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Cyanotic Breath Holding Spell

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1. Cyanotic Breath Holding Spell

Cyanotic Breath Holding Spell Cyanotic Breath Holding Spell Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Cyanotic Breath Holding (...) Spell Cyanotic Breath Holding Spell Aka: Cyanotic Breath Holding Spell , Cyanotic Spell From Related Chapters II. Epidemiology More common than Episode onset after age 6 months, resolve by 5 years III. Triggers Occurs following a stressor such as scolding IV. Course Initial: Brief, shrill cry Next: Forced expiration and apnea ensues Next: and loss of consciousness Variable: Clonic movements may occur V. Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Differential See VI. Management See Images: Related links to external

2018 FP Notebook

2. Clinico-laboratory profile of breath-holding spells in children in Sohag University Hospital, Upper Egypt Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clinico-laboratory profile of breath-holding spells in children in Sohag University Hospital, Upper Egypt Breath-holding spells (BHSs) are involuntary pauses of breathing, sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness. They usually occur in response to an upsetting or surprising situation. Breath-holding spells are usually caused by either a change in the usual breathing pattern or a slowing of the heart rate. In some children, BHSs may be related to iron deficiency anemia. The aim of the work (...) children who had been diagnosed as having BHSs. We found that cyanotic spells (71.88%) predominated over pallid spells. There were positive family histories (31.25%) and consanguinity (53.135) in the studied patients. We found a high incidence of iron deficiency anemia (62.5%) in association with BHS. Abnormal EEGs were found in (65.63%) of studied children.BHS is a common, important problem associated with iron deficiency anemia, which is, in turn, a common nutritional problem in our country.

2016 Electronic physician

3. Breath of the Wild! A podcast on breath holding spells

Breath of the Wild! A podcast on breath holding spells Breath of the Wild! A podcast on breath holding spells – PEMBlog Search for: Search for: Breath of the Wild! A podcast on breath holding spells Don’t hold you breath while listening to this podcast – because you’d be doing so for longer than 20 seconds – and you will have apnea. Do however, listen to learn more about cyanotic and pallid breath holding spells so that you can be prepared to diagnose and manage them in the Emergency Department (...) own and not official medical advice. Related Posts March 12th, 2019 | March 10th, 2019 | January 30th, 2019 January 22nd, 2019 December 12th, 2018 November 2nd, 2018 October 19th, 2018 October 18th, 2018 September 1st, 2018 July 25th, 2018 2 Comments March 23, 2017 at 3:42 AM […] Don’t hold you breath while listening to this podcast – because you’d be doing so for longer than 20 seconds – and you will have apnea. Do however, listen to learn more about cyanotic and pallid breath holding spells so

2017 PEM Blog

4. Cyanotic Breath Holding Spell

Cyanotic Breath Holding Spell Cyanotic Breath Holding Spell Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Cyanotic Breath Holding (...) Spell Cyanotic Breath Holding Spell Aka: Cyanotic Breath Holding Spell , Cyanotic Spell From Related Chapters II. Epidemiology More common than Episode onset after age 6 months, resolve by 5 years III. Triggers Occurs following a stressor such as scolding IV. Course Initial: Brief, shrill cry Next: Forced expiration and apnea ensues Next: and loss of consciousness Variable: Clonic movements may occur V. Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Differential See VI. Management See Images: Related links to external

2015 FP Notebook

5. Novel Findings in Breath-Holding Spells: A Cross-Sectional Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Novel Findings in Breath-Holding Spells: A Cross-Sectional Study. The mechanism of breath-holding spells (BHS) is not fully understood and most probably multifactorial; so, this study was designed to clarify the pathophysiology of BHS through assessing some laboratory parameters and electrocardiographic (ECG) changes which might be contributing to the occurrence of the attacks. Another aim of the study was to evaluate the differences in the pathophysiology between pallid and cyanotic types (...) of BHS. This was a prospective study performed in Zagazig University Hospitals. Seventy-six children diagnosed with BHS were included as follows: 32 children with cyanotic BHS, 14 children with pallid BHS, and 30 healthy children as a control group. All children were subjected to the following: full history taking, clinical examination, and laboratory work up in the form of CBC, serum iron, ferritin, and zinc levels. Twenty-four hours ambulatory ECG (Holter) recording was also performed

