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Cysteine Calculi

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1. Renal Calculi (Diagnosis)

, codeine, morphine sulfate, oxycodone/APAP, hydrocodone/APAP, dilaudid, fentanyl) Alpha blockers (eg, tamsulosin, terazosin) Antiemetics (eg, metoclopramide, ondansetron) Antibiotics (eg, ampicillin, gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin) Stone Prevention/Chemolysis Uricosuric agents (eg, allopurinol) Alkalinizing agents (eg, potassium citrate, sodium bicarbonate): For uric acid and cysteine calculi Thiazide diuretics- helps treat hypercalcicuria Surgical (...) Renal Calculi (Diagnosis) Nephrolithiasis: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvNDM3MDk2LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Nephrolithiasis Updated: Jun 21, 2018 Author

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

2. Renal Calculi (Overview)

, codeine, morphine sulfate, oxycodone/APAP, hydrocodone/APAP, dilaudid, fentanyl) Alpha blockers (eg, tamsulosin, terazosin) Antiemetics (eg, metoclopramide, ondansetron) Antibiotics (eg, ampicillin, gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin) Stone Prevention/Chemolysis Uricosuric agents (eg, allopurinol) Alkalinizing agents (eg, potassium citrate, sodium bicarbonate): For uric acid and cysteine calculi Thiazide diuretics- helps treat hypercalcicuria Surgical (...) Renal Calculi (Overview) Nephrolithiasis: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvNDM3MDk2LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Nephrolithiasis Updated: Jun 21, 2018 Author

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

4. Urolithiasis

, T., et al. 2082 Association of the loci 5q35.3, 7q14.3, and 13.q14.1 with urolithiasis: A case-control study in the Japanese population, involving genome-wide association study. J Urol, 2013. 189: e854. (13)02777-8/abstract 14. Strohmaier, W.L. Course of calcium stone disease without treatment. What can we expect? Eur Urol, 2000. 37: 339. 15. Keoghane, S., et al. The natural history of untreated renal tract calculi. BJU Int, 2010. 105: 1627. 16. Straub, M., et al. Diagnosis and metaphylaxis (...) . Scand J Urol Nephrol, 1990. 24: 205. 33. Leusmann, D.B. Whewellite, weddellite and company: where do all the strange names originate? BJU Int, 2000. 86: 411. 34. Kim, S.C., et al. Cystine calculi: correlation of CT-visible structure, CT number, and stone morphology with fragmentation by shock wave lithotripsy. Urol Res, 2007. 35: 319. 35. Wimpissinger, F., et al. The silence of the stones: asymptomatic ureteral calculi. J Urol, 2007. 178: 1341. 36. Ray, A.A., et al. Limitations to ultrasound

2019 European Association of Urology

6. Urolithiasis

, T., et al. 2082 Association of the loci 5q35.3, 7q14.3, and 13.q14.1 with urolithiasis: A case-control study in the Japanese population, involving genome-wide association study. J Urol, 2013. 189: e854. (13)02777-8/abstract 14. Strohmaier, W.L. Course of calcium stone disease without treatment. What can we expect? Eur Urol, 2000. 37: 339. 15. Keoghane, S., et al. The natural history of untreated renal tract calculi. BJU Int, 2010. 105: 1627. 16. Straub, M., et al. Diagnosis and metaphylaxis (...) . Scand J Urol Nephrol, 1990. 24: 205. 33. Leusmann, D.B. Whewellite, weddellite and company: where do all the strange names originate? BJU Int, 2000. 86: 411. 34. Kim, S.C., et al. Cystine calculi: correlation of CT-visible structure, CT number, and stone morphology with fragmentation by shock wave lithotripsy. Urol Res, 2007. 35: 319. 35. Wimpissinger, F., et al. The silence of the stones: asymptomatic ureteral calculi. J Urol, 2007. 178: 1341. 36. Ray, A.A., et al. Limitations to ultrasound

