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121. Handbook on tuberculosis laboratory diagnostic methods in the European Union

measures 40 4.4 Sample collection 40 4.4.1 Specimen handling 40 4.4.2 Criteria of acceptability 40 4.5 Smear preparation 41 4.6 Staining procedures 41 4.6.1 Ziehl-Neelsen staining method 41 4.6.2 Fluorochrome staining method 42 4.6.3 Automatic staining 42 4.7 Microscopy 42 4.7.1 Maintenance 43 4.7.2 Fluorescence microscopy 43 4.7.3 Light-emitting diode (LED) microscopy 43 4.8 Recording and reporting 43 4.8.1 ZN smear examination 44 4.8.2 Auramine (fluorochrome) smear examination 44 4.9 Quality control (...) Digestion and decontamination of sputum samples 51 5.4.2 Digestion and decontamination of specimens other than sputum 53 5.5 Culture media: principles 54 5.6 Solid media 54 5.6.1 Egg-based media 54 5.6.2 Agar-based media 54 5.6.3 Liquid media 55 5.6.4 Quality control of media 55 5.7 Culture tube inoculation 55 5.7.1 Solid media 55 5.7.2 Liquid media 56 5.8 Culture incubation 56 5.9 Culture examination 56 References 58 6. Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and drug resistance in cultures

2018 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Technical Guidance

122. Creating Rapid-learning Health Systems in Canada

responds to the questions they posed, builds on a previous rapid synthesis that examined only one province (Ontario),(2) and was conducted with the input of the CHSPRA working group. WHAT WE FOUND Definition of a rapid-learning health system In our updated searches we found no new definitions of a rapid-learning health system that went substantively beyond the definition of a ‘learning healthcare system’ originally developed by the Institute of Medicine: a system in which “science, informatics

2018 McMaster Health Forum

123. Postpartum women living with HIV: Challenges related to retention in care, treatment adherence, and mental health

or present) were more likely to have poor adherence. Another study from the U.S. examined postpartum medication adherence during pregnancy and postpartum (62). Between 2001 and 2005, adherence questionnaires were administered to 399 pregnant and postpartum women living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy. At six months postpartum, women who reported complete adherence were on average two years older than those who reported non-adherence, and were more likely to be Black as compared to white or Hispanic (...) in the previous section on retention in care also address adherence (2, 52, 55). This is expected, as regular clinic visits are associated with antiretroviral adherence and viral suppression (38). Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) is a method of drug administration where a health care professional ensures that an individual receives and takes all medication as prescribed (64). A 2010 meta-analysis reported that DOT of antiretroviral therapy had a significant impact on virologic, immunologic, and adherence

2018 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

124. Custom-made or customisable 3D printed implants and cutting guides versus non-3D printed standard implants and cutting guides for improving outcome in patients undergoing knee, maxillofacial, or cranial surgery

(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) P(NIPAAm-co-EMA) Poly (N-isopropyl acrylamide-co-ethyl methacrylate) PAAm Polyacrylamide PBO Polybutylene oxide PC Polycarbonate PCL Polycaprolactone PEEK Polyether ether ketone PEG Polyethylene glycol PEG±CDs Polyethylene glycol-modified carbonaceous dots PEG-g-P(AAm-co- vamine) Polyethylene glycol-grafted-polyacrylamide-co-vamine PES Polyester PHB Polyhydroxybutyrate PICO Patient-Intervention-Comparison-Outcome PLA Polylactic acid PLGA Poly(lactic acid-co (...) compared with standard implants and cutting guides were examined in a few of the included studies. There was no overall diffe- rence in complications between the technologies in TKA, mandibular reconstruction, and cranio- plasty. There was a difference in ischaemic time in mandibular reconstruction, with a decrease in ischaemic time in the group using individual 3D printed surgical guides compared to the standard reconstruction group. The data in these studies described only short-term outcomes

2019 EUnetHTA

125. WHO Guidelines for the pharmacological and radiotherapeutic management of cancer pain in adults and adolescents

on the part of WHO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by WHO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions (...) be unnecessary when pain management guidelines are followed. 5.2. GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF THE PERSON SHOULD GUIDE TREATMENT, RECOGNIZING THAT INDIVIDUALS EXPERIENCE AND EXPRESS PAIN DIFFERENTLY The first step in cancer pain management should always be assessment of the patient. The assessment should be as comprehensive as possible consistent with the patient’s comfort and should include a detailed history, physical examination, assessment of psychological circumstances, an assessment of pain severity using

2019 World Health Organisation Guidelines

126. Clearing the Smoke on Cannabis: Regular Use and Cognitive Functioning

al, 1999; Scott et al., 2017; Solowij et al., 2011). Among studies examining the relationship between chronic cannabis use and attention, impairments were more commonly reported among adolescents (Dougherty et al., 2013; Harvey, Sellman, Porter, & Frampton, 2007; Hanson et al., 2010; Medina et al., 2007; Scott et al., 2017; Solowij et al., 2011) relative to adults (Ehrenreich et al, 1999; Lisdahl & Price, 2012; Messinis, Kyprianidou, Malefaki, & Papathanasopoulos, 2006). However, more research (...) by the frequency of “perseverative errors” — the number of trials in which the individual continues to sort cards according to a previously, but no longer, correct sorting rule. 3 The TMT is a two-part task that involves connecting a set of 25 dots as quickly as possible while still maintaining accuracy. In the first part, the participant must connect numbers in sequential order (1 to 25). Part two involves alternating between numbers and letters (1, A, 2, B, etc.). Part one of the TMT has been used to assess

