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Cranial Nerve 10

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81. Perpetuation of errors in illustrations of cranial nerve anatomy. (PubMed)

Perpetuation of errors in illustrations of cranial nerve anatomy. For more than 230 years, anatomical illustrations have faithfully reproduced the German medical student Thomas Soemmerring's cranial nerve (CN) arrangement. Virtually all contemporary atlases show the abducens, facial, and vestibulocochlear nerves (CNs VI-VIII) all emerging from the pontomedullary groove, as originally depicted by Soemmerring in 1778. Direct observation at microsurgery of the cerebellopontine angle reveals

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2016 Journal of Neurosurgery

82. Sumatriptan improves postoperative quality of recovery and reduces postcraniotomy headache after cranial nerve decompression. (PubMed)

Sumatriptan improves postoperative quality of recovery and reduces postcraniotomy headache after cranial nerve decompression. Microvascular decompression (MVD) is a surgical treatment for cranial nerve disorders via a small craniotomy. The postoperative pain of this procedure can be classified as surgical site somatic pain and postcraniotomy headache similar in nature to a migraine, including its association with photophobia, nausea, and vomiting. This headache can be difficult to treat and can

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2016 British Journal of Anaesthesia

83. Cranial nerve injury is associated with dual antiplatelet therapy use and cervical hematoma after carotid endarterectomy. (PubMed)

Cranial nerve injury is associated with dual antiplatelet therapy use and cervical hematoma after carotid endarterectomy. To determine predictors of cranial nerve injury (CNI) after carotid endarterectomy (CEA).Consecutive CEAs performed over a 5-year period were enrolled in this study. Outcomes analyzed included 30-day major adverse event rate (composite of stroke, death, and myocardial infarction), death, stroke, disabling stroke, myocardial infarction, cervical hematoma and CNI rate (...) ). CNI rate at discharge was 2.3% (n = 29). Two patients (9%) had more than one cranial nerve affected. The marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve was most frequently involved (n = 16; 52%), followed by the hypoglossal (n = 9; 29%), the vagus (n = 4; 13%), and the spinal accessory nerve (n = 2; 6%). Horner's syndrome, consistent with an injury to the cervical sympathetic chain, occurred in 13 patients (1%) who had a true cranial nerve affected as well. The vast majority (94%) of these CNIs

2016 Journal of Vascular Surgery

84. Cerebrospinal fluid dissemination of anaplastic intraventricular meningioma: report of a case presenting with progressive brainstem dysfunction and multiple cranial nerve palsies. (PubMed)

Cerebrospinal fluid dissemination of anaplastic intraventricular meningioma: report of a case presenting with progressive brainstem dysfunction and multiple cranial nerve palsies. It is extremely rare to see cerebrospinal fluid dissemination of intraventricular meningioma, particularly with the development of acute, progressive brainstem/cerebellar dysfunction with an absence of mass formation in the corresponding anatomical sites.An 81-year-old man was admitted because of double vision, right (...) facial nerve palsy and truncal ataxia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed normal findings except for a tumor mass in the left lateral ventricle, which had been noted over 6 months previously. The patient developed hiccups, hyperventilation, and drowsiness, which worsened progressively, and did not respond to corticosteroid or intraventricular immunoglobulin therapy. Cerebrospinal fluid study revealed a mild elevation of protein, and cytology was negative. The patient died and an autopsy

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2016 BMC Neurology

85. Third Cranial Nerve Palsy in the Setting of Chikungunya Virus Infection. (PubMed)

Third Cranial Nerve Palsy in the Setting of Chikungunya Virus Infection. We report the case of a 62-year-old patient who developed an acute painless isolated left third cranial nerve palsy sparing the pupil in the setting of an acute chikungunya infection. The patient had no significant medical history. Specifically, he had no vascular risk factors. Ocular involvement in chikungunya fever is uncommon. The potential virus- and infection-related mechanisms of this third cranial nerve palsy

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2016 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

86. A frontal external ventricular drain causing a third cranial nerve palsy. (PubMed)

A frontal external ventricular drain causing a third cranial nerve palsy. This 47-year-old gentleman presented with acute hydrocephalus secondary to a colloid cyst. Bilateral external ventricular drains (EVDs) were inserted. The patient developed a third nerve palsy during post-operative period - cranial imaging demonstrated the tip of an EVD in this vicinity. The palsy recovered completely on slight withdrawal of the EVD.

