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and have been shown recently to have an immune system resembling that of neonatal human subjects.We studied the evolution of the adaptive cutaneous immune response to Candida species.We examined both human skin T cells and the de novo and memory immune responses in a mouse model of C albicans skin infection.In mice the initial IL-17-producing cells after C albicans infection were dermal γδ T cells, but by day 7, αβ TH17 effector T cells were predominant. By day 30, the majority of C albicans-reactive (...) Staged development of long lived TCRαβ Th17 resident memory T cell population to Candidaalbicans after skin infection. Candidaalbicans is a dimorphic fungus to which human subjects are exposed early in life, and by adulthood, it is part of the mycobiome of skin and other tissues. Neonatal skin lacks resident memory T (TRM) cells, but in adults the C albicans skin test is a surrogate for immunocompetence. Young adult mice raised under specific pathogen-free conditions are naive to C albicans
immunocompromised patients, namely recurrent oral, vaginal, and cutaneouscandidiasis, during 2015-16. Antifungal susceptibility testing of fluconazole against clinical Candida species was performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Ergosterol content and gene expression profiling of sterol 14α-demethylase (ERG11) gene in fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant C. albicans were investigated.The specimens consisted of C. albicans (46.67%), Candida krusei (41.67%), and Candida (...) Quantitation of ergosterol content and gene expression profile of ERG11 gene in fluconazole-resistant Candidaalbicans The frequency of opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised patients, especially by Candida species, has sharply increased in the last few decades. The objective of this study was to analyse the ergosterol content and gene expression profiling of clinical isolates of fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans.Sixty clinical samples were identified and collected from
fluconazole-resistant and 20 susceptible C. albicans isolates obtained from oral, vaginal, and cutaneous tissues of patients with candidiasis were evaluated. The efficacy and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Zataria multiflora, Geranium herbarum,Lavendula officinalis,Cuminum, cyminum,Allium heamanthoides, and Artemisia sieberi essential oils against C. albicans were determined on the basis of a reference method for broth microdilution susceptibility testing of yeasts as suggested by Clinical (...) In vitro antifungal activity of essential oils extracted from plants against fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant Candidaalbicans Candidaalbicans is the most common cause of candidal infections. Various studies have shown drug resistance among C. albicans isolates; thus, it is necessary to discover replacement treatments for Candida infections. In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of different essential oils against azoles-resistant and azoles-susceptible isolates.Twenty
Total-Body Irradiation Exacerbates Dissemination of CutaneousCandidaAlbicans Infection Exposure to radiation, particularly a large or total-body dose, weakens the immune system through loss of bone marrow precursor cells, as well as diminished populations of circulating and tissue-resident immune cells. One such population is the skin-resident immune cells. Changes in the skin environment can be of particular importance as the skin is also host to a number of commensal organisms, including (...) Candidaalbicans , a species of fungus that causes opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients. In a previous study, we found that a 6 Gy sublethal dose of radiation in mice caused a reduction of cutaneous dendritic cells, indicating that the skin may have a poorer response to infection after irradiation. In this study, the same 6 Gy sublethal radiation dose led to a weakened response to a C. ablicans cutaneous infection, which resulted in systemic dissemination from the ear skin
Experimental murine candidiasis: pathological and immune responses to cutaneous inoculation with Candidaalbicans. Cutaneous infection of mice with Candidaalbicans elicited a predominantly acute inflammatory response, stimulated the production of precipitating antibodies, and conferred protection against subsequent intravenous challenge with the same organism. The acute inflammatory skin reaction seen after cutaneous infection suggested a predominantly humoral response to Candida. Animals (...) infected cutaneously a second time with viable C. albicans developed larger skin lesions than animals infected only once, and the twice-infected animals were more resistant to an intravenous challenge as well. The cutaneous inoculation of mice with heat-killed C. albicans was less effective in stimulating antibody production, in eliciting the inflammatory response, and in inducing a protective response demonstrable by intravenous challenge with viable Candida. This model of experimental candidiasis
