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122. Clearing the Smoke on Cannabis: Regular Use and Cognitive Functioning

al, 1999; Scott et al., 2017; Solowij et al., 2011). Among studies examining the relationship between chronic cannabis use and attention, impairments were more commonly reported among adolescents (Dougherty et al., 2013; Harvey, Sellman, Porter, & Frampton, 2007; Hanson et al., 2010; Medina et al., 2007; Scott et al., 2017; Solowij et al., 2011) relative to adults (Ehrenreich et al, 1999; Lisdahl & Price, 2012; Messinis, Kyprianidou, Malefaki, & Papathanasopoulos, 2006). However, more research (...) by the frequency of “perseverative errors” — the number of trials in which the individual continues to sort cards according to a previously, but no longer, correct sorting rule. 3 The TMT is a two-part task that involves connecting a set of 25 dots as quickly as possible while still maintaining accuracy. In the first part, the participant must connect numbers in sequential order (1 to 25). Part two involves alternating between numbers and letters (1, A, 2, B, etc.). Part one of the TMT has been used to assess

2019 Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse

123. Guidelines for malaria vector control

permission from the copyright holder. The risk of claims resulting from infringement of any third-party-owned component in the work rests solely with the user. General disclaimers. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of WHO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed (...) central task was to develop the evidence-based recommendations contained in the Guidelines. The specific tasks of the Guidelines Development Group included: • providing inputs as to the scope of the Guidelines; • assisting the Guidelines Steering Group in developing the key questions in PICO format; • choosing and ranking priority outcomes to guide the evidence reviews and focus the recommendations; • examining the GRADE evidence profiles or other assessments of the certainty of evidence used

2019 World Health Organisation Guidelines

124. Paediatric Urology

. Enhanced urinalysis improves identification of febrile infants ages 60 days and younger at low risk for serious bacterial illness. Pediatrics, 2001. 108: 866. 346. Mayo, S., et al. Clinical laboratory automated urinalysis: comparison among automated microscopy, flow cytometry, two test strips analyzers, and manual microscopic examination of the urine sediments. J Clin Lab Anal, 2008. 22: 262. 347. Kass, E.H. Asymptomatic infections of the urinary tract. Trans Assoc Am Physicians, 1956. 69: 56. 348

2019 European Association of Urology

125. WHO Guideline: recommendations on digital interventions for health system strengthening

and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of WHO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed (...) of digital technologies for health […] and to prioritize, as appropriate, the development, evaluation, implementation, scale-up and greater use of digital technologies,... Furthermore, it tasked WHO with providing normative guidance in digital health, including through the promotion of evidence- based digital health interventions. Amid the heightened interest, digital health has also been characterized by implementations rolled out in the absence of a careful examination of the evidence base on benefits

2019 World Health Organisation Guidelines

126. Male Sexual Dysfunction

. 46. Farag, Y.M., et al. Vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with greater prevalence of erectile dysfunction: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2004. Atherosclerosis, 2016. 252: 61. 47. Caretta, N., et al. Hypovitaminosis D is associated with erectile dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Endocrine, 2016. 53: 831. 48. Glina, S., et al. Modifying risk factors to prevent and treat erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med, 2013. 10: 115. 49. Vlachopoulos, C., et al (...) Deficiency: Recommendations From the Fourth International Consultation for Sexual Medicine (ICSM 2015). J Sex Med, 2016. 13: 1787. 92. Davis-Joseph, B., et al. Accuracy of the initial history and physical examination to establish the etiology of erectile dysfunction. Urology, 1995. 45: 498. 93. Ghanem, H.M., et al. SOP: physical examination and laboratory testing for men with erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med, 2013. 10: 108. 94. Bhasin, S., et al. Testosterone therapy in men with androgen deficiency

2019 European Association of Urology

127. Management of Non-neurogenic Male LUTS

have bladder outlet obstruction?: The Rational Clinical Examination: a systematic review. JAMA, 2014. 312: 535. 33. Bryan, N.P., et al. Frequency volume charts in the assessment and evaluation of treatment: how should we use them? Eur Urol, 2004. 46: 636. 34. Gisolf, K.W., et al. Analysis and reliability of data from 24-hour frequency-volume charts in men with lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Eur Urol, 2000. 38: 45. 35. Cornu, J.N., et al. A contemporary assessment (...) and validation of diary content, format, and duration. Neurourol Urodyn, 2011. 30: 348. 40. Yap, T.L., et al. A systematic review of the reliability of frequency-volume charts in urological research and its implications for the optimum chart duration. BJU Int, 2007. 99: 9. 41. Weissfeld, J.L., et al. Quality control of cancer screening examination procedures in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. Control Clin Trials, 2000. 21: 390s. 42. Roehrborn, C.G. Accurate

2019 European Association of Urology

128. Custom-made or customisable 3D printed implants and cutting guides versus non-3D printed standard implants and cutting guides for improving outcome in patients undergoing knee, maxillofacial, or cranial surgery