2018 European Association of Urology

7. Diagnosis, Evaluation and Follow-up of Asymptomatic Microhematuria (AMH) in Adults

who are current or past smokers. 10-15,17,19-20,22-23,25,27-28,60-62 Higher rates are also found in samples that are repeatedly tested. 10-13 Origins and Causes. The origins of microhematuria are either urologic or nephrologic. The most common urological etiologies are benign prostatic enlargement, infection and urinary calculi. Three sets of studies indicate that only a small proportion of patients with microhematuria will ultimately be diagnosed with a urinary tract malignancy. These studies (...) . Thus, the various phases of contrast transit are better defined and are without artifacts caused by overlapping phases. Four distinct phases are the goal: 1) a pre-enhancement phase to establish baseline densities of tissues and high or variable densities such as calculi, hematomas or fat-containing structures; 2) an arterial phase identifying neoplastic or inflammatory neovascularity; 3) a cortico-medullary or parenchymal phase defining evidence of renal parenchymal changes and equating

2016 American Urological Association

9. Urolithiasis

816 UROLITHIASIS - LIMITED UPDATE MARCH 2015 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Aims and scope The European Association of Urology (EAU) Urolithiasis Guidelines Panel have prepared these guidelines to help urologists assess evidence-based management of stones/calculi and incorporate recommendations into clinical practice. The document covers most aspects of the disease, which is still a cause of significant morbidity despite technological and scientific advances. The Panel is aware of the geographical variations (...) composition (Section 4.11) Foreign body calculi 3.1.3 Risk groups for stone formation The risk status of stone formers is of particular interest because it defines the probability of recurrence or regrowth, and is imperative for pharmacological treatment. About 50% of recurrent stone formers have just one lifetime recurrence [6, 9]. Highly recurrent disease is observed in slightly more than 10% of patients. Stone type and disease severity determine low or high-risk of recurrence (Table 3.1.4) [10, 11].10

2015 European Association of Urology

10. Evaluate the Effect of ALLN-177 in Reducing Urinary Oxalate in Patients With Secondary Hyperoxaluria and Kidney Stones Over 28 Days

Ages Eligible for Study: 18 Years and older (Adult, Older Adult) Sexes Eligible for Study: All Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No Criteria Inclusion Criteria: History of enteric or idiopathic hyperoxaluria or kidney stones Urinary oxalate ≥ 50 mg/24 hours Exclusion Criteria: Hyperuricosuria Glomerular filtration rate < 45 mL/min/1.73m2 Hypercalcemia or hyperthyroidism Autoimmune disorder requiring systemic steroids Acute renal colic, primary hyperoxaluria, pure uric acid and/or cysteine stones, renal (...) Hyperoxaluria Idiopathic Hyperoxaluria Urological Diseases Kidney Diseases Supersaturation Dietary Oxalate Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Neoplasm Metastasis Calculi Kidney Calculi Nephrolithiasis Hyperoxaluria Neoplastic Processes Neoplasms Pathologic Processes Pathological Conditions, Anatomical Kidney Diseases Urologic Diseases Urolithiasis Urinary Calculi

2015 Clinical Trials

11. Nephrolithiasis (Overview)

, codeine, morphine sulfate, oxycodone/APAP, hydrocodone/APAP, dilaudid, fentanyl) Alpha blockers (eg, tamsulosin, terazosin) Antiemetics (eg, metoclopramide, ondansetron) Antibiotics (eg, ampicillin, gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin) Stone Prevention/Chemolysis Uricosuric agents (eg, allopurinol) Alkalinizing agents (eg, potassium citrate, sodium bicarbonate): For uric acid and cysteine calculi Thiazide diuretics- helps treat hypercalcicuria Surgical (...) : Chirag N Dave, MD; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Nephrolithiasis Overview Practice Essentials Nephrolithiasis specifically refers to calculi in the kidneys, but renal calculi and ureteral calculi (ureterolithiasis) are often discussed in conjunction. The majority of renal calculi contain calcium. The pain generated by renal colic is primarily caused by dilation, stretching, and spasm because of the acute ureteral obstruction. Signs