Cutaneouscandidiasis - an evidence-based review of topical and systemic treatments to inform clinical practice. Cutaneouscandidiasis is a common skin disease, and several treatments have been investigated within the last fifty years. Yet, systematic reviews are lacking, and evidence-based topical and systemic treatment strategies remain unclear. Thus, the aim of this review was to summarize efficacy and adverse effects of topical and oral therapies for cutaneouscandidiasis in all age groups (...) . Two individual researchers searched PubMed and EMBASE for 'cutaneouscandidiasis' and 'cutaneouscandidiasis treatment', 'intertrigo', 'diaper dermatitis' and 'cheilitis'. Searches were limited to 'English language', 'clinical trials' and 'human subjects', and prospective clinical trials published in abstracts or articles were included. In total, 149 studies were identified, of which 44 were eligible, comprising 41 studies of 19 topical therapies and four studies of three systemic therapies
-resistant fungal biofilms on affected areas. Here, we show that the alkylphospholipid miltefosine, used clinically against leishmaniasis and cutaneous breast metastases, has potent activity against biofilms of Fusarium oxysporum and Candidaalbicans formed on human nail fragments in vitro. Miltefosine activity was compared with that of commercially available antifungals in the treatment of biofilms at two distinct developmental phases: formation and maturation (pre-formed biofilms). Drug activity (...) Miltefosine is effective against Candidaalbicans and Fusarium oxysporum nail biofilms in vitro. Onychomycosis is a fungal nail infection that represents ∼50 % of all nail disease cases worldwide. Clinical treatment with standard antifungals frequently requires long-term systemic therapy to avoid chronic disease. Onychomycosis caused by non-dermatophyte moulds, such as Fusarium spp., and yeasts, such as Candida spp., is particularly difficult to treat, possibly due to the formation of drug
Cutaneouscandidiasis - a systematic evidence-based review of topical and systemic treatments Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external
Infection and tissue repair of experimental cutaneouscandidiasis in diabetic mice. Diabetic patients seem to be predisposed to cutaneouscandidiasis. In this study, we evaluated the interference of diabetic conditions in alloxan-induced diabetic mice in relation to the development of C. albicans infection, density of M1 and M2 macrophages, distribution of collagen type I and III and anti-inflamamatory cytokines involved in tissue repair.The mice were treated with intravenous alloxan, and all (...) was increased by interference of IL-13 and transforming growth factor-β cytokines.These findings highlight some important changes in diabetic animal responses to C. albicans infection that may be important to the pathophysiological processes underpinning cutaneouscandidiasis in diabetic patients.
Congenital CutaneousCandidiasis: Prompt Systemic Treatment Is Associated With Improved Outcomes in Neonates. Congenital cutaneouscandidiasis (CCC) is a challenging diagnosis due to various rash presentations. Inadequate early treatment is associated with high rates of dissemination and death. The effects of early diagnosis, dermatologic presentation, and antifungal treatment on outcomes are lacking.CCC cases were reviewed from 2 academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) from 2004 to 2015 (...) . We defined CCC as a diffuse rash involving the body, extremities, face or scalp, and/or funisitis, presenting in the first week (≤7 days), with identification of Candida species from skin or mucous membrane cultures, and/or by culture or staining of the placenta or umbilical cord.CCC occurred in 0.1% of all NICU admissions (21 of 19 303) and 0.6% of infants <1000 grams birth weight. Median gestational age of CCC infants was 26 3/7 (range, 23 0/7-40 4/7) weeks. Skin findings were commonly present
The role of phenotypic switching in the basic biology and pathogenesis of Candidaalbicans The "white-opaque" transition in Candidaalbicans was discovered in 1987. For the next fifteen years, a significant body of knowledge accumulated that included differences between the cell types in gene expression, cellular architecture and virulence in cutaneous and systemic mouse models. However, it was not until 2002 that we began to understand the role of switching in the life history of this pathogen