2016 British Journal of Neurosurgery

87. Isolated fourth cranial nerve palsy due to pituitary macroadenoma (PubMed)

Isolated fourth cranial nerve palsy due to pituitary macroadenoma 28050074 2018 11 13 0377-1237 72 Suppl 1 2016 Dec Medical journal, Armed Forces India Med J Armed Forces India Isolated fourth cranial nerve palsy due to pituitary macroadenoma. S67-S69 10.1016/j.mjafi.2016.01.008 Muthukrishnan J J Associate Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune 411040, India. Bharadwaj Khushboo K Resident, Department of Internal Medicine, Armed Forces Medical College (...) , Pune 411040, India. Singh Yashpal Y Senior Adviser (Medicine), Army Hospital (R&R), New Delhi 110010, India. eng Journal Article 2016 03 29 India Med J Armed Forces India 7602492 0377-1237 Fourth cranial nerve Macroadenoma Superior oblique palsy 2015 06 24 2016 01 21 2017 1 5 6 0 2017 1 5 6 0 2017 1 5 6 1 ppublish 28050074 10.1016/j.mjafi.2016.01.008 S0377-1237(16)00034-4 PMC5192200 Am J Ophthalmol. 1999 Feb;127(2):235-6 10030582 Am J Ophthalmol. 1999 Feb;127(2):236-7 10030583 Ophthalmology. 2013

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2016 Medical journal, Armed Forces India

88. Unusual Spread of Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Clivus with Cranial Nerve Deficit (PubMed)

Unusual Spread of Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Clivus with Cranial Nerve Deficit Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has unusual presentation affecting elderly males with a smoking history. The incidence of RCC varies while the incidence of spread of RCC to the clivus is rare. The typicality of RCC presentation includes hematuria, flank pain, and a palpable flank mass; however, RCC can also present with clival metastasis. The unique path of the abducens nerve in the clivus makes it susceptible to damage (...) in metastasis. We report a case of a 54-year-old African American female that was evaluated for back pain, weakness, numbness, and tingling of bilateral lower extremities and subsequently disconjugate gaze and diplopia. Brain MRI confirmed metastasis to the clivus. She was started on radiotherapy and was planned for chemotherapy and transfer to a nursing home. When a patient presents with sudden unusual cranial nerve pathology, the possibility of metastatic RCC should be sought.

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2016 Case reports in neurological medicine

89. Bilateral Cranial IX and X Nerve Palsies After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (PubMed)

Bilateral Cranial IX and X Nerve Palsies After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury We report a 57-year-old man with bilateral cranial nerve IX and X palsies who presented with severe dysphagia. After a mild head injury, the patient complained of difficult swallowing. Physical examination revealed normal tongue motion and no uvular deviation. Cervical X-ray findings were negative, but a brain computed tomography revealed a skull fracture involving bilateral jugular foramen. Laryngoscopy indicated

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2016 Annals of rehabilitation medicine

90. Involvement of cranial nerves in a patient with secondary central nervous system lymphoma (PubMed)

Involvement of cranial nerves in a patient with secondary central nervous system lymphoma 27208575 2016 05 22 2018 11 13 1516-8484 38 2 2016 Apr-Jun Revista brasileira de hematologia e hemoterapia Rev Bras Hematol Hemoter Involvement of cranial nerves in a patient with secondary central nervous system lymphoma. 158-60 10.1016/j.bjhh.2016.02.001 S1516-8484(16)00024-4 Dantas Azevedo Roberta R Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, Brazil. Reis Fabiano F Universidade Estadual

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2016 Revista brasileira de hematologia e hemoterapia

91. Cranial Nerve 12

Cranial Nerve 12 Cranial Nerve 12 Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Cranial Nerve 12 Cranial Nerve 12 Aka: Cranial Nerve (...) 12 , Cranial Nerve XII , Hypoglossal Nerve , CN 12 , Hypoglossal Nucleus II. Anatomy Hypoglossal Nucleus Originates in Hypoglossal Nucleus, in the Exits anterior to the All other medulla s ( , , , ) exit posterior to the Course As with all other s (except ), fibers remain ipsilateral (do not cross over) Passes through hypoglossal canal beside foramen magnum Courses downward with neurovascular structures ( ) Curves forward behind to lingual root Images Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed

2018 FP Notebook

92. Cranial Nerve 11

Cranial Nerve 11 Cranial Nerve 11 Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Cranial Nerve 11 Cranial Nerve 11 Aka: Cranial Nerve (...) 11 , Cranial Nerve XI , Accessory Nerve , Spinal Accessory nerve , CN 11 II. Anatomy: Cranial Nerves 9-11 Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) III. Physiology Innervates Trapezius and Sternocleidomastoid motor IV. Anatomy: Course Arises in upper spinal cord (not ) Passes up through foramen magnum Runs along side vagal nerve ( ) briefly Descends through jugular foramen Runs backward near

2018 FP Notebook

93. Cranial Nerve 9

Cranial Nerve 9 Cranial Nerve 9 Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Cranial Nerve 9 Cranial Nerve 9 Aka: Cranial Nerve 9 (...) , Cranial Nerve IX , Glossopharyngeal Nerve , CN 9 II. Anatomy: Cranial Nerves 9-11 Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) III. Physiology Sensory for pain, touch and Mucosa of pharynx, fauces, and for posterior third of Motor with CN 9 to pharynx IV. Anatomy Nucleii in transmits signals for swallowing Inferior tory nucleus innervates (via otic ) transmits taste signals from posterior third of Also

