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141. Guidelines for the Economic Evaluation of Health Technologies in Ireland

compared. (13) 2.3 Study perspective For the reference case, the perspective of the publicly-funded health and social care system in Ireland should be adopted when assessing costs. All health benefits accruing to individuals should be included in the assessment of outcomes. The perspective of a study is the viewpoint from which the study is conducted (for example, public payer, individual, society). This defines whose costs, resources and consequences should be examined. To ensure comparability

2019 Health Information and Quality Authority

142. Integrated care for older people (?ICOPE)?: guidance for person-centred assessment and pathways in primary care

in the work rests solely with the user. General disclaimers. The designations employed and the presenta- tion of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of WHO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific

2019 World Health Organisation Guidelines

143. What is the evidence on availability and integration of refugee and migrant health data in health information systems in the WHO European Region?

on migration and health, X Kayvan Bozorgmehr | Louise Biddle | Sven Rohleder | Rosa JahnAbstract The recent rapid increases in population movements across borders highlight the importance of reliable data on refugee and migrant health for public health planning. This scoping report examined evidence on the availability and integration of refugee and migrant health data in health information systems in the WHO European Region. Refugee and migrant health data were available in 25 of the Region's 53 Member (...) in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of WHO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by WHO in preference to others

2019 WHO Health Evidence Network

144. What is the evidence on the methods, frameworks and indicators used to evaluate health literacy policies, programmes and interventions at the regional, national and organizational levels?

status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by WHO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary (...) AND ORGANIZATIONAL LEVELS? WHO HEALTH EVIDENCE NETWORK SYNTHESIS REPORT 4 of those consequences. A detailed examination of health literacy definitions and frameworks is not within the scope of this report; however, some key examples are given here to illustrate the above points. One important distinction within personal health literacy is between a clinical and public health perspective. Clinical (or medical) perspectives. Here, there is a focus on the literacy, language and numeracy skills required

2019 WHO Health Evidence Network

145. What are the roles of intercultural mediators in health care and what is the evidence on their contributions and effectiveness in improving accessibility and quality of care for refugees and migrants in the WHO European Region?

by the WHO Regional Office for Europe in response to Members States’ demand for more locally relevant health information. As part of this project, a specific initiative examines the cultural contexts of health and well-being. Awareness of cultural contexts has always been central to the work of WHO, and the importance of cultural contexts is increasingly being recognized, whether in investigating the attitudes that determine the success or failure of immunization programmes as part of the European (...) are employed to resolve linguistic and cultural barriers in a variety of health-care contexts. This report examines the main roles performed by intercultural mediators in health care across the WHO European Region and analyses evidence on their effectiveness in improving accessibility and quality of care for refugees and migrants, and the factors that enable them to have a positive impact. The beneficial impact of intercultural mediators is hindered by a lack of professionalization, insufficient training

2019 WHO Health Evidence Network

146. Ciclosporin (Verkazia) - Conjunctivitis, Keratitis

. The diagnosis of VKC involves a comprehensive clinical history and ophthalmic examination and is based on the clinical symptoms of the disease as well as the findings of Trantas’ dots and large cobblestone papillae that differentiate VKC from seasonal allergic conjunctivitis or perennial allergic conjunctivitis. Determination of total or specific IgE and skin test are no useful diagnostic tools being negative in 50% of patients. Assessment report EMA/505143/2017 Page 10/77 A simple clinical grading system (...) of the peripheral cornea, making the limbus to appear thickened and opaque. They often are topped by chalky white excrescences, known as Horner–Trantas dots or Tantras dots consisting of degenerated epithelial cells and eosinophils. Limbal disease can induce stem cell deficiency that leads to compromised corneal surface, characterised by corneal vascularisation, chronic stromal inflammation, persistent epithelial defects and ingrowth of conjunctival epithelium onto the corneal surface. Palpebral forms are more

2018 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

147. Caplacizumab (Cablivi) - thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (aTTP)

toxicity study. Caplacizumab PK/TK after repeated administration and the formation of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) was mainly investigated in toxicity studies conducted in guinea pig and Cynomolgus monkey. The distribution of caplacizumab radioactively labelled with 125 I was examined in mice. Methods The concentration of caplacizumab in guinea pig and Cynomolgus monkey plasm was determined by an ELISA-based method. In short, caplacizumab in the samples was captured in microtiter plates using a bivalent (...) in cross-reactive species and the detection of caplacizumab in the urine of treated Cynomolgus monkeys. 2.3.3. Toxicology The toxicity of caplacizumab was examined in compliance with ICH S6(R1). The toxicology of caplacizumab was evaluated in single and repeat-dose toxicity studies in both rodent (guinea pig) and non-rodent species (Cynomolgus monkey). All single and repeat dose toxicity studies were conducted in compliance with Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). Toxicokinetic investigations were