2019 Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse

127. Management of Acute Obstructive Uterovaginal Anomalies

a speculum examination, using a smaller, shortened, Huffman speculum or a nasal speculum may allow visualization of a vaginal septal microperfo- ration, which may appear as a small dot or opening with either dark blood or purulent discharge notice- able (Fig. 7). For adolescents, a digital rectal examina- tion is often less painful than a vaginal examination and may be particularly helpful to confirm the pres- ence of the cervix or assess the distance from the hem- atocolpos to the perineum with vaginal (...) with amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, recurrent vaginal discharge, or infertility. The evaluation of a patient with a suspected obstructive reproductive anomaly should include a detailed medical history, physical examination, and imaging. The genital examination is critical to differentiate a patient with an imperforate hymen from a patient with labial adhesions, urogenital sinus, transverse vaginal septum, or distal vaginal atresia. Pelvic ultrasonography is the initial imaging method recommended

2019 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

128. WHO consolidated guideline on self-care interventions for health: sexual and reproductive health and rights

with the user. General disclaimers. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of WHO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain (...) IN THE CONTEXT OF INTERVENTIONS LINKED TO HEALTH SYSTEMS Source: adapted from Narasimhan M, Allotey P , Hardon A. Self-care interventions to advance health and well-being: a conceptual framework to inform normative guidance. BMJ. 2019;365:l688. doi:10.1136/bmj.l688. SELF-MANAGEMENT Self-medication, self-treatment, self-examination, self-injection, self-administration, self-use. SELF-TESTING Self-sampling, self-screening, self-diagnosis, self- collection, self-monitoring. SELF-AWARENESS Self-help, self

2019 World Health Organisation Guidelines

129. Paediatric Urology

. Enhanced urinalysis improves identification of febrile infants ages 60 days and younger at low risk for serious bacterial illness. Pediatrics, 2001. 108: 866. 346. Mayo, S., et al. Clinical laboratory automated urinalysis: comparison among automated microscopy, flow cytometry, two test strips analyzers, and manual microscopic examination of the urine sediments. J Clin Lab Anal, 2008. 22: 262. 347. Kass, E.H. Asymptomatic infections of the urinary tract. Trans Assoc Am Physicians, 1956. 69: 56. 348

2019 European Association of Urology

130. WHO Guideline: recommendations on digital interventions for health system strengthening

and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of WHO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed (...) of digital technologies for health […] and to prioritize, as appropriate, the development, evaluation, implementation, scale-up and greater use of digital technologies,... Furthermore, it tasked WHO with providing normative guidance in digital health, including through the promotion of evidence- based digital health interventions. Amid the heightened interest, digital health has also been characterized by implementations rolled out in the absence of a careful examination of the evidence base on benefits

2019 World Health Organisation Guidelines

131. Male Sexual Dysfunction

. 46. Farag, Y.M., et al. Vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with greater prevalence of erectile dysfunction: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2004. Atherosclerosis, 2016. 252: 61. 47. Caretta, N., et al. Hypovitaminosis D is associated with erectile dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Endocrine, 2016. 53: 831. 48. Glina, S., et al. Modifying risk factors to prevent and treat erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med, 2013. 10: 115. 49. Vlachopoulos, C., et al (...) Deficiency: Recommendations From the Fourth International Consultation for Sexual Medicine (ICSM 2015). J Sex Med, 2016. 13: 1787. 92. Davis-Joseph, B., et al. Accuracy of the initial history and physical examination to establish the etiology of erectile dysfunction. Urology, 1995. 45: 498. 93. Ghanem, H.M., et al. SOP: physical examination and laboratory testing for men with erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med, 2013. 10: 108. 94. Bhasin, S., et al. Testosterone therapy in men with androgen deficiency

2019 European Association of Urology

132. Management of Non-neurogenic Male LUTS

have bladder outlet obstruction?: The Rational Clinical Examination: a systematic review. JAMA, 2014. 312: 535. 33. Bryan, N.P., et al. Frequency volume charts in the assessment and evaluation of treatment: how should we use them? Eur Urol, 2004. 46: 636. 34. Gisolf, K.W., et al. Analysis and reliability of data from 24-hour frequency-volume charts in men with lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Eur Urol, 2000. 38: 45. 35. Cornu, J.N., et al. A contemporary assessment (...) and validation of diary content, format, and duration. Neurourol Urodyn, 2011. 30: 348. 40. Yap, T.L., et al. A systematic review of the reliability of frequency-volume charts in urological research and its implications for the optimum chart duration. BJU Int, 2007. 99: 9. 41. Weissfeld, J.L., et al. Quality control of cancer screening examination procedures in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. Control Clin Trials, 2000. 21: 390s. 42. Roehrborn, C.G. Accurate

