefore requires a multifactorial response acknowledging the inherent complexity of the environment influencing individuals. In developed nations such as Australia, the processed food supply system provides energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods (that are highly processed; rich in fat, sugar and salt; and low in essential nutrients) in large portion sizes. This food supply has been recognised as a major cause of obesity and diet-related health

2018 Sax Institute Evidence Check

123. Dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease outcomes

patterns Dietary Pattern Description of dietary pattern High protein diet 16, 17 • Mean protein intake (as % of total diet) for High protein diet 30.5±2.4% (range: 27.0–34.9%) and for standard protein 17.5±1.5% (range: 16.0–21%) 17 • Protein intake more than >25% of an individual’s total daily kJ intake 16 High protein diet V2 18 • Protein intake between higher and lower protein diets must have had a 5% difference in total energy • The median protein content of the higher-protein diets was 27 (...) % of the total energy intake (range: 16–45%) and 18% (range: 5–23%) in the lower-protein diets 18 Low-fat diet 16 • Less than =30% of an individual’s total daily kJ intake comes from fat 16 Low carbohydrate diet 19 • Carbohydrate (CHO) intake equal to or less than 120gram/day 19 Low GI/GL diets 20, 21 • No definition regarding classification of low vs high GI and low vs high GL 21 • One study did a sub-group analysis between high and low GI diets; compared GI difference of 0–10 between groups, GI difference

2018 Sax Institute Evidence Check

124. Multimorbidity: a priority for global health research

workshops or stakeholder meetings, or provided oral evidence. Funding from the Global Challenges Research Fund and the core grant from the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy to the Academy was used to support this project. This report is published by the Academy of Medical Sciences and has been endorsed by its Officers and Council. Contributions by the working group were made purely in an advisory capacity. The members of the working group participated in an individual capacity (...) to assess questions about the burden of multimorbidity, its determinants, and the prevention and treatment of patients with multimorbidity. Importantly, the proposed reporting system allows researchers the flexibility to consider multimorbidity in a way that is most appropriate for the precise research question and the specific context in which the study is conducted. Definition The co-existence of two or more chronic conditions, each one of which is either: • A physical non-communicable disease of long

2018 Academy of Medical Sciences

125. Outcomes based commissioning and consumers

of what motivates consumers to give up their time and energy to become involved in this kind of activity; it raises the question of whether there is a possibility that this factor might affect the type of evidence generated. It is also important to note that, in some of the cases observed by Schehrer and Sexton, consumer engagement in decision-making did not prevent decisions being overturned by elected officials who had received complaints from other constituents. 4 OUTCOMES-BASED COMMISSIONING

2018 Sax Institute Evidence Check

126. The Patient Centred Medical Home: barriers and enablers to implementation

(GPs). • Traditional payment policies (such as fee-for-service) may focus GPs/practices on activities that are not aligned with PCMH • Lack of financial incentives coupled with the cost of implementing PCMH may deter practices from pursuing it. • Consider payment models that move the focus away from specific service interactions to ones that focus on patient needs over time • Include additional incentives that focus on quality of care delivered • Explore models that allow primary care practices (...) , to operate according to PCMH-principles, a system of “paying for what one wants and improving patient care” (p. 45) was implemented. 27 The authors comment that “Although there are many legitimate criticisms of fee-for-service medicine, the fee schedule is, nevertheless, an excellent incentive mechanism that can be used to shape behavior and track activities”, and was thus used to “allow GPs to spend more time with their patients and to practice guidelines-based care… to shift the focus of care

2018 Sax Institute Evidence Check

128. AIM Clinical Appropriateness Guidelines for Radiation Oncology

and accurate patient setup is achieved with other techniques. These include patient immobilization with custom treatment devices like body molds or thermoplastic masks, placement of tattoos aligned to a 3-dimentional laser array in the treatment room and offline review of port verification films. Small daily setup uncertainties exist and these are taken into account in the target expansion process where an additional margin is added to the gross tumor volume (GTV) to create the clinical target volume (CTV (...) ) and ultimately the planning target volume (PTV) during the treatment planning process. Pre-treatment image acquisition and isocenter shifting has been suggested as a strategy to allow a safe reduction in PTV margins. By decreasing the volume of normal tissue exposed to radiation, the use of IGRT with 3D conformal radiation or IMRT has been suggested as a way to reduce toxicity, allow an increase in the radiation dose, or both. This has been most extensively studied in prostate cancer, where evidence

