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Cranial Nerve 10

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9841. A practice pathway for the initial diagnostic evaluation of isolated sixth cranial nerve palsies

A practice pathway for the initial diagnostic evaluation of isolated sixth cranial nerve palsies A practice pathway for the initial diagnostic evaluation of isolated sixth cranial nerve palsies A practice pathway for the initial diagnostic evaluation of isolated sixth cranial nerve palsies Miller R W, Lee A G, Schiffman J S, Prager T C, Garza R, Jenkins P F, Sforza P, Verm A, Kaufman D, Robinson W, Eggenberger E, Tang R A Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation (...) the clinical certainty of the pathway recommendations". Source of funding Supported in part by an unrestricted grant from Research to Prevent Blindness, Inc, New York, NY and a grant from the Baylor Neuro- ophthalmology Academic Fund, Houston, Texas. Bibliographic details Miller R W, Lee A G, Schiffman J S, Prager T C, Garza R, Jenkins P F, Sforza P, Verm A, Kaufman D, Robinson W, Eggenberger E, Tang R A. A practice pathway for the initial diagnostic evaluation of isolated sixth cranial nerve palsies

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

9842. Cranial irradiation in cancer of the lung of all cell types. (Abstract)

able to be evaluated. The rate of clinical brain metastasis was 26% for patients with small cell carcinoma vs 10% for the "non-small-cell" group. A statistically insignificant decrease in the rate of brain metastasis was found among irradiated patients with small cell carcinoma. The frequency of brain metastasis in the non-small-cell patients was reduced from 13% to 6% by irradiation. Prophylactic cranial irradiation can decrease morbidity from non-small-cell carcinoma of the lung. (...) Cranial irradiation in cancer of the lung of all cell types. The Veterans Administration Lung Group conducted a prospective study of irradiation for subclinical brain metastases in patients with inoperable carcinoma of the lung between 1975 and 1978. Patients were randomized to receive whole-brain irradiation (2,000 rads in two weeks) or no brain treatment, and to receive one of two regimens of thoracic irradiation. Three hundred twenty-three patients with normal radionuclide brain scans were

1981 JAMA Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9843. Comparison of intermediate-dose methotrexate with cranial irradiation for the post-induction treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia in children. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparison of intermediate-dose methotrexate with cranial irradiation for the post-induction treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia in children. We compared two regimens with respect to their ability to prolong disease-free survival in 506 children and adolescents with acute lymphocytic leukemia. All responders to induction therapy were randomized to treatment with 2400 rad of cranial irradiation plus intrathecal methotrexate or to treatment with intermediate-dose methotrexate plus intrathecal (...) was higher in the methotrexate group (23 of 117) than in the irradiation group (8 of 120) (P = 0.01). Among patients with increased risk, radiation offered greater protection to the central nervous system than methotrexate (P = 0.03); there was no difference in the rate of hematologic relapse. In both risk strata the frequency of testicular relapse was significantly lower in the methotrexate group (1 patient) than the radiation group (10 patients) (P = 0.01). Methotrexate offered better protection

1983 NEJM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9844. Cranial Diabetes Insipidus

in tuberculous meningitis, multiple sclerosis and neurosarcoidosis. Epidemiology [ ] The combined prevalence of cranial DI and nephrogenic DI combined is estimated at 1 in 25,000. DI can complicate up to 1 in 30,000 pregnancies. [ ] Nephrogenic DI is the most common adverse effect of lithium and occurs in up to 40% of patients. [ ] Inherited causes account for approximately less than 10% of all cases of DI. Causes of diabetes insipidus [ , ] Cranial DI This is usually due to disease of the hypothalamus (...) Cranial Diabetes Insipidus Diabetes Insipidus. Diabetes symptoms and information | Patient TOPICS Try our Symptom Checker TREATMENT RESOURCES Try our Symptom Checker PROFESSIONAL Upgrade to Patient Pro / / Search Diabetes Insipidus Authored by , Reviewed by | Last edited 18 Dec 2015 | Certified by This article is for Medical Professionals Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. They are written by UK doctors and based on research evidence, UK and European

