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Cranial Nerve 10

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9881. Maxillary and cranial base changes during treatment with functional appliances. (Abstract)

Maxillary and cranial base changes during treatment with functional appliances. The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the maxillary and the cranial base changes after treatment with the Harvold activator and the Fränkel function regulator appliances. Forty-two children, who are 10 to 13 years old, with Class II, Division 1 malocclusions were matched in triads according to age and sex and randomly assigned to either the control, Harvold activator, or Fränkel function regulator (...) group. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken at the start of the study and 18 months later. Both appliances reduced the overjet by tipping the maxillary incisors palatally and, as a consequence, the length of the maxillary arch was reduced. The appliances had no effect on either the horizontal or vertical position of the maxillary molars. Small, but statistically significant, changes in the cranial base angle in the Fränkel function regulator group were attributed to relatively large changes

1996 American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9882. Transcutaneous cranial electrical stimulation (Limoge's currents) decreases early buprenorphine analgesic requirements after abdominal surgery. (Abstract)

Transcutaneous cranial electrical stimulation (Limoge's currents) decreases early buprenorphine analgesic requirements after abdominal surgery. Transcutaneous cranial electrical stimulation with Limoge's currents (TCES) consists of high frequency, low intensity currents which decreased anesthetic requirements during elective surgery. This action is likely to be mediated by the release of central endogenous opioids. In the present study, we hypothesized that TCES applied intraoperatively may (...) was assigned. Postoperatively, patients were given a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) device delivering buprenorphine for the first four postoperative hours. The recorded variables included postoperative buprenorphine requirements, pain scores (0-10 visual analog scale [VAS]), sedation (0-4 scale), and intraoperative isoflurane requirements. Patients were comparable with respect to age, sex ratio, weight, duration of surgery, intraoperative hemodynamics, fentanyl requirements, and time from skin closure

1996 Anesthesia and analgesia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9883. N-acetylcysteine enhances nitroglycerin-induced headache and cranial arterial responses. (Abstract)

N-acetylcysteine enhances nitroglycerin-induced headache and cranial arterial responses. The effects of N-acetylcysteine, a sulfhydryl group donor, on nitroglycerin-induced headache and dilation of temporal and radial arteries were investigated in 11 healthy volunteers. Nitroglycerin, 0.06 microgram/kg/min, was infused for 20 minutes immediately after and 120 minutes after pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (100 mg/kg) or placebo. Arterial diameters were measured with high frequency ultrasound (...) , and pain was scored by use of a previously evaluated 10-point scale. Plasma levels of free (n = 2) and total (n = 11) N-acetylcysteine were determined. N-Acetylcysteine potentiated the headache response (median headache score, 3 versus 1), and the headache retained its vascular characteristics. Temporal artery dilation was also potentiated by N-acetylcysteine, 139% +/- 3% versus 127% +/- 3% of baseline, whereas the radial artery was unaffected. The potentiation was most pronounced after the first

1992 Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9884. Evaluation of cranial electrostimulation therapy on short-term smoking cessation. (Abstract)

Evaluation of cranial electrostimulation therapy on short-term smoking cessation. The effects of cranial electrical stimulation (CES) on short-term smoking cessation were evaluated in a double-blind study of cigarette smokers who wished to stop smoking. Subjects were randomly assigned to a CES- (n = 51) or a sham-treated group (n = 50). On 5 consecutive days subjects received CES treatments (30-microA, 2-msec, 10-Hz pulsed signal) or no electrical current (sham). There were no significant

1997 Biological psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9885. Prophylactic cranial irradiation is indicated following complete response to induction therapy in small cell lung cancer: results of a multicentre randomised trial. United Kingdom Coordinating Committee for Cancer Research (UKCCCR) and the European Organi (Abstract)

Prophylactic cranial irradiation is indicated following complete response to induction therapy in small cell lung cancer: results of a multicentre randomised trial. United Kingdom Coordinating Committee for Cancer Research (UKCCCR) and the European Organi Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) reduces the risk of cranial metastasis in small cell lung cancer (SCLC), but the magnitude and value of this reduction, the risks of radiation morbidity and whether PCI influences survival are unclear. We (...) and fourteen patients (194 PCI, 120 No PCI) were randomised. In the revised design, the most commonly used PCI regimens were 30 Gy in 10 fractions and 8 Gy in a single dose. With PCI, there was a large and highly significant reduction in brain metastases (HR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.29-0.67), a significant advantage in brain-metastasis-free survival (HR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.58-0.96) and a non-significant overall survival advantage (HR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.66-1.12). In both groups, there was impairment of cognitive