(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) P(NIPAAm-co-EMA) Poly (N-isopropyl acrylamide-co-ethyl methacrylate) PAAm Polyacrylamide PBO Polybutylene oxide PC Polycarbonate PCL Polycaprolactone PEEK Polyether ether ketone PEG Polyethylene glycol PEG±CDs Polyethylene glycol-modified carbonaceous dots PEG-g-P(AAm-co- vamine) Polyethylene glycol-grafted-polyacrylamide-co-vamine PES Polyester PHB Polyhydroxybutyrate PICO Patient-Intervention-Comparison-Outcome PLA Polylactic acid PLGA Poly(lactic acid-co (...) compared with standard implants and cutting guides were examined in a few of the included studies. There was no overall diffe- rence in complications between the technologies in TKA, mandibular reconstruction, and cranio- plasty. There was a difference in ischaemic time in mandibular reconstruction, with a decrease in ischaemic time in the group using individual 3D printed surgical guides compared to the standard reconstruction group. The data in these studies described only short-term outcomes

2019 EUnetHTA

129. WHO Guidelines for the pharmacological and radiotherapeutic management of cancer pain in adults and adolescents

on the part of WHO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by WHO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions (...) be unnecessary when pain management guidelines are followed. 5.2. GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF THE PERSON SHOULD GUIDE TREATMENT, RECOGNIZING THAT INDIVIDUALS EXPERIENCE AND EXPRESS PAIN DIFFERENTLY The first step in cancer pain management should always be assessment of the patient. The assessment should be as comprehensive as possible consistent with the patient’s comfort and should include a detailed history, physical examination, assessment of psychological circumstances, an assessment of pain severity using

2019 World Health Organisation Guidelines

130. Clearing the Smoke on Cannabis: Regular Use and Cognitive Functioning

al, 1999; Scott et al., 2017; Solowij et al., 2011). Among studies examining the relationship between chronic cannabis use and attention, impairments were more commonly reported among adolescents (Dougherty et al., 2013; Harvey, Sellman, Porter, & Frampton, 2007; Hanson et al., 2010; Medina et al., 2007; Scott et al., 2017; Solowij et al., 2011) relative to adults (Ehrenreich et al, 1999; Lisdahl & Price, 2012; Messinis, Kyprianidou, Malefaki, & Papathanasopoulos, 2006). However, more research (...) by the frequency of “perseverative errors” — the number of trials in which the individual continues to sort cards according to a previously, but no longer, correct sorting rule. 3 The TMT is a two-part task that involves connecting a set of 25 dots as quickly as possible while still maintaining accuracy. In the first part, the participant must connect numbers in sequential order (1 to 25). Part two involves alternating between numbers and letters (1, A, 2, B, etc.). Part one of the TMT has been used to assess

2019 Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse

131. Management of Acute Obstructive Uterovaginal Anomalies

a speculum examination, using a smaller, shortened, Huffman speculum or a nasal speculum may allow visualization of a vaginal septal microperfo- ration, which may appear as a small dot or opening with either dark blood or purulent discharge notice- able (Fig. 7). For adolescents, a digital rectal examina- tion is often less painful than a vaginal examination and may be particularly helpful to confirm the pres- ence of the cervix or assess the distance from the hem- atocolpos to the perineum with vaginal (...) with amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, recurrent vaginal discharge, or infertility. The evaluation of a patient with a suspected obstructive reproductive anomaly should include a detailed medical history, physical examination, and imaging. The genital examination is critical to differentiate a patient with an imperforate hymen from a patient with labial adhesions, urogenital sinus, transverse vaginal septum, or distal vaginal atresia. Pelvic ultrasonography is the initial imaging method recommended

2019 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

132. WHO consolidated guideline on self-care interventions for health: sexual and reproductive health and rights

with the user. General disclaimers. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of WHO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain (...) IN THE CONTEXT OF INTERVENTIONS LINKED TO HEALTH SYSTEMS Source: adapted from Narasimhan M, Allotey P , Hardon A. Self-care interventions to advance health and well-being: a conceptual framework to inform normative guidance. BMJ. 2019;365:l688. doi:10.1136/bmj.l688. SELF-MANAGEMENT Self-medication, self-treatment, self-examination, self-injection, self-administration, self-use. SELF-TESTING Self-sampling, self-screening, self-diagnosis, self- collection, self-monitoring. SELF-AWARENESS Self-help, self

2019 World Health Organisation Guidelines

133. Exercise Interventions for Long-Term Care in Newfoundland & Labrador

and methods to locally available resources, infrastructure, human resources, cultural conditions, and financial capacities. CHRSP uses a combination of external experts and local networks to carry out and contextualize the research synthesis and to facilitate the uptake of the results by research users. CHRSP focuses on three types of projects: health services/ health policy projects, health technology assessment (HTA) projects, and projects that combine the two to examine processes for the organization (...) of the foregoing key messages. This section of the report provides readers with a comprehensive overview of the scientific evidence that was examined for this study. ? Local contextual variables that may have an impact on how decision makers apply the evidence in Newfoundland & Labrador are detailed in this report under the section: The Newfoundland & Labrador Context. ? The synthesis findings are then considered in light of the contextualization findings to come up with the list of Implications for Decision