2019 European Association of Urology

133. Cardiorenal Syndrome: Classification, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment Strategies

(HR, 0.48 [95% CI, 0.37–0.61]). Sixteen percent of patients with type 2 CRS and 20% of patients with type 4 CRS developed acute CRS, whereas 14% of patients with acute CRS progressed to CKD or chronic HF. Decreasing LVEF, increasing PA pressure, and higher RV diameter were independently associated with higher incidence of CRS. Renal ultrasonography and intrarenal venous flow patterns are emerging tools in identifying renal venous congestion and its clinical significance in CRS. Iida et al examined

2019 American Heart Association

134. British Association for Sexual Health and HIV national guideline for the management of vulvovaginal candidiasis

) Clinical examination and syndromic management • Clinical examination of the external genitalia is recommended in women presenting with symptoms suggestive of acute VVC in order to exclude alternative or co-existing vulvovaginal pathologies • Women presenting with features suggesting recurrent VVC should always have a clinical examination 62 (Grade 1C) • Where clinical examination is not possible or required self-collected vaginal swab for microscopy and or culture is a reasonable alternative (...) to clinician taken samples 63 (Grade 1C) • Empirical treatment for acute VVC based on the reported symptoms may be given in non-specialist settings 64 ; if the symptoms do not resolve, or if they recur, examination and microbiological testing (as below) should be performed. 62 Microscopy • A high vaginal swab (HVS) of the discharge should be taken for Gram stain and/or phase contrast wet film microscopy • Presence of blastospores, pseudohyphae and neutrophils is indicative of infection caused by Candida

2019 British Association for Sexual Health and HIV

137. Clearing the Smoke on Cannabis: Regular Use and Cognitive Functioning

al, 1999; Scott et al., 2017; Solowij et al., 2011). Among studies examining the relationship between chronic cannabis use and attention, impairments were more commonly reported among adolescents (Dougherty et al., 2013; Harvey, Sellman, Porter, & Frampton, 2007; Hanson et al., 2010; Medina et al., 2007; Scott et al., 2017; Solowij et al., 2011) relative to adults (Ehrenreich et al, 1999; Lisdahl & Price, 2012; Messinis, Kyprianidou, Malefaki, & Papathanasopoulos, 2006). However, more research (...) by the frequency of “perseverative errors” — the number of trials in which the individual continues to sort cards according to a previously, but no longer, correct sorting rule. 3 The TMT is a two-part task that involves connecting a set of 25 dots as quickly as possible while still maintaining accuracy. In the first part, the participant must connect numbers in sequential order (1 to 25). Part two involves alternating between numbers and letters (1, A, 2, B, etc.). Part one of the TMT has been used to assess

2019 Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse

138. Guidelines for malaria vector control

permission from the copyright holder. The risk of claims resulting from infringement of any third-party-owned component in the work rests solely with the user. General disclaimers. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of WHO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed (...) central task was to develop the evidence-based recommendations contained in the Guidelines. The specific tasks of the Guidelines Development Group included: • providing inputs as to the scope of the Guidelines; • assisting the Guidelines Steering Group in developing the key questions in PICO format; • choosing and ranking priority outcomes to guide the evidence reviews and focus the recommendations; • examining the GRADE evidence profiles or other assessments of the certainty of evidence used

2019 World Health Organisation Guidelines

139. Diagnosis and management of patients at risk of gastric adenocarcinoma

with clear photographic documentation of gastric regions and pathology. We suggest a minimum examination time of 7 min (evidence level: moderate quality; grade of recommendation: strong; level of agreement: 100%). GAand GIM may be detectable by white light endoscopy (WLE); however, the accuracy is poor. Therefore, we do not recommend establishing a diagnosis or risk stratification using WLE alone (evidence level: moderate quality; grade of recommendation: strong; level of agreement: 93%). We recommend (...) morphology and those causing symptoms (obstruction, bleeding) should be resected. If present, H. pylori should be eradicated before re-evaluation for endoscopic therapy (evidence level: low quality; grade of recommendation: weak; level of agreement: 100%). We suggest that enhanced endoscopic imaging is used to aid characterisation of gastric polyps when there is diagnostic uncertainty following white light examination (evidence level: low quality; grade of recommendation: weak; level of agreement: 93

2019 British Society of Gastroenterology

140. Fuchs Corneal dystrophy

information on phenotypic description, histopathological examination and genetic analysis: In everyday clinical practice, the most commonly encountered corneal dystrophies are Epithelial Basement Membrane Dystrophy (Map-Dot-Fingerprint Dystrophy, Cogan’s Dystrophy), which affects the epithelium and predisposes to Recurrent Corneal Epithelial Erosion (see the Clinical Management Guideline of that name) and Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy, the subject of this Clinical Management Guideline. Lay summary

2019 College of Optometrists

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