1997 European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9886. Response of children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with and without cranial irradiation: a report from the Children's Cancer Group. (Abstract)

Response of children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with and without cranial irradiation: a report from the Children's Cancer Group. Intensified intrathecal (i.t.) chemotherapy without cranial radiation therapy (CRT) prevents CNS relapse in children with low-risk and intermediate-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In the current study, high-risk ALL patients who achieved a rapid early response (RER) to induction chemotherapy were randomized to receive intensive (...) systemic chemotherapy and presymptomatic CNS therapy that consisted of either i.t. methotrexate (MTX) and CRT or intensified i.t. MTX alone.Children (n = 636) with high-risk ALL (aged 1 to 9 years and WBC count > or = 50,000/microL or age > or = 10 years, excluding those with lymphomatous features) who achieved an RER (< or = 25% marrow blasts on day 7) to induction therapy and lacked CNS disease at diagnosis were randomized to receive systemic therapy with either i.t. MTX and CRT (regimen A, n = 317

1998 Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9887. Reduced incidence of the somnolence syndrome after prophylactic cranial irradiation in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (Abstract)

Reduced incidence of the somnolence syndrome after prophylactic cranial irradiation in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A prospective double blind randomized trial comparing two different dose schedules of continuous steroid coverage during prophylactic cranial radiotherapy (CRT) in leukemic children was conducted to find out the optimum dose to be prescribed to reduce the incidence of Somnolence Syndrome (SS). Between April 1994 and February 1996, 32 patients with acute (...) lymphoblastic leukemia received CRT of 18 Gy in 10 fractions. Patients were randomized to receive oral dexamethasone of 2 or 4 mg/m2 during radiotherapy. The diagnosis of SS was made clinically based on symptoms of somnolence. All patients were followed for a minimum of 8 months. The overall incidence of SS was 40%. The development of SS was steroid dose dependent. In low dose steroid arm the incidence of SS was 64.3% (9/14), compared to 17.6% (3/17) in high dose arm with statistically significant

1998 Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9888. Controlled clinical trial of prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission. (Abstract)

Controlled clinical trial of prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission. We conducted a randomised clinical trial on 211 patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission (CR). The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on overall survival. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive either PCI (100 patients) or no PCI (111 patients). Each centre was allowed to use its own PCI (...) protocol as long as the total dose was within the range of 24-30 Gy and delivered in less than 3 weeks with fractions of 3 Gy or less. The mean follow-up is 5 years. The survival curves do not differ significantly (P = 0.25) between the two groups. The 4-year overall survival rate (95% confidence interval) is 22% [15-32%] in the PCI group versus 16% [10-25%] in the control group. The relative risk of death in the PCI group compared to the control group is 0.84 (95% CI = [0.62-1.13]). The incidence

1998 Lung Cancer Controlled trial quality: predicted high

9889. Efficacy of oral calcium pentosan polysulphate for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the canine stifle joint secondary to cranial cruciate ligament deficiency. (Abstract)

Efficacy of oral calcium pentosan polysulphate for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the canine stifle joint secondary to cranial cruciate ligament deficiency. The efficacy of calcium pentosan polysulphate (CaPPS) as a slow-acting drug for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the canine stifle joint, secondary to cranial cruciate ligament deficiency, was tested in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial over a period of one year. Dogs with the deficiency were treated surgically (...) , matched for bodyweight, and randomly assigned to treatment or placebo groups. Active treatment began six weeks postoperatively and consisted of 10 mg/kg CaPPS orally, once weekly for four weeks, repeated every 12 weeks. The outcome was assessed in terms of function by the dogs' owners, by the radiographical grading of the osteoarthritis, and by the measurement of total sulphated glycosaminoglycans and the 5D4 epitope of keratan sulphate in the synovial fluids of affected joints. There were

2000 The Veterinary record Controlled trial quality: predicted high

9890. Advice on hair and scalp care during cranial radiotherapy: a prospective randomized trial. (Abstract)

Advice on hair and scalp care during cranial radiotherapy: a prospective randomized trial. The advice on hair washing during brain irradiation is aimed at minimizing radiation induced skin toxicity. We performed a prospective randomized trial to assess the effect of advice on scalp care on the local skin reaction in patients undergoing cranial radiotherapy.One hundred and nine patients undergoing cranial radiotherapy were randomized into two groups. Patients in group 1 were advised not to wash (...) hair during treatment and patients in group 2 to maintain normal pattern of hair washing. They were assessed weekly over a period of 10 weeks from the start of treatment. Symptoms of pain and itching were recorded using a modified RTOG/EORTC acute skin reaction scoring system and skin reaction was assessed clinically using erythema/desquamation score. The frequency of hair washing and the distress of changing the practice of normal hygiene were recorded on a diary card. Skin reaction scores were