2014 eMedicine.com

12. Nephrolithiasis: Acute Renal Colic (Overview)

narcotic analgesics (eg, codeine, morphine sulfate, oxycodone/APAP, hydrocodone/APAP, dilaudid, fentanyl) Alpha blockers (eg, tamsulosin, terazosin) Antiemetics (eg, metoclopramide, ondansetron) Antibiotics (eg, ampicillin, gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin) Stone Prevention/Chemolysis Uricosuric agents (eg, allopurinol) Alkalinizing agents (eg, potassium citrate, sodium bicarbonate): For uric acid and cysteine calculi Thiazide diuretics- helps treat (...) 21, 2018 Author: Chirag N Dave, MD; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Nephrolithiasis Overview Practice Essentials Nephrolithiasis specifically refers to calculi in the kidneys, but renal calculi and ureteral calculi (ureterolithiasis) are often discussed in conjunction. The majority of renal calculi contain calcium. The pain generated by renal colic is primarily caused by dilation, stretching, and spasm because of the acute

2014 eMedicine.com

13. Cystinuria (Diagnosis)

and medical prevention of recurrent stone formation. For patient education information, see . Next: Background In 1810, Wollaston first described a different type of urinary calculi from the urinary bladder and coined the term cystic oxide. [ ] Berzelius recognized that the compound was not an oxide, and he named it cystine because the material originated from the bladder. [ ] In 1908, Sir Archibald Garrod identified cystinuria as one of the original "inborn errors of metabolism." [ ] Yeh et al (...) of penicillin, penicillamine, reacted with cystine to form a mixed disulfide, penicillamine cysteine. [ ] In 1963, Crawhall et al first used penicillamine to treat patients with cystinuria. [ ] In recent years, understanding of the genetic and molecular components of cystinuria has advanced. In 1993, Lee et al cloned a human complementary DNA, rBAT (renal basic amino acid transporter) in chromosome 2, encoding a transport protein for cystine and dibasic amino acids. [ ] In 1997, Bisceglia et al identified

2014 eMedicine.com

14. Bladder Stones (Diagnosis)

% of cases) is composed of uric acid. Less frequently, bladder calculi are composed of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, ammonium urate, cysteine, or magnesium ammonium phosphate (when associated with infection). [ , ] Perhaps surprisingly, patients with uric acid bladder calculi rarely ever have a documented history of or . In many cases, the core consists of one chemical, and layers of different chemicals form around this core. In children, stones are composed mainly of ammonium acid urate, calcium (...) Author: Joseph Basler, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Bladder Stones Overview Practice Essentials Bladder (vesical) calculi are stones or calcified materials that are present in the bladder (or in a bladder substitute that functions as a urinary reservoir). They are usually associated with urinary stasis but can form in healthy individuals without evidence of anatomic defects, strictures, infections, or foreign bodies

2014 eMedicine.com

15. Hyperoxaluria (Treatment)

the management principles in other patients with urolithiasis. These patients form calcium oxalate stones that can be monohydrate or dihydrate in nature. Calcium oxalate monohydrate calculi are one of the hardest stone types to fragment with current lithotripsy modalities and may require multiple treatments based on size and location. can be used for renal and ureteral calculi. using electrohydraulic, pneumatic (Lithoclast), ultrasonic, and holmium laser modalities can all be successful in the management (...) of ureteral and large-burden renal calculi. Ureteroscopic or percutaneous access is required in these cases. Renal-liver transplantation Young patients with primary hyperoxaluria may develop renal failure due to nephrocalcinosis. Renal transplantation alone is associated with recurrent stone formation attributable to the persistence of abnormal glyoxylate metabolism in the liver. Therefore, a combined renal-liver transplantation is necessary and should be performed as early as possible to achieve cure

2014 eMedicine.com

16. Bladder Stones (Overview)

% of cases) is composed of uric acid. Less frequently, bladder calculi are composed of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, ammonium urate, cysteine, or magnesium ammonium phosphate (when associated with infection). [ , ] Perhaps surprisingly, patients with uric acid bladder calculi rarely ever have a documented history of or . In many cases, the core consists of one chemical, and layers of different chemicals form around this core. In children, stones are composed mainly of ammonium acid urate, calcium (...) Author: Joseph Basler, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Bladder Stones Overview Practice Essentials Bladder (vesical) calculi are stones or calcified materials that are present in the bladder (or in a bladder substitute that functions as a urinary reservoir). They are usually associated with urinary stasis but can form in healthy individuals without evidence of anatomic defects, strictures, infections, or foreign bodies

