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Cranial Nerve 10

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101. Cranial Nerve 2

Cranial Nerve 2 Cranial Nerve 2 Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Cranial Nerve 2 Cranial Nerve 2 Aka: Cranial Nerve 2 (...) , Cranial Nerve II , Optic Nerve , CN 2 II. Physiology Vision mediated via l innervation III. Anatomy IV. Course l fibers coalesce into the Optic Nerve Optic Nerves become s at the See Left (Comprises Right Visual field) Left Lateral and Right Medial Optic Nerves Right (Comprises Left Visual field) Right Lateral and Left Medial Optic Nerves V. Exam Visual Field Testing Screening: Confrontation Assessment: Perimetry VI. References Gilman (1989) Manter and Gatz Essentials of and Neurophysiology, Davis, p

2018 FP Notebook

102. Cranial Nerve 1

Cranial Nerve 1 Cranial Nerve 1 Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Cranial Nerve 1 Cranial Nerve 1 Aka: Cranial Nerve 1 (...) , Cranial Nerve I , Olfactory Nerve , CN 1 , Olfactory Bulb II. Anatomy Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) III. Course Olfactory tract divides into roughly 20 branches Perforates cribriform plate of the IV. Physiology Innervates olfactory mucosa Upper third of the nasal septum Superior nasal concha V. Exam Precautions Ensure nasal patency Test one

2018 FP Notebook

103. Cranial Nerve

Cranial Nerve Cranial Nerve Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Cranial Nerve Cranial Nerve Aka: Cranial Nerve , Cranial (...) Nerve Anatomy II. Anatomy: General Cranial Nerves exit the at the anterior aspect (except ) Cranial Nerves do not cross the midline (except ) III. Anatomy: Cranial Nerves by Location Diencephalon nucleii : (sensory, smell) : (sensory, eye) nucleii : (motor, eye) : (motor, eye) nucleii ( nucleus extends into , and nucleii extend into ) : (mixed, face) : (motor, eye) : (mixed, face) : (sensory, ear) nucleii ( origin is in the spinal cord) : (mixed, mouth) : (mixed, mouth/autonomic) : (motor, neck/ s

2018 FP Notebook

104. Cranial Nerve 12 Paralysis

Cranial Nerve 12 Paralysis Cranial Nerve 12 Paralysis Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Cranial Nerve 12 Paralysis (...) Cranial Nerve 12 Paralysis Aka: Cranial Nerve 12 Paralysis , 12th Cranial Nerve Paralysis , Hypoglossal Nerve Paralysis , Tongue Paralysis From Related Chapters II. Signs Atrophy, fasciculations of involved half Deviation toward paralyzed side when protruded III. Differential presents with palpable mass No palpable mass in Hypoglossal Nerve Paralysis Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Cranial Nerve 12 Paralysis." Click

2018 FP Notebook

105. Reappearance of Cranial Nerve Dysfunction Symptoms Caused by New Artery Compression More than 20 Years after Initially Successful Microvascular Decompression: Report of Two Cases (PubMed)

Reappearance of Cranial Nerve Dysfunction Symptoms Caused by New Artery Compression More than 20 Years after Initially Successful Microvascular Decompression: Report of Two Cases Reappearance of symptoms of cranial nerve dysfunction is not uncommon after successful microvascular decompression (MVD). The purpose of this study was to report two quite unusual cases of recurrent and newly developed hemifacial spasm (HFS) caused by a new conflicting artery more than 20 years after the first (...) successful surgery. In Case 1, the first MVD was performed for HFS caused by the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) when the patient was 38 years old. After 26 symptom-free years, HFS recurred on the same side of the face due to compression by the newly developed offending AICA. In Case 2, the patient was first operated on for trigeminal neuralgia by transposition of the AICA at 49 years old, but 20 symptom-free years after the first MVD, a new offending PICA compressed the facial nerve

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2016 Neurologia medico-chirurgica

106. Isolated Cranial Nerve-III Palsy Secondary to Perimesencephalic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (PubMed)

Isolated Cranial Nerve-III Palsy Secondary to Perimesencephalic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage We describe isolated cranial nerve-III palsy as a rare clinical finding in a patient with perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage. In this unusual case, the patient presented with complete cranial nerve-III palsy including ptosis and pupillary involvement. Initial studies revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage in the perimesencephalic, prepontine, and interpeduncular cisterns. Angiographic studies were negative (...) for an intracranial aneurysm. The patient's neurological deficits improved with no residual deficits on follow-up several months after initial presentation. Our case report supports the notion that patients with perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage have an excellent prognosis. Our report further adds a case of isolated cranial nerve-III palsy as a rare initial presentation of this type of bleeding, adding to the limited body of the literature.

