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Cutaneous Candidiasis

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781. Topical treatment of dermatophytosis and cutaneous candidosis with flutrimazole 1% cream: double-blind, randomized comparative trial with ketoconazole 2% cream. (Abstract)

Topical treatment of dermatophytosis and cutaneous candidosis with flutrimazole 1% cream: double-blind, randomized comparative trial with ketoconazole 2% cream. In a double-blind, randomized study the efficacy and tolerance of flutrimazole 1% cream were compared with ketoconazole 2% cream, applied once daily for 4 weeks, in 60 patients with culturally proven dermatophytosis (47 patients) or cutaneous candidosis (13 patients). Both groups of patients and distribution of target lesions were (...) the percentages of flutrimazole- and ketoconazole-treated patients with negative mycology were 57 and 70%, respectively. There were one relapse (3.3%) in the ketoconazole group and four (13.3%) in the flutrimazole group. One patient treated with ketoconazole (3%) had a premature termination due to adverse events attributable to the medication. The results of this study show that flutrimazole 1% cream is as effective and safe as ketoconazole 2% cream for Candida and dermatophyte skin infections.

1999 Mycoses Controlled trial quality: uncertain

782. Candida albicans phospholipomannan triggers inflammatory responses of human keratinocytes through Toll-like receptor 2. (Abstract)

challenged with PLM resulted in the activation of NF-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) including p38. Anti-TLR2 neutralizing antibody, NFkappaB and p38MAPK inhibitors blocked the PLM-induced secretion of IL-6, IL-8 in keratinocytes, but no such effect was observed in pretreatment with anti-TLR4-neutralizing antibody and lipopolysaccharide inhibitor (polymyxin B). These data suggest C. albicans-native PLM may contribute to the inflammatory responses of cutaneous candidiasis in the TLR2 (...) Candida albicans phospholipomannan triggers inflammatory responses of human keratinocytes through Toll-like receptor 2. The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in the recognition of Candida albicans components and activation of innate immunity. Phospholipomannan (PLM), a glycolipid, is expressed at the surface of C. albicans cell wall, which acts as a member of the pathogen-associated molecular patterns family. In this study, we sought to clarify whether C. albicans-native PLM

2008 Experimental Dermatology

783. Sensitivity of Candida albicans germ tubes and biofilms to photofrin-mediated phototoxicity. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sensitivity of Candida albicans germ tubes and biofilms to photofrin-mediated phototoxicity. Treatment of mucocutaneous and cutaneous Candida albicans infections with photosensitizing agents and light, termed photodynamic therapy (PDT), offers an alternative to conventional treatments. Initial studies using the clinically approved photosensitizer Photofrin demonstrated the susceptibility of C. albicans to its photodynamic effects. In the present study, we have further refined parameters (...) demonstrate that several of the mechanisms microorganisms use to subvert either antimicrobial oxidative defenses or antimicrobial therapy are apparently not operative during Photofrin-mediated photodynamic treatment of C. albicans. These observations provide support and rationale for the continued investigation of PDT as an adjunctive, or possibly alternative, mode of therapy against cutaneous and mucocutaneous candidiasis.

2005 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

784. Fungistatic effects of optical brightener 220 against Trichophyton tonsurans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. (Abstract)

Fungistatic effects of optical brightener 220 against Trichophyton tonsurans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. Dermatophytes are one of the main causes of dermal infections. Moreover, there are some opportunistic fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus (mycelial form) and Candida albicans (yeasty form) that in immunosuppressed patients can cause cutaneous disease.The possible effect of optical brightener 220 (OB-220) on the growth of fungi has been evaluated in this study.Isolates were (...) grown on agar plates containing OB-220 in concentration between 0.06 and 11.68 mg ml(-1). MICs of OB-220, ketoconazole and fluconazole were obtained by the agar dilution method. Hyphae and yeasts grown with OB-220 were compared with controls by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. The cell cytotoxicity of OB-220 was also assessed.The MIC(90) of OB-220 was obtained: 1.17-1.46 mg ml(-1) for A. fumigatus, 0.58-1.17 mg ml(-1) for C. albicans and 0.29 mg ml(-1) for Trichophyton tonsurans

2008 Journal of Dermatological Treatment

785. Mechanisms of adherence of Candida albicans to cultured human epidermal keratinocytes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mechanisms of adherence of Candida albicans to cultured human epidermal keratinocytes. We established an in vitro adherence model with primarily cultured human keratinocytes as target cells which allows for the investigation of the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for Candida albicans host cell attachment in the initiation of cutaneous candidosis. The extent of C. albicans binding to cultured human keratinocytes was dependent on the yeast inoculum size and the incubation temperature (...) . Heat and paraform-aldehyde treatment of yeasts completely abolished the binding activity of C. albicans. Of the different Candida species tested, C. albicans was by far the most adhesive species. C. albicans adherence was blocked by the acid protease inhibitor pepstatin A and the metabolic inhibitor sodium azide. The latter, however, was much less effective when yeasts were preincubated, suggesting that sodium azide was mainly acting on the keratinocytes. The extracellular matrix protein