2014 eMedicine.com

17. Intracorporeal Lithotripsy (Overview)

shockwave lithotripsy based on the newest extracorporeal lithotriptors to be less invasive and less efficient in treating ureteral stones, with fragment clearance often requiring as many as 4 months of follow-up. Ureteroscopic treatment of renal calculi is gaining popularity because of the recognition of limitations of ESWL. Although ESWL is associated with minimal morbidity, its effectiveness is decreased in the treatment of certain stone compositions (eg, calcium oxalate monohydrate, cysteine), large (...) Lithotripsy Updated: Dec 11, 2018 Author: Michael Grasso, III, MD; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Intracorporeal Lithotripsy Overview Background Endoscopic lithotripsy refers to the visualization of a calculus in the urinary tract and the simultaneous application of energy to fragment the stone or stones into either extractable or passable pieces. Many calculi in the upper urinary tract are treated with (ESWL). However, for stones

2014 eMedicine.com

18. Hyperoxaluria (Overview)

the management principles in other patients with urolithiasis. These patients form calcium oxalate stones that can be monohydrate or dihydrate in nature. Calcium oxalate monohydrate calculi are one of the hardest stone types to fragment with current lithotripsy modalities and may require multiple treatments based on size and location. can be used for renal and ureteral calculi. using electrohydraulic, pneumatic (Lithoclast), ultrasonic, and holmium laser modalities can all be successful in the management (...) of ureteral and large-burden renal calculi. Ureteroscopic or percutaneous access is required in these cases. Renal-liver transplantation Young patients with primary hyperoxaluria may develop renal failure due to nephrocalcinosis. Renal transplantation alone is associated with recurrent stone formation attributable to the persistence of abnormal glyoxylate metabolism in the liver. Therefore, a combined renal-liver transplantation is necessary and should be performed as early as possible to achieve cure

2014 eMedicine.com

19. Lasers in Urology (Overview)

. Maimen to produce the first visible light laser. He used a synthetic ruby crystal with silver-coated ends surrounded by a flash tube to produce light energy. In 1966, Parsons, using a similar ruby laser in a pulsed mode, was the first urologist to experiment with laser light in canine bladders. Mulvany attempted to fragment urinary calculi 2 years later, again using the ruby laser. Subsequently, researchers tested many new substrates or lasing materials, leading to diversity in their clinical (...) of cysteine, which will not fragment with the pulsed dye laser. In addition, Ho:YAG produces sulfur dioxide gas when treating cysteine stones, producing a characteristic odor during treatment. Nitrogen laser The nitrogen laser incorporates inert nitrogen gas (N 2 ) as the lasing medium, and, when excited by optical energy, it emits light with a wavelength of 337 nm. This laser has been studied as a component of a diagnostic test for transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and other mucosal malignancies using

2014 eMedicine.com

20. Cystinuria (Overview)

and medical prevention of recurrent stone formation. For patient education information, see . Next: Background In 1810, Wollaston first described a different type of urinary calculi from the urinary bladder and coined the term cystic oxide. [ ] Berzelius recognized that the compound was not an oxide, and he named it cystine because the material originated from the bladder. [ ] In 1908, Sir Archibald Garrod identified cystinuria as one of the original "inborn errors of metabolism." [ ] Yeh et al (...) of penicillin, penicillamine, reacted with cystine to form a mixed disulfide, penicillamine cysteine. [ ] In 1963, Crawhall et al first used penicillamine to treat patients with cystinuria. [ ] In recent years, understanding of the genetic and molecular components of cystinuria has advanced. In 1993, Lee et al cloned a human complementary DNA, rBAT (renal basic amino acid transporter) in chromosome 2, encoding a transport protein for cystine and dibasic amino acids. [ ] In 1997, Bisceglia et al identified

2014 eMedicine.com

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