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2016 Case reports in neurological medicine

107. Testing cranial nerve VII: It is all in the wording (PubMed)

Testing cranial nerve VII: It is all in the wording During our practice of clinical neurological examination we frequently observed that patients, upon testing of cranial nerve VII, when instructed to "wrinkle their forehead" (to evaluate the innervation of the M. frontalis), seem to falsely "frown" (i.e. innervate the corrugator supercilii). Here, we set out to prospectively evaluate prevalence and characteristics of this phenomenon. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, we show

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2016 eNeurologicalSci

108. Increased Operative Time for Benign Cranial Nerve Tumor Resection Correlates with Increased Morbidity Postoperatively (PubMed)

Increased Operative Time for Benign Cranial Nerve Tumor Resection Correlates with Increased Morbidity Postoperatively Operative time, previously identified as a risk factor for postoperative morbidity, is examined in patients undergoing benign cranial nerve tumor resection.This retrospective cohort analysis included patients enrolled in the ACS-NSQIP registry from 2007 through 2013 with a diagnosis of a benign cranial nerve neoplasm.Primary outcomes included postoperative morbidity (...) complication (OR 4.26, 95% CI 2.08-8.72), return to the operating room (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.23-5.67), and increased length of stay(1.6 days, 95% CI 0.94-2.23 days). Each additional minute of operative time was associated with an increased odds of overall complication (OR 1.004, 95% CI 1.002-1.006) and increased length of stay (0.006 days, 95% CI 0.004-0.008).Increased operative time in patients undergoing surgical resection of a benign cranial nerve neoplasm was associated with an increased rate

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2016 Journal of neurological surgery. Part B, Skull base

109. Low-Dose Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannomas: Tumor Control and Cranial Nerve Function Preservation After 11 Gy (PubMed)

Low-Dose Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannomas: Tumor Control and Cranial Nerve Function Preservation After 11 Gy This study aims to report tumor control rates and cranial nerve function after low dose (11.0 Gy) Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) in patients with vestibular schwannomas.A retrospective chart review was performed on 30 consecutive patients with vestibular schwannomas treated from March 2004 to August 2010 with GKRS at the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center (...) . Serviceable hearing, defined as Gardner-Robertson score of I-II, was preserved in 50% of patients. On univariate and multivariate analyses, only higher mean and maximum dose to the cochlea significantly decreased the proportion of patients with serviceable hearing.Vestibular schwannomas can be treated with low doses (11.0 Gy) of GKRS with good tumor control and cranial nerve preservation.

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2016 Journal of neurological surgery. Part B, Skull base

110. Multimodal Navigation in Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Resection of Pituitary Tumors using Image-based Vascular and Cranial Nerve Segmentation: A Prospective Validation Study (PubMed)

Multimodal Navigation in Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Resection of Pituitary Tumors using Image-based Vascular and Cranial Nerve Segmentation: A Prospective Validation Study Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) is the most common approach for the treatment of pituitary tumors. However, misdirection, vascular damage, intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage, and optic nerve injuries are all well-known complications, and the risk of adverse events is more likely in less-experienced hands (...) of the navigation probe or Doppler probe on or as close as possible to the target.Preoperative segmentation of the internal carotid artery and cavernous sinus matched with the intraoperative endoscopic and micro-Doppler findings in all cases. Excellent correspondence between image-based segmentation and the endoscopic view was also evident at the surface of the tumor and at the tumor-normal gland interfaces. Image guidance assisted the surgeons in localizing the optic nerve and chiasm in 64% of cases. The mean

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2016 World neurosurgery

111. Electrical Stimulation of the Ear, Head, Cranial Nerve, or Cortex for the Treatment of Tinnitus: A Scoping Review (PubMed)

Electrical Stimulation of the Ear, Head, Cranial Nerve, or Cortex for the Treatment of Tinnitus: A Scoping Review Tinnitus is defined as the perception of sound in the absence of an external source. It is often associated with hearing loss and is thought to result from abnormal neural activity at some point or points in the auditory pathway, which is incorrectly interpreted by the brain as an actual sound. Neurostimulation therapies therefore, which interfere on some level with that abnormal (...) levels of oscillatory cortical activity and restore typical levels of activity. This change in activity should alter or interrupt the tinnitus percept (reduction or extinction) making it less bothersome. Here we review developments in therapies involving electrical stimulation of the ear, head, cranial nerve, or cortex in the treatment of tinnitus which demonstrably, or are hypothesised to, interrupt pathological neuronal activity in the cortex associated with tinnitus.