2008 Mentor

9845. Giant Cell (Cranial) Arteritis

of the branches of the ophthalmic artery, leading to ischaemic optic neuritis. Occur in around 50% of cases. Central retinal artery thrombosis can also occur. Visual manifestations include blurred vision, amaurosis fugax, transient or permanent visual loss, or diplopia (due to third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerve palsy). These symptoms can occur in the absence of, or before the development of, headache. If GCA remains untreated, the second eye may become affected within 1-2 weeks. Systemic symptoms (similar (...) Giant Cell (Cranial) Arteritis Giant Cell Arteritis (Temporal Arteritis) | Doctor | Patient TOPICS Try our Symptom Checker TREATMENT RESOURCES Try our Symptom Checker PROFESSIONAL Upgrade to Patient Pro / / Search Giant Cell Arteritis Authored by , Reviewed by | Last edited 2 Nov 2016 | Certified by This article is for Medical Professionals Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. They are written by UK doctors and based on research evidence, UK and European

2008 Mentor

9846. Polymyositis, cranial neuropathy, autoimmune hepatitis, and hepatitis C Full Text available with Trip Pro

Polymyositis, cranial neuropathy, autoimmune hepatitis, and hepatitis C 11203156 2000 11 06 2013 11 21 0003-4967 59 10 2000 Oct Annals of the rheumatic diseases Ann. Rheum. Dis. Polymyositis, cranial neuropathy, autoimmune hepatitis, and hepatitis C. 839-40 Marie I I Levesque H H Courtois H H François A A Riachi G G eng Case Reports Letter England Ann Rheum Dis 0372355 0003-4967 0 Anti-Inflammatory Agents VB0R961HZT Prednisone IM Anti-Inflammatory Agents therapeutic use Cranial Nerve Diseases (...) complications drug therapy Female Hepatitis C drug therapy etiology Hepatitis, Autoimmune drug therapy etiology Humans Middle Aged Polymyositis complications drug therapy Prednisone therapeutic use Treatment Outcome 2001 2 24 12 0 2001 2 28 10 1 2001 2 24 12 0 ppublish 11203156 PMC1753003

2000 Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

9847. Emergency cranial computed tomography Full Text available with Trip Pro

Emergency cranial computed tomography 10921832 2000 11 29 2016 11 24 1351-0622 17 4 2000 Jul Journal of accident & emergency medicine J Accid Emerg Med Emergency cranial computed tomography. 309-10 Lambert K K Rickards M M Halford N N eng Letter Comment England J Accid Emerg Med 9433751 1351-0622 IM J Accid Emerg Med. 2000 Jan;17(1):15-7 10658984 Brain Diseases diagnostic imaging Emergency Service, Hospital Emergency Treatment Humans Practice Guidelines as Topic Reproducibility of Results (...) Retrospective Studies Subarachnoid Hemorrhage diagnostic imaging Tomography, X-Ray Computed United Kingdom 2000 8 2 11 0 2001 2 28 10 1 2000 8 2 11 0 ppublish 10921832 PMC1725426

2000 Journal of accident & emergency medicine

9848. Cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer. (Abstract)

Cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer. 1846550 1991 03 06 2018 11 13 0007-0920 63 1 1991 Jan British journal of cancer Br. J. Cancer Cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer. 13-4 Gregor A A eng Clinical Trial Editorial Randomized Controlled Trial England Br J Cancer 0370635 0007-0920 IM Carcinoma, Small Cell radiotherapy Cranial Irradiation methods Humans Lung Neoplasms radiotherapy 1991 1 1 1991 1 1 0 1 1991 1 1 0 0 ppublish 1846550 PMC1971661 Cancer Res. 1989 Sep 15;49(18):5066 (...) Jan;7(1):105-9 6266988 Cancer. 1980 Jan 1;45(1):30-9 6243242 Fed Proc. 1984 Feb;43(2):214-9 6692941 Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1980 Sep;6(9):1215-28 7007303 Cancer. 1980 Jul 15;46(2):279-84 6992979 Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1979 Jul;5(7):941-5 229091 Cancer. 1978 Sep;42(3):1135-40 212171 JAMA. 1977 Jun 20;237(25):2730-3 577226 Cancer. 1973 Sep;32(3):585-97 4516634 J Clin Oncol. 1984 Oct;2(10):1151-6 6092552 J Clin Oncol. 1990 Feb;8(2):215-21 2153764 J Clin Oncol. 1990 Feb;8(2):196-9 2153762

1991 British journal of cancer Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9849. The effects of cranial TENS on measures of autonomic somatic and cognitive activity. (Abstract)

The effects of cranial TENS on measures of autonomic somatic and cognitive activity. Peripheral and central nervous system effects of the cranial application of sub-threshold transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), of sinusoid waveform passed between earlobe electrodes at an AC frequency of 100 Hertz, were investigated. In a single-blind study, each of thirty healthy volunteer subjects was administered one 30 minute treatment of either active TENS, placebo TENS or no treatment (...) placebo TENS and no TENS. No significant placebo TENS effect was observed. Possible mechanisms of action of this form of cranial TENS on the peripheral and central nervous system are discussed.