was diagnosed as having chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis due to C. dubliniensis. The commonest species isolated was Candidaalbicans, in 41 (70.7 %) patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis and 11 (73.3 %) with cutaneous lesions; C. dubliniensis was isolated from 11 and 3 children respectively. In the paediatric population, C. albicans predominates in mucocutaneous and cutaneouscandidiasis, with C. dubliniensis also contributing substantially. (...) Paediatric Oropharyngeal and CutaneousCandidiasis with Special Reference to Candida dubliniensis. Mucocutaneous and cutaneouscandidiasis, though common in children, is often under-reported. The prevalence of Candida dubliniensis in causing these infections in this age group is also largely unknown. A prospective epidemiological cross-sectional study for candidiasis was performed in paediatric patients clinically suspected of candidiasis with oropharyngeal lesions (75 patients), cutaneous
Cross-reaction between the mycelial galactomannas of three Hormodendrum strains and the mannans of two Candidaalbicans strains of different serotypes, A and B. Cross-reactivity between galactomannans of three representative Hormodendrum strains, H. pedrosoi IFO 6071, H. compactum IFO 6726, and H. dermatitidis IFO 6421, and the mannans of two Candida strains, C. albicans NIH A-207 (serotype A) and C. albicans NIH B-792 (serotype B), were investigated by means of agar-gel double diffusion (...) , quantitative preciptin reaction, and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. The following results were obtained. (i) Antisera to whole cells of three Hormodendrum strains were completely inactive in all in vitro antigen-antibody reactions to mannans of C. albicans NIH A-207 and C. albicans NIH B-792, whereas antisera to both C. albicans strains were found to be cross-reactive against the three Hormodendrum galactomannans. (ii) The results of cross-passive cutaneous anaphylaxis tests using guinea pigs sensitized
Effect of long-term exposure of mice to 900Â MHz GSM radiation on experimental cutaneouscandidiasis Mobile phones communicate with base stations using 900 MHz microwaves. The current study was aimed to survey the effects of long-term 900 MHz microwave exposure of mice on experimentally induced cutaneouscandidiasis. Forty inbred, male, BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups. Cutaneous lesions with Candidaalbicans were experimentally induced on the lateral-back skin of the 20 mice (...) . One group of the diseased mice were exposed (6 h per day and 7 d per week) to 900 MHz microwave radiation, while the other groups were not exposed. Two unexposed control groups were also included. The skin lesions were regularly monitored and the live candida cell density was enumerated using the colony-forming unit (CFU) assay. The process was repeated after a one week resting interval. One week later, all mice were challenged through intra tail veins using LD90 dose of C. albicans. Mortality
Congenital cutaneouscandidiasis 27516110 2017 02 23 2018 11 13 1757-790X 2016 2016 Aug 11 BMJ case reports BMJ Case Rep Congenital cutaneouscandidiasis. 10.1136/bcr-2016-216037 bcr2016216037 Chen Kai-Lung KL Department of Dermatology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei City, Taiwan. Chien Mu-Ming MM http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0988-4012 Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Children Hospital, Taipei City, Taiwan. Chen Chien-Yi CY Department of Pediatrics, National (...) Taiwan University Children Hospital, Taipei City, Taiwan. Chiu Hsien-Ching HC Department of Dermatology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei City, Taiwan. eng Case Reports Journal Article 2016 08 11 England BMJ Case Rep 101526291 1757-790X IM Adult Candidiasis transmission Candidiasis, Cutaneous congenital Female Humans Infant, Newborn Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical Male Pregnancy Pregnancy Complications, Infectious microbiology Vaginal Diseases microbiology 2016 8 13 6 0 2016 8 16
Primary immunodeficiency update: Part II. Syndromes associated with mucocutaneous candidiasis and noninfectious cutaneous manifestations. Several primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) have recently been described that confer an elevated risk of fungal infections and noninfectious cutaneous manifestations. In addition, immunologic advances have provided new insights into our understanding of the pathophysiology of fungal infections in established PIDs. We reviewed PIDs that present (...) with an eczematous dermatitis in part I. In part II of this continuing medical education article we discuss updates on PIDs associated with fungal infections, their biologic basis in PIDs, and noninfectious cutaneous manifestations. Published by Elsevier Inc.