2019 AIM Specialty Health

129. Diagnosis and management of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding

not identify the site of bleeding, a full colonoscopy should be performed to allow endoscopic visualisation of the entire lower GI tract. Where a portal-venous phase scan alone has been performed, it may be beneficial to carry out additional imaging in the arterial phase if the patient continues to bleed. CTA may also be bene- ficial for preoperative planning before embolisation, surgery or interventional endoscopy. It may be of benefit for patients who have undergone intervention where the bleeding source (...) access within 60 min, some patients would benefit from shorter times to treatment. 55 The availability of interventional radiology varies between hospitals. 4 If formal angiography is to be performed, this should be as soon as possible after a positive CTA to maximise the chance of visual- ising the bleeding point, thereby allowing treatment. When an on-site embolisation service is provided, it should be available within 60 min for haemodynamically unstable patients. diagnosis: subsequent

2019 British Society of Gastroenterology

130. Side effects

of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on side effects or other clinical topics then use Trip today. This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on side effects and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months. What is Trip? Trip is a clinical search engine designed to allow users to quickly and easily find and use high-quality research evidence to support their practice (...) and/or care. Trip has been online since 1997 and in that time has developed into the internet’s premier source of evidence-based content. Our motto is ‘Find evidence fast’ and this is something we aim to deliver for every single search. As well as research evidence we also allow clinicians to search across other content types including images, videos, patient information leaflets, educational courses and news. For further information on Trip click on any of the questions/sections on the left-hand side

2018 Trip Latest and Greatest

131. Meclizine

. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on meclizine or other clinical topics then use Trip today. This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on meclizine and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months. What is Trip? Trip is a clinical search engine designed to allow users to quickly and easily find and use high-quality research evidence to support their practice and/or care. Trip (...) has been online since 1997 and in that time has developed into the internet’s premier source of evidence-based content. Our motto is ‘Find evidence fast’ and this is something we aim to deliver for every single search. As well as research evidence we also allow clinicians to search across other content types including images, videos, patient information leaflets, educational courses and news. For further information on Trip click on any of the questions/sections on the left-hand side of this page

2018 Trip Latest and Greatest

132. Obesity

the latest trusted evidence on obesity or other clinical topics then use Trip today. This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on obesity and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months. What is Trip? Trip is a clinical search engine designed to allow users to quickly and easily find and use high-quality research evidence to support their practice and/or care. Trip has been online since (...) 1997 and in that time has developed into the internet’s premier source of evidence-based content. Our motto is ‘Find evidence fast’ and this is something we aim to deliver for every single search. As well as research evidence we also allow clinicians to search across other content types including images, videos, patient information leaflets, educational courses and news. For further information on Trip click on any of the questions/sections on the left-hand side of this page. But if you still have

2018 Trip Latest and Greatest

133. HIV

trusted evidence on hiv or other clinical topics then use Trip today. This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on hiv and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months. What is Trip? Trip is a clinical search engine designed to allow users to quickly and easily find and use high-quality research evidence to support their practice and/or care. Trip has been online since 1997 (...) and in that time has developed into the internet’s premier source of evidence-based content. Our motto is ‘Find evidence fast’ and this is something we aim to deliver for every single search. As well as research evidence we also allow clinicians to search across other content types including images, videos, patient information leaflets, educational courses and news. For further information on Trip click on any of the questions/sections on the left-hand side of this page. But if you still have questions please

2018 Trip Latest and Greatest

134. Depression

wanted the latest trusted evidence on depression or other clinical topics then use Trip today. This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on depression and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months. What is Trip? Trip is a clinical search engine designed to allow users to quickly and easily find and use high-quality research evidence to support their practice and/or care. Trip has (...) been online since 1997 and in that time has developed into the internet’s premier source of evidence-based content. Our motto is ‘Find evidence fast’ and this is something we aim to deliver for every single search. As well as research evidence we also allow clinicians to search across other content types including images, videos, patient information leaflets, educational courses and news. For further information on Trip click on any of the questions/sections on the left-hand side of this page

