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101. Fundus autofluorescence imaging of the white dot syndromes. (PubMed)

Fundus autofluorescence imaging of the white dot syndromes. To characterize the fundus autofluorescence (FAF) findings in patients with white dot syndromes (WDSs).Patients with WDSs underwent ophthalmic examination, fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and FAF imaging. Patients were categorized as having no, minimal, or predominant foveal hypoautofluorescence. The severity of visual impairment was then correlated with the degree of foveal hypoautofluorescence.Fifty-five eyes of 28

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2010 Archives of Ophthalmology

102. SUBRETINAL DOT-LIKE PRECIPITATES AND YELLOW MATERIAL IN CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY. (PubMed)

SUBRETINAL DOT-LIKE PRECIPITATES AND YELLOW MATERIAL IN CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY. Multiple, dot-like, yellow precipitates and subretinal yellow material are sometimes deposited within the area of a serous retinal detachment in central serous chorioretinopathy. We report the incidence and clinical features of these depositions in central serous chorioretinopathy.Eighty eyes of 75 patients (average age, 50.2 years) with central serous chorioretinopathy were studied retrospectively. Fundus (...) autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography findings were evaluated. Precipitates were defined as those ≤ 63 μm in diameter and subretinal yellow material >63 μm.The mean follow-up period was 17.6 months. Forty-five eyes (56.3%) had dot-like precipitates, and 40 eyes (50.0%) had subretinal yellow material. Fifty-two of 80 eyes (65.0%) had both or at least one of them; of these 52 eyes, 50 eyes (96.2%) had hyperautofluorescence and 42 eyes (80.8%) had high reflectivity on optical coherence tomography

2010 Retina

103. Public health guidance on prevention and control of blood-borne viruses in prison settings

Direct-acting antivirals DOT Directly observed therapy EEA European Economic Area EFTA European Free Trade Association EMCDDA European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction EU European Union HAV Hepatitis A virus HBV Hepatitis B virus HCV Hepatitis C virus HIV Human immunodeficiency virus IFN Interferon MSM Men who have sex with men NR Not reported NSP Needle and syringe programme OST Opioid substitution treatment PEP Post-exposure prophylaxis PLHIV People living with HIV PrEP Pre-exposure (...) . passive case finding) Comparative study A study designed to compare two or more groups (e.g. types of testing offers or testing timings), and a statistical measure is provided for that comparison Descriptive study A study concerned with and designed only to describe the existing distribution of variables, without regard to causal or other hypotheses Directly observed therapy (DOT) An approach which seeks to improve treatment adherence by active monitoring and recording of the consumption of each

2019 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Public Health Guidance

104. Programmatic management of latent tuberculosis infection in the European Union

as the tuberculosis case. Household contacts are considered, by definition, to share breathing space on a daily basis with the source case [7]. Close contacts This group includes: • those persons with short exposure times to direct face-to-face streams of air with a particularly high density of infectious droplet nuclei, such as may occur during bronchoscopy or otorhinolaryngeal examination of patients with sputum smear-positive tuberculosis; • those with an arbitrarily defined cumulative exposure time of eight (...) to a group for their consideration, to examine acceptability or feasibility of any particular component or to build consensus for public policy [54]. In a classic Delphi approach, participants usually discuss in multiple, mostly anonymous, Delphi rounds. Results of each round are summarised and reported back to the participants, who may reconsider their first opinions based on the feedback. This particular modified Policy Delphi process included three steps: • Before the ad hoc scientific panel meeting

2019 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Public Health Guidance

105. Public health guidance on HIV, hepatitis B and C testing in the EU/EEA

Studies examining testing for more than one virus are sometimes listed as combination studies, as in this section, and sometimes as separate studies for each virus being investigated. SCIENTIFIC ADVICE Public health guidance on HIV, hepatitis B and C testing in the EU/EEA – An integrated approach 3 1 Introduction 1.1 Rationale A global effort is under way to eliminate viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as public health threats by 2030. To achieve this goal, the World Health

2019 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Public Health Guidance

106. Effects of bystander programs on the prevention of sexual assault among adolescents and college students: a systematic review

for preventing these assaults is the implementation of bystander sexual assault prevention programs, which encourage young people to intervene when witnessing incidents or warning signs of sexual assault. This review examines the effects bystander programs have on knowledge and attitudes concerning sexual assault and bystander behavior, bystander intervention when witnessing sexual assault or its warning signs, and participants’ rates of perpetration of sexual assault. What is the aim of this review (...) ? This Campbell systematic review examines the effects of bystander programs on knowledge and attitudes concerning sexual assault and bystander intervention, bystander intervention when witnessing sexual assault or its warning signs, and the perpetration of sexual assault. The review summarizes evidence from 27 high-quality studies, including 21 randomized controlled trials. What are the main findings of this review? What studies are included? This review includes studies that evaluate the effects