1993 Infection and immunity

786. Enhanced immune responses in mice treated with penicillin-tetracycline or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole when colonized intragastrically with Candida albicans. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Enhanced immune responses in mice treated with penicillin-tetracycline or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole when colonized intragastrically with Candida albicans. Immune consequences of gastrointestinal colonization of CD-1 and CBA/J mice with Candida albicans in the presence or absence of continuous antibiotic treatment with penicillin-tetracycline or trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole were investigated. Intubation with C. albicans in the absence of antibiotics resulted in the induction of low (...) but detectable delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), demonstrable by footpad testing with a C. albicans wall glycoprotein (GP), and in the stimulation of a moderate level of protective immunity, demonstrable by intravenous (i.v.) challenge. DTH to a membrane extract, BEX, could not be detected in such animals. However, animals colonized in the presence of antibiotics and then inoculated cutaneously prior to being tested for DTH or protective immunity developed significantly enhanced levels of DTH to GP

1987 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

787. Atypical cutaneous manifestation of HSV-2 with Candida albicans co-infection in a patient with HIV-1. (Abstract)

Atypical cutaneous manifestation of HSV-2 with Candida albicans co-infection in a patient with HIV-1. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection was one of the first opportunistic infections identified among patients with AIDS. In the literature there are many data suggesting that the natural history of HSV-2 infection is altered in HIV-HSV-2 co-infected patients. Furthermore, a relationship between HIV seropositivity and HBV infection because of their analogous way of transmission is also (...) described. We report the case of a 37-year-old patient who suffered from multiple painful ulcerative lesions of the perianal region. Laboratory examination showed positivity for HIV and HBV infections. In HIV-positive patients perianal HSV-2 can have atypical manifestations, especially if co-infection by Candida albicans occurs.

2007 Journal of Infection

788. Cutaneous hypersensitivity to Candida albicans in idiopathic vulvodynia. (Abstract)

Cutaneous hypersensitivity to Candida albicans in idiopathic vulvodynia. We have observed that the majority of our vulvodynia patients give a previous history of vaginal candidiasis that was treated but was followed by symptoms of chronic vulvodynia. 27 vulvodynia patients were patch-tested to a standard series of contact allergens, a customized vulvar series and commensal organisms including ultraviolet-killed Candida albicans. Comparison tests for the commensal organism were made to a group (...) patients to a subsequent hypersensitivity response to C. albicans that is expressed only in areas of high cutaneous peripheral fibre density. Low levels of C. albicans may also be required to elicit this response as high levels of C. albicans may actually result in decreased cutaneous inflammation and decreased intensity of C. albicans patch test responses.

2005 Contact Dermatitis

789. In Vitro Activities of Terbinafine against Cutaneous Isolates of Candida albicans and Other Pathogenic Yeasts Full Text available with Trip Pro

In Vitro Activities of Terbinafine against Cutaneous Isolates of Candida albicans and Other Pathogenic Yeasts Terbinafine is active in vitro against a wide range of pathogenic fungi, including dermatophytes, molds, dimorphic fungi, and some yeasts, but earlier studies indicated that the drug had little activity against Candida albicans. In contrast, clinical studies have shown topical and oral terbinafine to be active in cutaneous candidiasis and Candida nail infections. In order to define (...) of 0.06 to 0.25 microg/ml. The NCCLS macrodilution assay provides reproducible in vitro data for terbinafine against Candida and other yeasts. The MICs for C. albicans and C. parapsilosis are compatible with the known clinical efficacy of terbinafine in cutaneous infections, while the clinical relevance of its activities against the other species has yet to be determined.

1998 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

790. CD86 (B7-2), but Not CD80 (B7-1), Expression in the Epidermis of Transgenic Mice Enhances the Immunogenicity of Primary Cutaneous Candida albicans Infections Full Text available with Trip Pro

CD86 (B7-2), but Not CD80 (B7-1), Expression in the Epidermis of Transgenic Mice Enhances the Immunogenicity of Primary Cutaneous Candida albicans Infections Transgenic (Tg) mice whose epidermal keratinocytes constitutively overexpress either B7-1 (CD80) or B7-2 (CD86) exhibited exaggerated cutaneous delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) to haptens compared to non-Tg mice. To determine whether enhanced DTH in these Tg mice is seen in response to cutaneous fungal infections, a primary infection (...) . albicans antigen-reactive Th1 lymphocytes. The enhanced immune response in B7-2 Tg mice to a cutaneous C. albicans infection demonstrates the importance of antigen presentation and costimulation in immune reactivity to fungi. Furthermore, B7-2 Tg mice may be useful in identification of protective Candida antigens.

1998 Infection and immunity

791. Quantification of Candida albicans Actin mRNA by the LightCycler System as a Means of Assessing Viability in a Model of Cutaneous Candidiasis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Quantification of Candida albicans Actin mRNA by the LightCycler System as a Means of Assessing Viability in a Model of Cutaneous Candidiasis The LightCycler system (two-step reverse transcription-PCR-fluorescent hybridization [LC RT-PCR-FH]) was used to quantify Candida albicans actin mRNA as a means of assessing its viability in a reconstituted skin model of cutaneous candidiasis following the application of an antimycotic. A 192-bp ACT exon fragment was ligated into the pCR2.1 plasmid vector (...) skin model, showing a reduction in viability. Detection and quantification of ACT mRNA in tissue by the LC RT-PCR-FH assay corresponded with cultural isolation of C. albicans from samples. The ACT mRNA-targeted LC RT-PCR-FH assay represents a sensitive, specific, rapid, and quantitative means of assessing the viability of C. albicans in infected tissue. This method may also be useful in evaluating the therapeutic efficacies of antifungal drugs in the treatment of various forms of candidiasis

2001 Journal of clinical microbiology

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