2018 Trip Latest and Greatest

135. Handbook on tuberculosis laboratory diagnostic methods in the European Union

of a BSL3 containment laboratory. Molecular techniques involving previously extracted DNA do not require a biosafety level standard [1,3,6]. Before initiating a new test, task or method in a laboratory, a risk assessment is obligatory. This will identify possible risks and allow for proper infection control measurements. In 2008, the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) published the CWA 15793 Laboratory Biorisk Management Standard, which is based on a management systems approach [9]. Both CWA (...) . Any maintenance or technical personnel should always be accompanied by an authorised staff member and only be allowed access when the laboratory is considered relatively safe and if they are wearing personal protective equipment and the appropriate gown and shoes [1]. Figure 1. Biohazard warning sign for laboratory doors Source: World Health Organization. Laboratory biosafety manual, 3rd edition. Geneva; 2004 [1] TECHNICAL REPORT Handbook on tuberculosis laboratory diagnostic methods

2018 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Technical Guidance

137. Recommendations for the Delivery of Psychosocial Oncology Services in Ontario

in cancer • Lack of adequate nutrition for reconditioning and rehabilitation Physical/ Functional/ Rehabilitative • Pain and symptom control • Impaired energy and physical functioning • Impaired sleep • Deconditioning • Lymphedema management • Speech and swallowing impairment • Adjustments in home or work modifications due to physical limitations • Loss of muscle mass impacting activities of daily living Table 1: Psychosocial concerns of patients with cancer Table 1: Psychosocial concerns of patients (...) with cancer continued on page 1414 | Building the case: why is psychosocial oncology care important? Category Concern Practical • Need for community support (e.g., social work, nursing) • Practical needs (e.g., housing, food, disability aid, transportation, functions of daily living, drug reimbursement, daycare) • Rehabilitation issues (e.g., back-to-work difficulties, changes to home routine and set up) • Employment, school or career concerns, advocacy • Cultural or language issues • Caregiver

2018 Cancer Care Ontario

138. The SNMMI and EANM Practice Guideline for Renal Scintigraphy in Adults

(renography), and morphological agents (retained in the tubules) are used in 68 the static (cortical) renal scan. 69 Dynamic scans elucidate the uptake and drainage of the radiopharmaceutical and allow the 70 generation of time-activity curves by selection of regions of interest, while static scans image the 71 functional renal tissue and provide useful morphologic information. 72 An understanding of the principles of the test, its limitations and the sources of error is essential 73 to the interpretation (...) of the existence of obstructive uropathy usually requires diuretic renography 96 (Rado JP, el al 1968, O’Reilly PH, et al 1978, 1992, 1996), i.e., the use of a diuretic drug, such as 97 furosemide, to initiate a maximal diuresis. This test has become one of most common procedures 98 in daily renal nuclear medicine practice and is very useful in differentiation of obstructive or non- 99 obstructive causes of a dilated renal pelvis (Taylor 2012). This test is the subject of a separate 100 guideline devoted

2019 Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

139. Optimal Exercise Programs for Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

fitness/ and exp activities of daily living/. Key words included physical* adj function*(function or physical*) adj (status* or limit*). Subject headings for revascularization included exp angioplasty, exp stents, and exp vascular surgical procedures. Key words included bypass, stent*, and revasculariz*. Summary of the Burden of Symptomatic PAD Prevalence of Symptomatic PAD For the purposes of this statement, clinical evidence of PAD is defined as atherosclerotic arterial disease of the lower (...) of all treatments for symptomatic PAD. For the purposes of this document, functional status is defined as an individual’s ability to perform normal daily activities required to meet basic needs, to fulfill usual roles, and to maintain health and well-being. , For people with PAD, this includes the ability to walk distances without pain. HRQOL is a multidimensional concept that includes domains related to physical, mental, emotional, and social functioning and focuses on the impact that health status

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2019 American Gastroenterological Association Institute

140. Radiation Therapy for the Whole-Breast (ASTRO)

in this guideline and that may, over time, be a basis for ASTRO to revisit and update the guideline. 3 ASTRO WHOLE BREAST IRRADIATION GUIDELINE Practical Radiation Oncology Introduction Breast cancer is the most common malignancy treated with radiation therapy (RT) in the United States, and whole breast irradiation (WBI) is the most common type of RT prescribed for breast cancer. 1 Historically, the standard of care for WBI in the United States has been conventional fractionation (CF), defined as daily doses (...) in the 1990s and 2000s to determine if moderate hypofractionation (HF), defined as daily doses ranging from 265 to 330 cGy, with accompanying total dose reduction, could yield oncologic and functional/cosmetic outcomes similar to CF-WBI. Initial reports of these trials, published from 2002 to 2008, supported the safety and effectiveness of HF-WBI. 2-6 In response, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) published an evidence-based guideline in 2011 which concluded that the evidence supports

2019 American Society for Radiation Oncology

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