2019 Campbell Collaboration

107. Improving outdoor air quality and health: review of interventions

of it strong, for interventions in each of the 5 areas which can reduce emissions of harmful pollutants. Few existing studies directly examine the effects of these interventions on environmental concentrations or the resulting health outcomes. The health benefits of interventions must therefore be inferred from the reductions in emissions. Whilst this is not perfect, it is reasonable to do so, given the strength of evidence supporting the links between individual pollutants and their health impacts (...) . Studies examining the cost-benefits of interventions are unfortunately very limited. At this stage we are, therefore, unable to stratify by cost and health benefits as the original commission envisaged. Nevertheless, despite the need for more work to understand the detailed health impact of interventions and their cost-benefits, there is Review of interventions to improve outdoor air quality and public health 9 sufficient evidence to recommend action. We know that air pollution has a substantial

2019 Public Health England

108. Epidermotropic Merkel cell carcinoma: a case series with histopathologic examination. (PubMed)

Epidermotropic Merkel cell carcinoma: a case series with histopathologic examination. Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), an aggressive malignancy that has been increasing in incidence, rarely presents with an epidermotropic pattern.We conducted an immunohistochemical evaluation of 6 previously unpublished cases of epidermotropic MCC, focusing particularly on the staining characteristics of epithelial membrane antigen and cytokeratin-20 in the hope of providing insight into the mechanism (...) of epidermotropism in MCC.This study is a retrospective evaluation using light microscopy and immunohistochemistry.Forty cases of MCC with pathology at Rhode Island Hospital and the Miriam Hospital in Providence, RI, from 1983 through 2009 were reviewed. Following exclusion criteria, 6 patients (5 men, 1 woman) with a mean age of 82.5 years (range, 72-92) demonstrated epidermotropism. Three of 6 patients had MCC of the eyelid. In cases 1, 3, and 6, the perinuclear dot pattern observed with cytokeratin-20

2010 Journal of American Academy of Dermatology

109. Dermatophyte infections

of distal pulses black-dot alopecia milky white nail plate area of leukonychia in the proximal nail plate exposure to infected people, animals, or soil exposure to fomites including hat, combs, hairbrushes, and upholstery wrestling chronic topical or oral corticosteroid use HIV diabetes mellitus and other metabolic disorders occlusive clothing hot, humid weather obesity hyperhidrosis frequenting public bathing areas while barefoot deformities of the feet recurrent trauma to the skin atopic dermatitis (...) positive family history peripheral vascular disease Diagnostic investigations potassium hydroxide (KOH) microscopy Wood lamp examination (ultraviolet light) dermoscopy (trichoscopy) fungal culture PCR nail clipping reflectance confocal microscopy Treatment algorithm ACUTE Contributors Authors Professor of Clinical Dermatology Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery University of Miami Health System FL Disclosures AT received honorarium and travel reimbursement from Valeant, PharmaDerm, and Polichem

2018 BMJ Best Practice

110. Trends in earnings and income inequalities in Scotland and the UK 1997-2016

: distribution of gross weekly earnings data 90th percentile 50th percentile (median) 10th percentile11 directors & senior officials e ; professional occupations; and associate professional & technical occupations 18,19 . Thus caution should be exercised in examining trends, particularly for those groups, between the two periods. The strengths and weaknesses associated with all aspects of the ASHE data are discussed later in the report. Household income analyses To set the analyses of earnings data (...) and economic downturn on wages. Without adjusting for levels of inflation (the dotted lines on the chart), it appears that gross earnings increased almost every year. However, adjustment for inflation shows that in real terms median earnings in Scotland decreased from 2008 to around 2014, and by 2016 (the last period for which data are available) they were notably below their peak in 2009. Adjusted trends for all percentiles (rather than just the 10th, 50th and 90th) are shown in the next section

2019 Glasgow Centre for Population Health

111. Tuberculosis

vaccination, including: case definition for at-risk groups to be offered vaccination information about the local BCG vaccination policy that can be given verbally, in writing or in any other appropriate format (see sections 1.1.1 and 1.1.2) to parents and carers at the routine examination of the baby before discharge local service information about BCG vaccination, such as pre-discharge availability of neonatal vaccination, local BCG clinics and referral for BCG vaccination if this is not available (...) recommendation 1.3.2.1). 1.3.4.3 Either a paediatrician with experience and training in TB or a general paediatrician with advice from a specialised clinician should investigate and manage TB in children and young people. [new 2016] [new 2016] 1.3.4.4 An expert in paediatric TB may request interferon-gamma release assays and tuberculin skin tests. Interpret these together with other diagnostic tools (such as history taking, clinical examination and imaging). [new 2016] [new 2016] 1.3.5 1.3.5 Diagnosing e

2016 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

113. Medical management of abortion

of claims resulting from infringement of any third-party-owned component in the work rests solely with the user. General disclaimers. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of WHO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed lines on maps represent approximate border (...) , intervention, comparator, outcome PO oral (route of administration of medication) PV vaginal (route of administration of medication) RCT randomized controlled trial SL sublingual (under the tongue) (route of administration of medication) WHO World Health Organizationv Glossary Duration of pregnancy (gestation): Size of the uterus, estimated in weeks, based on clinical examination, that corresponds to a pregnant uterus of the same gestational age dated by last menstrual period (LMP). Medical methods