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2016 Neural plasticity

112. Histomorphogenesis of cranial nerves in Huso huso larvae (PubMed)

Histomorphogenesis of cranial nerves in Huso huso larvae In this study the cranial nerves development of H. huso are explained from 1 to 54-days-old (1, 3, 6, 15, 21 and 54 days). Despite all the researches on fish brain, there are no study on nerves evolution on H. huso during their larvae life. For this research 40 samples of larvae H. huso were obtained (from each age, about six samples were selected). The specimens were maintained in fiberglass tank, then histological samples were taken (...) from tissues and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for general histological studies using light microscope. According to the results, on 1 and 3-days-old, no nerve was observed. The terminal nerve and their dendrites were observed around the nasal cavity and the axons projected to different areas in forebrain especially around olfactory bulb diffusely, on 6-day-old fish. Also, olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, lateral line and vagus nerves were detected on 6-day-old fish

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2016 Veterinary Research Forum

113. Insertion of intra-oral electrodes for cranial nerve monitoring using a Crowe–Davis retractor (PubMed)

Insertion of intra-oral electrodes for cranial nerve monitoring using a Crowe–Davis retractor Acoustic neuroma resection is an example of a neurosurgical procedure where the brainstem and multiple cranial nerves are at risk for injury. Electrode placement for monitoring of the glossopharyngeal and hypoglossal nerves during acoustic neuroma resection can be challenging. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the use of a device for intra-oral electrode placement for intraoperative (...) monitoring of the glossopharyngeal and hypoglossal nerves. A 60-year-old male presented for acoustic neuroma resection. Under general anesthesia, a Crowe-Davis retractor was used to open the mouth, providing access to the posterior pharynx. For glossopharyngeal monitoring, two bent subdermal needle electrodes were inserted just lateral to the uvula. Two additional electrodes were inserted on the lateral tongue to monitor the hypoglossal nerve. Cranial nerves monitoring was conducted utilizing both free

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2016 Journal of clinical monitoring and computing

114. Large Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm: Initial Presentation with Reproducible Facial Pain Without Cranial Nerve Deficit (PubMed)

Large Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm: Initial Presentation with Reproducible Facial Pain Without Cranial Nerve Deficit Unruptured posterior communicating artery (PCOM) aneurysms can be difficult to diagnose and, when large (≥ 7mm), represent a substantial risk to the patient. While most unruptured PCOM aneurysms are asymptomatic, when symptoms do occur, clinical manifestations typically include severe headache (HA), visual acuity loss, and cranial nerve deficit. This case report (...) describes an atypical initial presentation of a large unruptured PCOM aneurysm with symptoms mimicking trigeminal neuralgia, without other associated cranial nerve palsies or neurologic deficits. The patient returned to the emergency department four days later with a HA, trigeminal neuralgia, and a new cranial nerve III palsy. After appropriate imaging, she was found to have a large PCOM aneurysm, which was treated with surgical clipping with significant improvement in patient's symptoms.

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2016 Western Journal of Emergency Medicine

115. Resolution of intractable retching following mobilization of a dolichoectatic vertebral artery: case report of a unique brainstem-cranial nerve compression syndrome. (PubMed)

Resolution of intractable retching following mobilization of a dolichoectatic vertebral artery: case report of a unique brainstem-cranial nerve compression syndrome. The authors present the case of a 53-year-old man who was referred with disabling retching provoked by left arm abduction. At the time of his initial evaluation, a cervical MRI study was available for review and revealed an anatomical variation of the ipsilateral juxtamedullary vertebrobasilar junction. After brain imaging revealed (...) contact of the medulla by a dolichoectatic vertebral artery at the dorsal root entry zone of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves, the patient was successfully treated by microvascular decompression of the brainstem and cranial nerves. This case demonstrates how a dolichoectatic vertebral artery-a common anatomical variation that typically has no clinical consequence-should be considered in cases of cranial nerve dysfunction.