2015 Medicine

6. The value of neurologic and cardiologic assessment in breath holding spells Full Text available with Trip Pro

The value of neurologic and cardiologic assessment in breath holding spells Objective : To evaluate the value of neurologic and cardiologic assessment and also the frequency of iron deficiency anemia in children with Breath Holding Spells (BHS). Methods : The hospital charts of patients diagnosed with BHS between 2011 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Results : A total of 165 children (90 boys, 75 girls) with BHS comprised the study group. A matched group of 200 children with febrile (...) convulsions served as controls. Among the first-degree relatives, 13.3% had BHS, 1.8% had febrile convulsions and 12.1% had epilepsy. The spells were cyanotic in 140 (84.8%) children and pallid or mixed in the remainder. BNS type was simple in 46.7% of patients and complicated in the remainder. Eighteen patients had abnormalities in electroencephalography, however only one patient was diagnosed with epilepsy. Sixty nine (47.9%) patients were found to have iron deficiency anemia. Conclusion : Referral

2014 Pakistan Journal Of Medical Sciences

7. Breath-Holding Spells

with an increased risk of fainting spells in adulthood. There are 2 forms of breath-holding spells: Cyanotic form: This form is the most common and often occurs as part of a or in response to a scolding or other upsetting event. Pallid form: This form typically follows a painful experience, such as falling and banging the head, but can follow frightening or startling events. Both forms are involuntary and readily distinguished from uncommon brief periods of voluntary breath-holding by stubborn children, who (...) invariably resume normal breathing after getting what they want or after becoming uncomfortable when they fail to get what they want. During a cyanotic breath-holding spell, children hold their breath (without necessarily being aware they are doing so) until they lose consciousness. Typically, the child cries out, exhales, and stops breathing. Shortly afterward, the child begins to turn blue and unconsciousness ensues. A brief seizure may occur. After a few seconds, breathing resumes and normal skin

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

8. CRACKCast E175 – Neurologic Disorders

, and there are no clinical signs of meningitis. The possibility of provoked seizures should be considered because many causes are treatable. Breath-holding spells occurs in children 6 months to 6 years of age and are triggered by pain or emotional upset. After a trigger, the child becomes pale or cyanotic and may lose consciousness, sometimes with a brief period of clonic movements or opisthotonos. When treating the patient with headaches, consider the following: Most headaches in children have benign causes (...) neonatal sleep myoclonus Nonepileptic apnea Opisthotonos (hyperextension, back arching, spasticity – either physiologic or pathologic in cases of meningitis, tetanus) Normal movement Non-neonates: Syncope BRUE Breath-holding spells Migraine with aura (vomiting, motor deficits, altered LOC) Sydenham’s chorea Various sleep disorders – narcolepsy, cataplexy Tics Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures Panic attacks For a more comprehensive list of mimics of epilepsy disorders, please refer to Table 174.6

2018 CandiEM

12. Brief Resolved Unexplained Events (Formerly Apparent Life-Threatening Events) and Evaluation of Lower-Risk Infants

clinical decisions on events that are characterized as abnormal after conducting a thorough history and physical examination. For example, a constellation of symptoms suggesting hemodynamic instability or central apnea needs to be distinguished from more common and less concerning events readily characterized as periodic breathing of the newborn, breath-holding spells, dysphagia, or gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Furthermore, events defined as ALTEs are rarely a manifestation of a more serious illness (...) that the infant will have a repeat event or has a serious underlying disorder. Finally, it provides management recommendations, or key action statements, for lower-risk infants. The term BRUE is defined as an event occurring in an infant younger than 1 year when the observer reports a sudden, brief, and now resolved episode of ≥1 of the following: (1) cyanosis or pallor; (2) absent, decreased, or irregular breathing; (3) marked change in tone (hyper- or hypotonia); and (4) altered level of responsiveness

2016 American Academy of Pediatrics

13. Neurocognition in Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome (CCHS)

vary in the level of associated protein dysfunction, leading to variability in the severity of the CCHS phenotype, and potentially in the severity and frequency of resulting neurocognitive insult. Severe cyanotic breath-holding spells and prolonged sinus pauses are two phenotypic features of CCHS known to alter regional blood flow/oxygen saturation to the brain (near-infrared spectroscopy; personal communication 2018). The fact that both of these phenotypic presentations are associated

2018 Clinical Trials

15. Virtual Reality to Evaluate Motor Response During Seizure Activity (Overview)

and adduction of the arms. A shiverlike movement of the trunk occurs, and the body may stiffen. Consciousness does not seem to be altered, but this can be difficult to confirm. The episode usually lasts 5-15 seconds. Unlike epileptic seizures, shuddering attacks do not occur during sleep. Breath-holding spells (cyanotic infantile syncope): These spells affect children aged 6 months to 5 years. Typically, a clear trigger is present, with the child being upset and crying. At the end of expiration, the child (...) is unable to relax and inhale and becomes apneic and cyanotic. The child may appear angry and upset about this uncomfortable feeling, loses consciousness, may have urinary incontinence, and becomes stiff or even opisthotonic. The EEG during the event typically shows high-amplitude slowing followed by suppression, as is seen in syncope of any cause. When the child relaxes and breathes again, consciousness is gradually regained. Gastroesophageal reflux: Reflux associated with laryngospasm in infants may