2018 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

148. Exercise Interventions for Long-Term Care in Newfoundland & Labrador

and methods to locally available resources, infrastructure, human resources, cultural conditions, and financial capacities. CHRSP uses a combination of external experts and local networks to carry out and contextualize the research synthesis and to facilitate the uptake of the results by research users. CHRSP focuses on three types of projects: health services/ health policy projects, health technology assessment (HTA) projects, and projects that combine the two to examine processes for the organization (...) of the foregoing key messages. This section of the report provides readers with a comprehensive overview of the scientific evidence that was examined for this study. ? Local contextual variables that may have an impact on how decision makers apply the evidence in Newfoundland & Labrador are detailed in this report under the section: The Newfoundland & Labrador Context. ? The synthesis findings are then considered in light of the contextualization findings to come up with the list of Implications for Decision

2018 Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Health Information

149. Gynaecological Cancers: a Handbook for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Workers and Health Practitioners

, endometrial and ovarian cancer, go to Chapters 4, 5 and 6. i 1112 GYNAECOLOGICAL CANCERS • A HANDBOOK FOR HEALTH WORKERS Investigating symptoms If a woman has symptoms of gynaecological cancer, her doctor will arrange some tests. If these do not rule out cancer, the woman will usually be referred to a gynaecological oncologist (a doctor who specialises in diagnosing and treating gynaecological cancer) to confirm the diagnosis. If it is gynaecological cancer, other tests and examinations may be done (...) to find out whether cancer has spread to other parts of the body. Table 2.1 lists the main tests used to investigate symptoms of gynaecological cancer. Table 2.1 Tests to investigate symptoms of gynaecological cancer Test What’s involved? Physical examination Feeling the abdomen (tummy) to check for swelling Internal vaginal examination including looking at the cervix with a speculum Internal scoping tests Using a device like a telescope to have a closer look at the area(s) that may be affected

2018 Cancer Australia

151. The effectiveness of contract farming for raising income of smallholder farmers in low- and middle-income countries

by the firm varies per location, and can include transport, certification, input provisioning and credit. This systematic review summarises evidence on income effects for smallholders to assess average effects and explore combinations of factors that increase these effects. What studies are included? Included studies had to examine the impact of contract farming on income and food security of smallholder farmers in low- and middle-income countries. Studies had to use a comparison group with appropriate (...) statistical methods to allow for selection effects. Seventy-five studies were identified with quantitative estimates of the impact of contract farming of which 22 studies, covering 7,471 respondents, were of sufficient rigour to include 6 The Campbell Collaboration | www.campbellcollaboration.org in the meta-analysis of income effects. The meta-analysis covers 26 empirical instances of contract farming in 13 developing countries. What is the aim of this review? This Campbell systematic review examines

2017 Campbell Collaboration

152. Interventions to improve the labour market outcomes of youth: a systematic review of training, entrepreneurship promotion, employment services and subsidized employment interventions

assesses the impact of youth employment interventions on the labour market outcomes of young people. The included interventions are training and skills development, entrepreneurship promotion, employment services and subsidized employment. Outcomes of interest include employment, earnings and business performance outcomes. What is the aim of this review? This Campbell systematic review examines the impact of youth employment interventions on the labour market outcomes of young people and business (...) evidence about the role of public, private or civil entities in the implementation of a youth employment programme. CONCLUSIONS The extent and urgency of the youth employment challenge and the level of global attention currently being given to this topic calls for more and better evidence-based action. Accordingly, this systematic review sought to examine the empirical evidence in order to 22 The Campbell Collaboration | www.campbellcollaboration.org understand what drives the success (or failure

2017 Campbell Collaboration

153. Payment methods for hospital stays with a large variability in the care process

has a pre-payment of 25% of last years’ total payment for specific highly specialised patients to the departments where the functions are undertaken. The total payment for each specific patient is settled later – e.g. at the end of the year. The treating hospital calculates the costs per treatment/patient using its own local cost data. Figure 1 – Exclusion mechanisms used in Denmark Dotted lines represent payments outside the DRG-based payment In England several ways exist to exclude elements from (...) , which are determined by criteria such as number of occurrence, costs or number of providers able to provide the service. Providers who are commissioned to provide special services receive top-up payments for treating these patients. KCE Report 302 Hospital payment methods for variable and complex care 19 Figure 2 – Exclusion mechanisms used in England Dotted lines represent payments outside the DRG-based payment; coloured boxes are payments in 2013 In Estonia, all three mechanisms are applied (see

2018 Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre

154. ?No Excuses? charter schools for increasing math and literacy achievement in primary and secondary education

