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161. Cough Due to Tuberculous and Other Chronic Infections

resolution was fasterin the absence of cavitary lung disease. All studies on cough prevalence in Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease, other nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, fungal lung disease, and paragonimiasis were of poor quality and were excluded from the evidence review. ABBREVIATIONS: ACF = active case ?nding; ART = antiretroviral therapy; CD4 = CD4-positive T lymphocytes; CHEST = American College of Chest Physicians; DOTS = Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course; GRADE (...) resolution in cavitary compared with noncavitary pulmonary TB. Whether there are characteristic features that distinguish cough due to nontuberculous mycobacteria, fungal disease, or paragonimiasis from other conditions was also examined. chestjournal.org 469Methods The methodology of the CHEST Guideline Oversight Committee was used to select the Expert Cough Panel chair and the International Panel of Experts to perform the systematic review, synthesis of the evidence, and development ofthe

2018 American College of Chest Physicians

162. What national and subnational interventions and policies based on Mediterranean and Nordic diets are recommended or implemented in the WHO European Region, and is there evidence of effectiveness in reducing noncommunicable diseases?

or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished (...) inactive men (OR,·79; 95% CI, 0·68–0·92) and women (OR, 0·89; 95% CI, 0·84–0·95) Malmö diet and cancer cohort, 17 126 aged 44–74 years (59% women) (62) Ranking of DQI score as low (0–1), medium (2–3) or high (4–6); Cox proportional hazard regression examined DQI categories and risk of incident cardiovascular events, controlling for potential confounders A high-quality diet decreased risk of a cardiovascular events: 27% in women (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.59–0.91), 32% in men (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49–0.73

2018 WHO Health Evidence Network

163. What strategies to address communication barriers for refugees and migrants in health care settings have been implemented and evaluated across the WHO European Region?

De Almeida | Santino Severoni Soorej J Puthoopparambil | Anne MacFarlaneAbstract The provision of effective health care to linguistically and culturally diverse migrant populations has been identified as a crucial public health issue. This scoping review examines strategies which have been implemented and evaluated to address communication barriers experienced by refugees and migrants in health care settings across the WHO European Region. Four main types of strategy were identified: cultural (...) the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted

2018 WHO Health Evidence Network

164. WHO recommendations: non-clinical interventions to reduce unnecessary caesarean sections

the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by WHO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions expected, the names (...) interventions to reduce unnecessary caesarean section was derived from a Cochrane review maintained by the Cochrane EPOC Group (25). The guideline methodologists collaborated with the review authors and WHO Steering Group to update the review and prepare GRADE evidence tables. The guideline methodologists also reviewed and synthesized case studies to identify contextual factors 2. Methods15 2. Methods likely to affect adoption and scale-up of the caesarean interventions examined. Evidence on barriers

2018 World Health Organisation Guidelines

165. What quantitative and qualitative methods have been developed to measure community empowerment at a national level?

Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned (...) a particular focus in the health literature since the early 2000s and the results are widely published. The data on women’s empowerment in the literature can be divided into two groups: (i) data that are unique to the study and often exploratory in nature, and (ii) data that are readily available in databases. An example of the first group is a study in Chad which examined the associations between motivational autonomy at an individual and a collective level and found that at the community level

2018 WHO Health Evidence Network

166. What constitutes an effective and efficient package of services for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care of tuberculosis among refugees and migrants in the WHO European Region? Themed issues on migration and health

years, with concerns that this is contributing to the burden of tuberculosis (TB), multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and TB/HIV coinfection in some countries. This report examines evidence of effective and efficient service packages for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of TB to inform strategies to address the TB burden in refugee and migrant populations. Significant regional variations were identified in both migration levels and TB burden in refugees and migrants, as well as in approaches (...) for Europe of the World Health Organization welcomes requests for permission to reproduce or translate its publications, in part or in full. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent

2018 WHO Health Evidence Network

167. Health system performance assessment in the WHO European Region: which domains and indicators have been used by Member States for its measurement?