2018 FP Notebook

94. Cranial Nerve 8

Cranial Nerve 8 Cranial Nerve 8 Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Cranial Nerve 8 Cranial Nerve 8 Aka: Cranial Nerve 8 (...) , Cranial Nerve VIII , Acoustic Nerve , Cochlear Nerve , Vestibular Nerve , Vestibulocochlear Nerve , CN 8 II. Anatomy Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) III. Course Originates as two separate nuclei in the r nucleus (innervates ) Vestibular nucleus (innervates semicircular canals) s from both nerves join to form one trunk Passes via to their respective somatic sensory ganglia Spiral (hearing) Vestibular (balance) Auditory signals partially cross the midline Each ear's auditory signals

2018 FP Notebook

95. Cranial Nerve 6

Cranial Nerve 6 Cranial Nerve 6 Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Cranial Nerve 6 Cranial Nerve 6 Aka: Cranial Nerve 6 (...) , Cranial Nerve VI , Abducens Nerve , CN 6 , Abducens Nucleus II. Physiology Innervates extraocular lateral rectus muscle Moves eye laterally Long thin nerve that is susceptible to compression ( and 6 are similar in this way) Paralysis (unilateral or bilateral) may occur even with generalized Contrast with the which is a thick cable-like nerve requiring significant compression for paralysis III. Anatomy Abducens Nucleus Abducens Nucleus lies beneath facial colliculus in the pons Course As with all other

2018 FP Notebook

96. Cranial Nerve 7

Cranial Nerve 7 Cranial Nerve 7 Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Cranial Nerve 7 Cranial Nerve 7 Aka: Cranial Nerve 7 (...) , Cranial Nerve VII , Facial Nerve , CN 7 , Geniculate Ganglion , Superior Salivatory Nucleus , Superior Salivary Nucleus II. Causes: Paralysis Neoplasm (Infectious polyneuritis) Melkersson's Syndrome (Recurrent ) Poliomyelitis (ALS) III. Anatomy: Course to Geniculate Ganglion ral Facial Nerve originates in four nucleii in pons and All combine to travel via internal auditory meatus into Geniculate Ganglion Each side of the forehead is innervated by both s (but only one peripheral Facial Nerve) Forehead

2018 FP Notebook

97. Cranial Nerve 4

Cranial Nerve 4 Cranial Nerve 4 Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Cranial Nerve 4 Cranial Nerve 4 Aka: Cranial Nerve 4 (...) , Cranial Nerve IV , Trochlear Nerve , CN 4 , Trochlear Nucleus II. Physiology Innervates extraocular muscle: superior oblique muscle Superior oblique muscle passes via pulley (trochlea) Long thin nerve that is susceptible to compression (Cranial Nerve 4 and 6 are similar in this way) Paralysis (unilateral or bilateral) may occur even with generalized Contrast with the Thick cable-like nerve requiring significant compression for paralysis parasympathetic fibers are susceptible to injury as they lie

2018 FP Notebook

98. Cranial Nerve 5

Cranial Nerve 5 Cranial Nerve 5 Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Cranial Nerve 5 Cranial Nerve 5 Aka: Cranial Nerve 5 (...) , Cranial Nerve V , Trigeminal Nerve , CN 5 , Trigeminal Lemniscus II. Anatomy Trigeminal Nerve Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Alveolar Nerve (V3) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) III. Physiology: General Largest Sensory root innervates head and face innervates mastication muscles s cross the midline in the (at the level of the motor or sensory nucleii) Cortical or thalamic CVA involving the trigeminal signals Affects the contralateral face CVA involving the trigeminal

2018 FP Notebook

99. Cranial Nerve 3

Cranial Nerve 3 Cranial Nerve 3 Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Cranial Nerve 3 Cranial Nerve 3 Aka: Cranial Nerve 3 (...) , Cranial Nerve III , Oculomotor Nerve , CN 3 , Oculomotor Nucleus , Edinger-Westphal Nucleus II. Anatomy Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) III. Physiology Parasympathetic fibers follow Cranial Nerve III Innervates the ciliary which in turn supplies sphincter pupillae and ciliaris muscles Parasympathetic impulses result in ( tion) compresses the third nerve Parasympathetic fibers are most susceptible to injury as they lie on the outside of CN III Parasympathetic fiber injury results

2018 FP Notebook

100. Cranial Nerve 2

Cranial Nerve 2 Cranial Nerve 2 Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Cranial Nerve 2 Cranial Nerve 2 Aka: Cranial Nerve 2 (...) , Cranial Nerve II , Optic Nerve , CN 2 II. Physiology Vision mediated via l innervation III. Anatomy IV. Course l fibers coalesce into the Optic Nerve Optic Nerves become s at the See Left (Comprises Right Visual field) Left Lateral and Right Medial Optic Nerves Right (Comprises Left Visual field) Right Lateral and Left Medial Optic Nerves V. Exam Visual Field Testing Screening: Confrontation Assessment: Perimetry VI. References Gilman (1989) Manter and Gatz Essentials of and Neurophysiology, Davis, p

2018 FP Notebook

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