2000 Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9891. BFM-oriented treatment for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia without cranial irradiation and treatment reduction for standard risk patients: results of DCLSG protocol ALL-8 (1991-1996). Full Text available with Trip Pro

BFM-oriented treatment for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia without cranial irradiation and treatment reduction for standard risk patients: results of DCLSG protocol ALL-8 (1991-1996). Modern treatment strategies, consisting of intensive chemotherapy and cranial irradiation, have remarkably improved the prognosis for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, patients with a potential for cure are at risk of severe acute and late adverse effects of treatment. Furthermore (...) , in 25-30% of patients treatment still fails. The objectives of the DCLSG study ALL 8 were to decrease the toxicity and to increase the effectivity of BFM-oriented treatment. Decrease of toxicity was aimed at by confirmation of the results of the previous DCLSG study ALL-7, showing that the majority (94%) of children with ALL can successfully be treated with BFM-oriented therapy without cranial irradiation, and by reduction of treatment for standard risk (SRG) patients. To increase the cure rate

2002 Leukemia : official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9892. Effect of perioperative oral carprofen on postoperative pain in dogs undergoing surgery for stabilization of ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments. (Abstract)

Effect of perioperative oral carprofen on postoperative pain in dogs undergoing surgery for stabilization of ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments. A randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of oral carprofen for the control of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing knee surgery for stabilization of ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments. Dogs were randomly assigned to treatment with carprofen (n = 10) or placebo (n = 9). Pain was assessed at 1, 2 (...) , 4, 6, 24, and 48 hours and 10 and 21 days postoperatively. Eight of 10 dogs treated with carprofen and five of nine dogs treated with placebo were given at least one dose of morphine as rescue therapy. The mean relative dose of morphine given at 1 hour (P =.01) and 24 hours (P =.02) after surgery was greater for dogs treated with carprofen than for dogs given a placebo. There were no significant postoperative differences in cortisol levels or any measured variable. It appears that the scoring

2002 Veterinary therapeutics : research in applied veterinary medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9893. Serial cranial computed-tomography scans in children with leukemia given two different forms of central nervous system therapy. (Abstract)

Serial cranial computed-tomography scans in children with leukemia given two different forms of central nervous system therapy. Cranial computed tomography (CT) was used to estimate the frequency and permanence of brain abnormalities in 108 consecutive children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Fifty-five patients received cranial irradiation (1,800 rad) with intrathecal methotrexate (RT group) and 53 patients received intravenous and intrathecal methotrexate without irradiation (IVIT (...) group). Continuation treatment included sequential drug pairs for the RT group and periodic IVIT methotrexate for the other group. After 12 to 24 months of serial evaluation, five (9%) of the 55 patients in the RT group have had CT scan abnormalities, compared to 10 (19%) of 52 in the IVIT group (p = 0.171). Fourteen of the 15 patients with CT scan abnormalities had focal or diffuse white-matter hypodensity; these have reverted to normal in most cases, reflecting a dynamic process. While such CT

1983 Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9894. The somnolence syndrome in leukemic children following reduced daily dose fractions of cranial radiation. (Abstract)

The somnolence syndrome in leukemic children following reduced daily dose fractions of cranial radiation. A group of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia was studied to investigate if a reduction in daily dose fraction of cranial radiation would reduce the incidence of somnolence syndrome. Thirty-one evaluable patients received 100 rad X 18 cranial radiation therapy. Sixty-six similar evaluable patients were given 180 rad X 10. Both groups received the same chemotherapy including

1984 International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9895. Botulinum A toxin for cranial-cervical dystonia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. (Abstract)

Botulinum A toxin for cranial-cervical dystonia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. We studied the effects of botulinum A toxin in 12 patients with blepharospasm and 10 patients with oromandibular-cervical dystonia received in a double-blind manner. All blepharospasm patients improved, 71.6% on a clinical rating score, 60.7% by self-assessment, and 38.9% by video-rating; there was no improvement with placebo. The beneficial effects lasted a mean of 12.5 weeks (range, 5 to 28). Only 37.5

1987 Neurology

9896. Influence of age, sex, and concurrent intrathecal methotrexate therapy on intellectual function after cranial irradiation during childhood: a report from the Children's Cancer Study Group. (Abstract)