Office for Europe of the World Health Organization welcomes requests for permission to reproduce or translate its publications, in part or in full. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps (...) need to further support to strengthen health systems at both national and regional levels. The synthesis question This report examines methods of assessing health system performance in the WHO European Region, asking the question: “which domains and indicators have been used by Member States for its measurement?” Types of evidence The evidence for this review was extracted through a purposive scoping analysis of online and publicly available health systems documents (e.g. national strategic plans

2018 WHO Health Evidence Network

168. Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in South Asians in the United States: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Treatments: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

among South Asians in India. From a population perspective, it is imperative that the health needs of this racial/ethnic minority group are critically examined to ensure culturally appropriate medical and health services, to address a variety of serious health conditions they face, to create informed policy decisions, and to improve current and future clinical research in this racial/ethnic minority group. Historical View ASCVD Incidence and Prevalence in the South Asian Community Coronary Heart (...) Lp(a) levels in Pakistani women compared with Indian and Bangladeshi women. Some studies have shown an association between elevated Lp(a) in South Asians and atherosclerosis and clinical cardiovascular events, whereas other studies have not. Another study examined the association of Lp(a) with carotid atherosclerosis in South Asians. The study investigators evaluated CIMT in South Asian patients with T2DM and found that the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis (as detected by CIMT) among

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2018 American Heart Association

169. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: Current State of the Science: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

on in reports since 2005. Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) involving coronary arteries in which SCAD occurred has been described in several histopathological case reports, , an implication that coronary FMD was the cause of SCAD and in keeping with the recently observed strong association between SCAD and FMD. , In addition, the postmortem diagnosis of SCAD may be challenging, and a strong suspicion coupled with careful coronary histopathological examination is required in cases of unexplained sudden cardiac (...) non–pregnancy-associated SCAD and why the majority of pregnant women are spared from pregnancy-associated SCAD. Inflammatory Conditions SCAD is not commonly associated with systemic inflammatory disorders. Laboratory evaluation for inflammatory or autoimmune conditions is generally low yield but may be considered in the post-MI setting, particularly in patients who have symptoms of or physical examination findings of autoimmune or rheumatologic disease. SCAD has been described in case reports

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2018 American Heart Association

170. SNMMI Procedure Standard for General Imaging 6.0

, the following sentence can be used: “ No appropriateness criteria have been developed for this procedure” V. QUALIFICATIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF PERSONNEL (in the United States) Reference to this section should be made in all SNM procedure guidelines. A. More detailed qualifications are included in specific guidelines where appropriate. B. Physician All Nuclear Medicine examinations should be performed under the supervision of and interpreted by a physician certified in Nuclear Medicine or Nuclear (...) in the appropriate subfield(s) to demonstrate an individual is competent. The SNM recommends that Medical Physicists be certified in the appropriate subfield(s) by the American Board of Science in Nuclear Medicine or by the American Board of Radiology, or the equivalent. D. Technologist All nuclear medicine examinations should be performed by a Nuclear Medicine Technologist that is registered/certified in Nuclear Medicine by the Nuclear Medicine Technology Certification Board (NMTCB), American Registry

2018 Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

171. HIV and infant feeding in emergencies: operational guidance

the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by WHO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names (...) specifically in areas that are prone to regular natural disasters, such as regional floods, and examining how programmes can be made more resilient to shocks (risk informed); d. strengthening IYCF counselling and distribution of relevant materials (e.g. job aids); e. strengthening HIV-related and (where applicable) replacement feeding supply-chain management, where needed (including a possible increase in buffer stocks prior to predicted floods or cyclones, and agreement on customs and importation

2018 World Health Organisation Guidelines

172. Sodium and Potassium Intake: Effects on Chronic Disease Outcomes and Risks

also set an AI level for potassium at 4,700 milligrams (120 mmol) per day, based on levels that blunt the sodium-related increase in blood pressure as well as the reduction in risk of kidney stones. 6 The DRI report noted the need for dose-response studies on potassium related to cardiovascular disease and blood pressure. The IOM Sodium Intake in Populations report listed “analyses examining the effects of dietary sodium in combination with other electrolytes, particularly potassium” on health (...) as the 2005 DRI report were screened to identify all relevant studies from inception. Criteria for Inclusion/Exclusion of Studies in the Review We included randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials and observational studies published in English that examined interventions to restrict sodium intake or increase potassium intake, used a comparator group, and reported outcomes of interest in participants at least 4 weeks or more after the initiation of the intervention (longer minimum followup times were

2018 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

173. What quantitative and qualitative methods have been developed to measure health-related community resilience at a national and local level?