, and increased parental involvement. This review examines the effect of No Excuses charter schools on math and literacy achievement. On average, No Excuses charter schools are associated with greater student gains on standardized measures of math and literacy achievement when compared to traditional public schools – with higher gains for math. What did the review study? Students from low socio-economic backgrounds or traditionally disadvantaged groups often underperform their peers on standardized tests (...) , intensive teacher training, and parental involvement. This review examines whether No Excuses charter schools are associated with greater achievement gains in math and literacy compared to the achievement gains of similar students enrolled in traditional public schools. What studies are included? This review includes studies that evaluate the effects of No Excuses charter schools on students’ literacy and math achievement gains. It includes 18 studies conducted in the United States spanning from 1990

2017 Campbell Collaboration

155. WHO recommendation on duration of bladder catheterization after surgical repair of simple obstetric urinary fistula

component in the work rests solely with the user. General disclaimers. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of WHO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention (...) of bias was first examined at the level of individual study and then across studies contributing to the outcome. For the review of RCTs, quality was first rated as “high” and then downgraded by one level (to “moderate”) or by two or three levels (to “low” or “very low”), depending on the minimum quality criteria met by the majority of the studies contributing to the outcome. Inconsistency of the results: The similarity in the results for a given outcome was assessed by exploring the magnitude

2018 World Health Organisation Guidelines

156. Effects of Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intake on Chronic Disease Outcomes and Risks

also set an AI level for potassium at 4,700 milligrams (120 mmol) per day, based on levels that blunt the sodium-related increase in blood pressure as well as the reduction in risk of kidney stones. 6 The DRI report noted the need for dose-response studies on potassium related to cardiovascular disease and blood pressure. The IOM Sodium Intake in Populations report listed “analyses examining the effects of dietary sodium in combination with other electrolytes, particularly potassium” on health (...) as the 2005 DRI report were screened to identify all relevant studies from inception. Criteria for Inclusion/Exclusion of Studies in the Review We included randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials and observational studies published in English that examined interventions to restrict sodium intake or increase potassium intake, used a comparator group, and reported outcomes of interest in participants at least 4 weeks or more after the initiation of the intervention (longer minimum followup times were

2018 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

157. Communicating Risk in Public Health Emergencies. A WHO Guideline for Emergency Risk Communication (ERC) policy and practice

. The risk of claims resulting from infringement of any third-party-owned component in the work rests solely with the user. General disclaimers. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of WHO concerning the legal status of any coun- try, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed lines on maps represent (...) the evidence synthesis Communicating risk in public health emergencies: a WHO guideline for risk communication (ERC) policy and practice7 How these guidelines were developed (methodology) While the systematic reviews were underway, the West African Ebola virus disease outbreak, the emer- gence of Zika virus syndrome and other major public health emergencies generated considerable grey literature on risk communication. T o capture this, a rapid grey literature evidence search was under- taken that examined

2018 World Health Organisation Guidelines

158. WHO recommendations: intrapartum care for a positive childbirth experience

in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of WHO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by WHO in preference to others (...) context and which key issues needed to be examined, respectively. Users of the guideline should refer to these remarks, which are presented directly beneath each recommendation in the full version of the guideline. The recommendations on intrapartum care for a positive childbirth experience are summarized in the table below. At the technical consultations, the implementation considerations for individual recommendations and for the guideline as a whole were discussed. The GDG agreed that, to achieve

2018 World Health Organisation Guidelines

159. BSG and UKPBC primary biliary cholangitis treatment and management guidelines

of immunofluorescence (IF) patterns (AMA, anti-nu- clear dot, anti-nuclear rim, anti-centromere, etc), the identifi- cation of the relevant autoantigens (2-oxo-acid dehydrogenase enzymes in the M2 mitochondrial fraction (in particular the E2 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)) and the Sp100 and gp210 nuclear membrane proteins, respectively) has allowed the development of ELISA-based diagnostic kits and/or specific immunoblotting. The nature of the approach used for serodiag- nosis in PBC (IF vs ELISA

2018 British Society of Gastroenterology

160. The Society for Vascular Surgery practice guidelines on the care of patients with an abdominal aortic aneurysm

in individual studies and meta-analysis (see primary source for individual study citations). MASS, Multicenter Aneurysm Screening Study; PIVOTAL, Positive Impact of Endovascular Options for Treating Aneurysm Early; UKSAT, UK Small Aneurysm Trial. ---- | ---- Fig 3 Meta-regression of abdominal aortic aneurysm ( AAA ) growth rate estimates by aneurysm diameter (see primary source for individual study citations). The solid line represents the overall regression, the dotted line connects estimates from the same (...) . Table of Contents SUMMARY OF GUIDELINES FOR THE CARE OF PATIENTS WITH AN ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSM 4 DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEM 12 Purpose of these guidelines 12 Methodology and evidence 12 Literature search and evidence summary 12 GENERAL APPROACH TO THE PATIENT 12 History and risk factors for abdominal aortic aneurysms 12 Physical examination 17 Assessment of medical comorbidities 17 Preoperative evaluation of cardiac risk 17 Preoperative coronary revascularization 18 Perioperative medical

2018 Society for Vascular Surgery

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