2016 Journal of Neurosurgery

116. The combined effect of cranial-nerve non-invasive neuromodulation with high-intensity physiotherapy on gait and balance in a patient with cerebellar degeneration: a case report (PubMed)

The combined effect of cranial-nerve non-invasive neuromodulation with high-intensity physiotherapy on gait and balance in a patient with cerebellar degeneration: a case report Cranial-nerve non-invasive neuromodulation (CN-NINM) using the portable neuromodulation stimulator (PoNS™) device has been proposed as a novel adjuvant intervention to improve efficacy of gait and balance. This device modulates input and output signals during motor tasks which prompts neuroplastic changes. In this study

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2018 Cerebellum & ataxias

117. The role of biomarkers in ruling out cerebral lesions in mild cranial trauma

The role of biomarkers in ruling out cerebral lesions in mild cranial trauma The role of biomarkers in ruling out cerebral lesions in mild cranial trauma The role of biomarkers in ruling out cerebral lesions in mild cranial trauma San Miguel L, Benahmed N, Devos C, Fairon N, Roberfroid D Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation San (...) Miguel L, Benahmed N, Devos C, Fairon N, Roberfroid D. The role of biomarkers in ruling out cerebral lesions in mild cranial trauma. Brussels: Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE). KCE Reports. 2016 Final publication URL Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by CRD MeSH Biomarkers; Cerebral Hemorrhage, Traumatic; Humans Language Published English Country of organisation Belgium English summary An English language summary is available. Address for correspondence Belgian Health Care Knowledge

2016 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

118. The role of biomarkers in ruling out cerebral lesions in mild cranial trauma

will all have an important weight on the overall economic value of the protein S100B and should be carefully considered if wanting to ensure some savings will be realised with the introduction of the protein in clinical practice. KCE Report 261Cs Biomarkers in Mild Cranial Trauma 10 Appropriate patient targeting and use of biomarker tests has proved to be a challenge in other fields. This was for example the case of troponin, a biomarker used to evaluate patients suspected of suffering from acute (...) : • Further research on the effectiveness of S100B testing at ruling out ICI in children is required. Setting up an effectiveness study to assess how the protein is used in real life in Belgium would be of value. KCE Report 261Cs Biomarkers in Mild Cranial Trauma 12 REFERENCES 1. Peeters W, van den Brande R, Polinder S, Brazinova A, Steyerberg EW, Lingsma HF, et al. Epidemiology of traumatic brain injury in Europe. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2015;157(10):1683-96. 2. Albers CE, von Allmen M, Evangelopoulos DS

2016 Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre

119. A cluster of acute flaccid paralysis and cranial nerve dysfunction temporally associated with an outbreak of enterovirus D68 in children in Colorado, USA. (PubMed)

31, 2014).12 children met the case definition (median age 11·5 years [IQR 6·75-15]). All had a prodromal febrile illness preceding neurological symptoms by a median of 7 days (IQR 5·75-8). Neurological deficits included flaccid limb weakness (n=10; asymmetric n=7), bulbar weakness (n=6), and cranial nerve VI (n=3) and VII (n=2) dysfunction. Ten (83%) children had confluent, longitudinally extensive spinal-cord lesions of the central grey matter, with predominant anterior horn-cell involvement (...) A cluster of acute flaccid paralysis and cranial nerve dysfunction temporally associated with an outbreak of enterovirus D68 in children in Colorado, USA. Clusters of acute flaccid paralysis or cranial nerve dysfunction in children are uncommon. We aimed to assess a cluster of children with acute flaccid paralysis and cranial nerve dysfunction geographically and temporally associated with an outbreak of enterovirus-D68 respiratory disease.We defined a case of neurological disease as any child

2015 Lancet

120. Treatment of Lateral Skull Base and Posterior Cranial Fossa Lesions Utilizing the Extended Middle Cranial Fossa Approach. (PubMed)

Treatment of Lateral Skull Base and Posterior Cranial Fossa Lesions Utilizing the Extended Middle Cranial Fossa Approach. Define the indications and outcomes for subjects undergoing treatment utilizing the extended middle cranial fossa approach (EMCF).Retrospective records review.University-based tertiary referral center.Subjects undergoing treatment of posterior cranial fossa (PCF) lesions.EMCF exposure and treatment of the indicating PCF lesion.Demographic, audiometric, and cranial nerve (...) functioning variables were assessed.Thirty-five subjects who underwent an EMCF exposure were identified over a 12-year period. The most common indication was meningioma (18; 51%) followed by schwannomas (six, 17%), and vascular lesions (five, 14%). Preoperative cranial nerve complaints were common (32, 94%) as were objective cranial nerve abnormalities on physical examination (21; 60%). Preoperative audiometric data from subjects with hearing demonstrated good functioning including pure-tone average (PTA

2017 Otology and Neurotology

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