2014 eMedicine.com

16. EEG Seizure Monitoring (Overview)

occurs, and the body may stiffen. Consciousness does not seem to be altered, but this can be difficult to confirm. The episode usually lasts 5-15 seconds. Unlike epileptic seizures, shuddering attacks do not occur during sleep. Breath-holding spells (cyanotic infantile syncope): These spells affect children aged 6 months to 5 years. Typically, a clear trigger is present, with the child being upset and crying. At the end of expiration, the child is unable to relax and inhale and becomes apneic (...) and cyanotic. The child may appear angry and upset about this uncomfortable feeling, loses consciousness, may have urinary incontinence, and becomes stiff or even opisthotonic. The EEG during the event typically shows high-amplitude slowing followed by suppression, as is seen in syncope of any cause. When the child relaxes and breathes again, consciousness is gradually regained. Gastroesophageal reflux: Reflux associated with laryngospasm in infants may cause events that look like seizures, with limb

2014 eMedicine.com

17. EEG Seizure Monitoring (Follow-up)

occurs, and the body may stiffen. Consciousness does not seem to be altered, but this can be difficult to confirm. The episode usually lasts 5-15 seconds. Unlike epileptic seizures, shuddering attacks do not occur during sleep. Breath-holding spells (cyanotic infantile syncope): These spells affect children aged 6 months to 5 years. Typically, a clear trigger is present, with the child being upset and crying. At the end of expiration, the child is unable to relax and inhale and becomes apneic (...) and cyanotic. The child may appear angry and upset about this uncomfortable feeling, loses consciousness, may have urinary incontinence, and becomes stiff or even opisthotonic. The EEG during the event typically shows high-amplitude slowing followed by suppression, as is seen in syncope of any cause. When the child relaxes and breathes again, consciousness is gradually regained. Gastroesophageal reflux: Reflux associated with laryngospasm in infants may cause events that look like seizures, with limb

2014 eMedicine.com

18. EEG Seizure Monitoring (Treatment)

occurs, and the body may stiffen. Consciousness does not seem to be altered, but this can be difficult to confirm. The episode usually lasts 5-15 seconds. Unlike epileptic seizures, shuddering attacks do not occur during sleep. Breath-holding spells (cyanotic infantile syncope): These spells affect children aged 6 months to 5 years. Typically, a clear trigger is present, with the child being upset and crying. At the end of expiration, the child is unable to relax and inhale and becomes apneic (...) and cyanotic. The child may appear angry and upset about this uncomfortable feeling, loses consciousness, may have urinary incontinence, and becomes stiff or even opisthotonic. The EEG during the event typically shows high-amplitude slowing followed by suppression, as is seen in syncope of any cause. When the child relaxes and breathes again, consciousness is gradually regained. Gastroesophageal reflux: Reflux associated with laryngospasm in infants may cause events that look like seizures, with limb

2014 eMedicine.com

19. Follow-up of the NICU Patient (Overview)

Chromosomal and/or major malformation syndromes To rectify growth failure, the PCP must understand its origins, especially in the very preterm infant. [ ] For example, an infant with congenital heart disease may have growth failure because of feeding difficulties associated with congestive heart failure and an increased work of breathing. Corrective surgery may be the only solution for this condition. An infant with severe perinatal asphyxia may be unable to suck and swallow because of brain injury (...) . Such an infant may require a permanent gastrostomy (and gastric fundoplication) to ensure adequate nutrition. Even when this is accomplished, the brain insult may still result in poor growth secondary to hypothalamic and pituitary effects or other yet-undefined consequences of severe cerebral damage. A premature infant recovering from severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia may have reduced growth because of pulmonary disease, which increases the work of breathing, and inadequate protein intake. Severe chronic

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

20. Childhood Habit Behaviors and Stereotypic Movement Disorder (Overview)

. The crying may be brief or prolonged. Breath-holding spells may be divided into the following 3 categories: Simple breath-holding spells - These result when the child becomes apneic (cyanotic or pale) but then takes a deep breath; spells with loss of consciousness and muscle tone are classified by the child’s color during the event Cyanotic breath-holding spells - In these spells, which typically have an emotional precipitant (eg, anger or frustration) and typically last less than 1 minute, the child (...) progresses from cyanotic to apneic and may then become limp and lose consciousness; if a seizure occurs, the results from electroencephalography (EEG) performed during rest or sleep are normal Pallid breath-holding spells - In these spells, which are generally observed in response to pain, the child quickly becomes apneic and pale; an enhanced vagal response has been postulated to be a precursor to bradycardia or asystole; seizures rarely result Head banging is the rhythmic hitting of the head (usually

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

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