BagnallAbstract Community resilience is the ability of communities and groups to adapt and thrive in response to external stressors. Building resilient communities as a strategy for population health requires assessment of personal and collective capacities alongside vulnerabilities. This report examines what quantitative and qualitative methods can be used to measure health-related community resilience at national and local levels. Evidence from a rapid review of 33 studies highlighted various methodological (...) or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial

2018 WHO Health Evidence Network

174. What is the evidence on the policy specifications, development processes and effectiveness of existing front-of-pack food labelling policies in the WHO European Region?

authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital (...) and understand; the systems that best guide healthier food choices and diets; and the systems that stimulate product reformulation (22–28). Typically, these reviews have examined experimental and observational consumer reactions to FOPL systems, with two specifically assessing evidence from Europe (24,27). Some of these reviews assessed the quality of the included papers based on the transparency and appropriateness of the study design, study sampling and reporting (21,26,29). These reviews concluded

2018 WHO Health Evidence Network

175. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due to Steroid 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

therapy 4.12 In patients ≤18 months with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, we recommend close monitoring in the first 3 months of life and every 3 months thereafter. After 18 months, we recommend evaluation every 4 months. (1|⊕⊕○○) 4.13 In pediatric patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, we recommend conducting regular assessments of growth velocity, weight, blood pressure, as well as physical examinations in addition to obtaining biochemical measurements to assess the adequacy of glucocorticoid (...) and mineralocorticoid. (1|⊕⊕○○) 4.14 In pediatric patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia under the age of 2 years, we advise annual bone age assessment until near-adult height is attained. (Ungraded Good Practice Statement) 4.15 In adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, we recommend annual physical examinations, which include assessments of blood pressure, body mass index, and Cushingoid features in addition to obtaining biochemical measurements to assess the adequacy of glucocorticoid

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2018 The Endocrine Society

176. WHO recommendations on home-based records for maternal, newborn and child health

not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of WHO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by WHO in preference to others of a similar

2018 World Health Organisation Guidelines

177. Management of Pregnancy

practice is evolving and this evolution requires continuous updating based on published information. New technology and more research will improve patient care in the future. The CPG can assist in identifying priority areas for research and informing optimal allocation of resources. Future studies examining the results of CPG implementation may lead to the development of new evidence particularly relevant to clinical practice. VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Pregnancy March (...) . Standard of Pregnancy Care Routine Pregnancy CareVA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Pregnancy March 2018 Page 21 of 147 A. Algorithm Key Symbol Meaning P Action to be carried out by provider R Referral needs to be made to an advanced prenatal care provider (e.g., obstetrician or maternal-fetal medicine) L Lab needs to be ordered Dotted Timing is not ideal, but it is still helpful for the pregnant woman to receive this action at this time (rather than not at all) V1 First visit PP

2018 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guidelines

178. BHIVA/BASHH guidelines on the use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)

during periods of risk. HIV incidence was 1·8 infections per 100 person-years, compared with 2·6 infections per 100 person-years in those who concurrently did not choose PrEP (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.51, 95% CI 0.26–1.01, adjusted for sexual behaviours) [7]. Examination of drug levels by dried blood spot testing was extrapolated to pill taking and compared to HIV incidence each quarter. No seroconversions were seen when drug levels were compatible with taking four or more pills per week. The IPERGAY (...) (P=0.003 for trend) [8]. Examination of three different trajectories of condom use (low, medium and high) and four of PrEP use over time in IPERGAY-OLE shows that in the majority of men, declines in condom use were compensated by increased on-demand PrEP use, but in a minority of men this was not the case. Compensation by using on- demand PrEP was lower in younger men for all three condom trajectories [21]. In a large observational cohort study of MSM PrEP in a community-based clinic in San

2018 British Association for Sexual Health and HIV

179. 2018 United Kingdom National Guideline for the Management of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

dysmenorrhoea Signs ? lower abdominal tenderness which is usually bilateral ? adnexal tenderness on bimanual vaginal examination – a tender mass is sometimes present 6 ? cervical motion tenderness on bimanual vaginal examination ? fever (>38°C) in moderate to severe disease A diagnosis of PID should be considered, and usually empirical antibiotic treatment offered, in any sexually active woman who has recent onset, lower abdominal pain associated with local tenderness on bimanual vaginal examination (...) , in whom pregnancy has been excluded and no other cause for the pain has been identified. The risk of PID is highest in women aged under 25 5 not using barrier contraception and with a history of a new sexual partner. The diagnosis of PID based only on positive examination findings, in the absence of lower abdominal pain, should only be made with caution 13 . Complications ? women with immunosuppression secondary to HIV may have more severe symptoms associated with PID but respond well to standard

2018 British Association for Sexual Health and HIV

180. What is the evidence on existing policies and linked activities and their effectiveness for improving health literacy at national, regional and organizational levels in the WHO European Region?

or translate its publications, in part or in full. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention (...) for which both the strategy and the funding are devolved from the Member State to the individual country or semiautonomous region.ix Policies were examined to (i) describe the policy stages; and (ii) analyse the components (antecedents, actors, activities and beneficiaries) and activities using a new framework, the Health Literacy Policy Model. A wide range of activities was identified at international, national and local levels. Baseline health literacy data are not available in all Member States

2018 WHO Health Evidence Network

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