2019 World Health Organisation Guidelines

114. Updated recommendations on first-line and second-line antiretroviral regimens and post-exposure prophylaxis and recommendations on early infant diagnosis of HIV

infringement of any third-party-owned component in the work rests solely with the user. General disclaimers. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of WHO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may

2019 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

115. United Kingdom National Guideline for the Management of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (2019 Interim Update)

bleeding, including post coital bleeding, inter-menstrual bleeding and menorrhagia • secondary dysmenorrhoea Signs • lower abdominal tenderness which is usually bilateral • adnexal tenderness on bimanual vaginal examination – a tender mass is sometimes present • cervical motion tenderness on bimanual vaginal examination • fever (>38°C) in moderate to severe disease PID guideline V4 page 5 A diagnosis of PID should be considered, and usually empirical antibiotic treatment offered, in any sexually active (...) woman who has recent onset, lower abdominal pain associated with local tenderness on bimanual vaginal examination, in whom pregnancy has been excluded and no other cause for the pain has been identified. The risk of PID is highest in women aged under 25 5 not using barrier contraception and with a history of a new sexual partner. The diagnosis of PID based only on positive examination findings, in the absence of lower abdominal pain, should only be made with caution 12 . Complications • women

2019 British Association for Sexual Health and HIV

116. Diagnosis and management of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding

and examination, including a digital rectal examination, as well as appropriate blood tests. Shock index is calculated by dividing the heart rate by the systolic blood pressure and is a marker of active bleeding. 18 Its use is well established in the trauma setting, although in patients with massive transfusion requirements. 19 In UGIB, a study of 215 patients with UGIB showed that the shock index can identify patients who will require hospital-based intervention. 20 There are few data describing the use (...) were eight times more likely to iden- tify active bleeding. Any benefit of shorter times to angiography could not be examined as only 17% (8/48) were performed in under 90 min. 53 Similarly a case series of 120 patients with LGIB undergoing red cell scanning found that delays in performing angiography were associated with a reduced chance of demon- strating extravasation of contrast on the angiogram. 52 Emboli- sation is used to control bleeding in a number of other clinical scenarios, including

2019 British Society of Gastroenterology

117. Handbook on tuberculosis laboratory diagnostic methods in the European Union

measures 40 4.4 Sample collection 40 4.4.1 Specimen handling 40 4.4.2 Criteria of acceptability 40 4.5 Smear preparation 41 4.6 Staining procedures 41 4.6.1 Ziehl-Neelsen staining method 41 4.6.2 Fluorochrome staining method 42 4.6.3 Automatic staining 42 4.7 Microscopy 42 4.7.1 Maintenance 43 4.7.2 Fluorescence microscopy 43 4.7.3 Light-emitting diode (LED) microscopy 43 4.8 Recording and reporting 43 4.8.1 ZN smear examination 44 4.8.2 Auramine (fluorochrome) smear examination 44 4.9 Quality control (...) Digestion and decontamination of sputum samples 51 5.4.2 Digestion and decontamination of specimens other than sputum 53 5.5 Culture media: principles 54 5.6 Solid media 54 5.6.1 Egg-based media 54 5.6.2 Agar-based media 54 5.6.3 Liquid media 55 5.6.4 Quality control of media 55 5.7 Culture tube inoculation 55 5.7.1 Solid media 55 5.7.2 Liquid media 56 5.8 Culture incubation 56 5.9 Culture examination 56 References 58 6. Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and drug resistance in cultures

2018 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Technical Guidance

118. Creating Rapid-learning Health Systems in Canada

responds to the questions they posed, builds on a previous rapid synthesis that examined only one province (Ontario),(2) and was conducted with the input of the CHSPRA working group. WHAT WE FOUND Definition of a rapid-learning health system In our updated searches we found no new definitions of a rapid-learning health system that went substantively beyond the definition of a ‘learning healthcare system’ originally developed by the Institute of Medicine: a system in which “science, informatics

2018 McMaster Health Forum

119. Postpartum women living with HIV: Challenges related to retention in care, treatment adherence, and mental health

or present) were more likely to have poor adherence. Another study from the U.S. examined postpartum medication adherence during pregnancy and postpartum (62). Between 2001 and 2005, adherence questionnaires were administered to 399 pregnant and postpartum women living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy. At six months postpartum, women who reported complete adherence were on average two years older than those who reported non-adherence, and were more likely to be Black as compared to white or Hispanic (...) in the previous section on retention in care also address adherence (2, 52, 55). This is expected, as regular clinic visits are associated with antiretroviral adherence and viral suppression (38). Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) is a method of drug administration where a health care professional ensures that an individual receives and takes all medication as prescribed (64). A 2010 meta-analysis reported that DOT of antiretroviral therapy had a significant impact on virologic, immunologic, and adherence

2018 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

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