Influence of age, sex, and concurrent intrathecal methotrexate therapy on intellectual function after cranial irradiation during childhood: a report from the Children's Cancer Study Group. Standard IQ tests were performed in 70 children and adolescents 3.5-10 years (median 5 yrs) after 24 Gy cranial irradiation, with or without concurrent intrathecal methotrexate, for central nervous system prophylaxis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Lower IQ scores correlated with younger age, female gender

1990 Pediatric hematology and oncology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9897. Treatment of small cell lung cancer. Two-drug versus four-drug chemotherapy and loco-regional irradiation with or without prophylactic cranial irradiation. (Abstract)

Treatment of small cell lung cancer. Two-drug versus four-drug chemotherapy and loco-regional irradiation with or without prophylactic cranial irradiation. Fifty-five patients with untreated small cell lung cancer were allocated randomly to receive either a standard 2-drug or a 4-drug chemotherapy regimen. The patients were further randomized to receive or not to receive prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) 40 Gy/20 fractions/4 weeks. Each patient also received split-course irradiation (...) against the primary tumour (55 Gy/25 fractions/8 weeks), the mediastinum, and the supraclavicular areas. The standard 2-drug regimen consisted of cyclophosphamide 10 mg/kg i.v. days 1-4 and vincristine 1 mg i.v. days 1 + 4; every 4 weeks. The 4-drug regimen comprised cyclophosphamide 10 mg/kg i.v. days 1-3, vincristine 2 mg i.v. day 1 and 1 mg i.v. day 5, methotrexate 30 mg i.v. days 3 and 5, CCNU 80 mg/m2 i.v. day 2; every 7 weeks. The total treatment time for both protocols was 9 to 12 months

1989 Acta Oncologica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9898. [Role of total parenteral nutrition in determining liver insufficiency in patients with cranial injuries. Glucose vs glucose + lipids]. (Abstract)

[Role of total parenteral nutrition in determining liver insufficiency in patients with cranial injuries. Glucose vs glucose + lipids]. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) rich in glucose may cause a deposition of triglycerides in the liver with consequent steatosis. We have valued the role of different nutrients in the determinism of liver failure. Sixty-five patients with severe and isolated head trauma (GCS score of 7 or less), 50 men and 15 women, of mean age 28 years (range: 15-68 years) were (...) prospectively studied. All patients have a negative history for liver disease. In 24 randomly selected patients only glucose (group G) was administered as non-protein caloric source, while other 41 patients received glucose and Intralipid 10% (group GL) in ratio 70:30. The global incidence of cholestasis was 52.3% (34 patients): 17 patients (70.8%) of the group G and other 17 patients (41.5%) of the group GL (less than 0.025). No significant differences regarding the day of beginning of the cholestasis

1989 Minerva anestesiologica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9899. [Analgesic effect of transcutaneous cranial electrostimulation in patients treated by Nd:YAG laser for cancer of the rectum. A double-blind randomized trial]. (Abstract)

[Analgesic effect of transcutaneous cranial electrostimulation in patients treated by Nd:YAG laser for cancer of the rectum. A double-blind randomized trial]. The aim of this double blind cross-over randomized trial was to assess if transcutaneous cranial electrical stimulation by Limoge current could decrease the dose of fentanyl required in patients with rectal cancer treated by Nd:YAG laser. Fifty patients, 29 women, 21 men, 78 +/- 10 years old (range: 53-96 years), were treated by 2 laser

1992 Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9900. [Does an injection filter modify the cranial spread of a sensory blockade in epidural anesthesia?]. (Abstract)

[Does an injection filter modify the cranial spread of a sensory blockade in epidural anesthesia?]. In a prospective study we compared the spread of sensory blockade in epidural anaesthesia with and without Micropore filter.A total of 32 patients undergoing varicose vein stripping under epidural anaesthesia were randomly assigned to two groups of 16 each. Bupivacaine 0.75% and POR 8 (0.1 IU/ml) were administered by means of a constant-velocity perfusor. In group A a Micropore filter (...) was inserted between the perfusor syringe and the epidural catheter. In group B the epidural catheter was connected to the syringe without the filter. The puncture was performed at the L3-4 interspace with the patient in a sitting position. An epidural catheter was advanced 3 cm cephalad. Using the pin-prick method, the sensory level of the blockade was tested 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min after injection of the local anesthetic solution. Statistical evaluation was performed with the t-test for unpaired

1992 Der Anaesthesist Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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