2018 Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Health Information

134. Gynaecological Cancers: a Handbook for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Workers and Health Practitioners

, endometrial and ovarian cancer, go to Chapters 4, 5 and 6. i 1112 GYNAECOLOGICAL CANCERS • A HANDBOOK FOR HEALTH WORKERS Investigating symptoms If a woman has symptoms of gynaecological cancer, her doctor will arrange some tests. If these do not rule out cancer, the woman will usually be referred to a gynaecological oncologist (a doctor who specialises in diagnosing and treating gynaecological cancer) to confirm the diagnosis. If it is gynaecological cancer, other tests and examinations may be done (...) to find out whether cancer has spread to other parts of the body. Table 2.1 lists the main tests used to investigate symptoms of gynaecological cancer. Table 2.1 Tests to investigate symptoms of gynaecological cancer Test What’s involved? Physical examination Feeling the abdomen (tummy) to check for swelling Internal vaginal examination including looking at the cervix with a speculum Internal scoping tests Using a device like a telescope to have a closer look at the area(s) that may be affected

2018 Cancer Australia

136. The effectiveness of contract farming for raising income of smallholder farmers in low- and middle-income countries

by the firm varies per location, and can include transport, certification, input provisioning and credit. This systematic review summarises evidence on income effects for smallholders to assess average effects and explore combinations of factors that increase these effects. What studies are included? Included studies had to examine the impact of contract farming on income and food security of smallholder farmers in low- and middle-income countries. Studies had to use a comparison group with appropriate (...) statistical methods to allow for selection effects. Seventy-five studies were identified with quantitative estimates of the impact of contract farming of which 22 studies, covering 7,471 respondents, were of sufficient rigour to include 6 The Campbell Collaboration | www.campbellcollaboration.org in the meta-analysis of income effects. The meta-analysis covers 26 empirical instances of contract farming in 13 developing countries. What is the aim of this review? This Campbell systematic review examines

2017 Campbell Collaboration

137. Interventions to improve the labour market outcomes of youth: a systematic review of training, entrepreneurship promotion, employment services and subsidized employment interventions

assesses the impact of youth employment interventions on the labour market outcomes of young people. The included interventions are training and skills development, entrepreneurship promotion, employment services and subsidized employment. Outcomes of interest include employment, earnings and business performance outcomes. What is the aim of this review? This Campbell systematic review examines the impact of youth employment interventions on the labour market outcomes of young people and business (...) evidence about the role of public, private or civil entities in the implementation of a youth employment programme. CONCLUSIONS The extent and urgency of the youth employment challenge and the level of global attention currently being given to this topic calls for more and better evidence-based action. Accordingly, this systematic review sought to examine the empirical evidence in order to 22 The Campbell Collaboration | www.campbellcollaboration.org understand what drives the success (or failure

2017 Campbell Collaboration

138. Payment methods for hospital stays with a large variability in the care process

has a pre-payment of 25% of last years’ total payment for specific highly specialised patients to the departments where the functions are undertaken. The total payment for each specific patient is settled later – e.g. at the end of the year. The treating hospital calculates the costs per treatment/patient using its own local cost data. Figure 1 – Exclusion mechanisms used in Denmark Dotted lines represent payments outside the DRG-based payment In England several ways exist to exclude elements from (...) , which are determined by criteria such as number of occurrence, costs or number of providers able to provide the service. Providers who are commissioned to provide special services receive top-up payments for treating these patients. KCE Report 302 Hospital payment methods for variable and complex care 19 Figure 2 – Exclusion mechanisms used in England Dotted lines represent payments outside the DRG-based payment; coloured boxes are payments in 2013 In Estonia, all three mechanisms are applied (see

2018 Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre

139. ?No Excuses? charter schools for increasing math and literacy achievement in primary and secondary education

, and increased parental involvement. This review examines the effect of No Excuses charter schools on math and literacy achievement. On average, No Excuses charter schools are associated with greater student gains on standardized measures of math and literacy achievement when compared to traditional public schools – with higher gains for math. What did the review study? Students from low socio-economic backgrounds or traditionally disadvantaged groups often underperform their peers on standardized tests (...) , intensive teacher training, and parental involvement. This review examines whether No Excuses charter schools are associated with greater achievement gains in math and literacy compared to the achievement gains of similar students enrolled in traditional public schools. What studies are included? This review includes studies that evaluate the effects of No Excuses charter schools on students’ literacy and math achievement gains. It includes 18 studies conducted in the United States spanning from 1990

2017 Campbell Collaboration

140. WHO recommendation on duration of bladder catheterization after surgical repair of simple obstetric urinary fistula

component in the work rests solely with the user. General disclaimers. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of WHO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention (...) of bias was first examined at the level of individual study and then across studies contributing to the outcome. For the review of RCTs, quality was first rated as “high” and then downgraded by one level (to “moderate”) or by two or three levels (to “low” or “very low”), depending on the minimum quality criteria met by the majority of the studies contributing to the outcome. Inconsistency of the results: The similarity in the results for a given outcome was assessed by exploring the magnitude

2018 World Health Organisation Guidelines

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