1989 Acupuncture & electro-therapeutics research

9850. Reduced incidence of the somnolence syndrome in leukemic children with steroid coverage during prophylactic cranial radiation therapy. Results of a pilot study. (Abstract)

Reduced incidence of the somnolence syndrome in leukemic children with steroid coverage during prophylactic cranial radiation therapy. Results of a pilot study. Chemotherapeutic regimens for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) include a remission induction period with high, daily doses of prednisone among other agents. A period of central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis follows, during which steroids are often tapered entirely before cranial radiation (CRT) is completed or even (...) initiated. The somnolence syndrome (SS) has been described 4 to 6 weeks after completion of CRT in up to 60% of the children with doses as low as 1800 cGy. A pilot study of continuous steroid coverage during CRT in childhood ALL was conducted. From July 1984 to July 1986, 38 children entered on Children's Cancer Study Group ALL protocols received CRT of 1800 cGy (180 cGy x 10). All patients received oral prednisone throughout the entire course of CRT at daily doses varying from 3.0 to 60.0 mg/m2

1989 Cancer

9851. Safety and effectiveness of cranial electrotherapy in the treatment of tension headache. (Abstract)

16%. The difference in ordered outcomes was statistically significant (p = 0.004). Approximately 10% of patients in each group reported at least one minor adverse experience. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation is distinct from TENS, and is safe and often effective in ameliorating the pain intensity of tension headaches. It should be considered as an alternative to the chronic usage of analgesics. (...) Safety and effectiveness of cranial electrotherapy in the treatment of tension headache. One hundred patients were enrolled in a multicenter double-blind study to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the Pain Suppressor Unit, a cranial electrotherapy stimulator for the symptomatic treatment of tension headaches. Treatment consisted of extremely low level, high frequency current applied transcranially. Pain scores before and after 20 minute treatments of individual headaches as well

1989 Headache

9852. Practice guideline on prophylactic cranial irradiation in small-cell lung cancer. (Abstract)

Practice guideline on prophylactic cranial irradiation in small-cell lung cancer. To develop an evidence-based clinical practice guideline that would address the following questions: (a) What is the role of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in patients with limited or extensive stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) who have achieved complete remission in response to induction therapy (chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy)? (b) What dose and fractionation schedules of PCI are optimal? (c) Does (...) after induction therapy, there is evidence of a disease-free survival benefit (4 of 6 trials) and an overall survival benefit (meta-analysis). There is insufficient evidence to make a definitive recommendation with respect to dose. There is some indication that 30-36 Gy in 2-3 Gy per fraction, or a biologically equivalent dose, may produce a better outcome than a lower dose or less aggressive fractionation regimen. The schedule commonly used in Canada is 25 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks. Data from

2001 International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics

9853. Exposure of the Petrous Segment of the Internal Carotid Artery Through the Extradural Subtemporal Middle Cranial Fossa Approach: A Systematic Anatomical Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Exposure of the Petrous Segment of the Internal Carotid Artery Through the Extradural Subtemporal Middle Cranial Fossa Approach: A Systematic Anatomical Study The relationships between the horizontal segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and other petrous apex structures was studied in 14 anatomical specimens obtained from routine autopsies and on 10 magnetic resonance images obtained from healthy volunteers. The dissection was performed under an operating microscope using the middle (...) fossa transpetrous approach. A pentagonshaped area of 67.91 mm(2) posterior to the trigeminal nerve and bordered by anatomical structures was identified inside the petrous apex. The results suggest a method for exposing the ICA when the artery is not visible after dural elevation.

2001 Skull Base

9854. Cranial dystonia, blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm: clinical features and treatment, including the use of botulinum toxin. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cranial dystonia, blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm: clinical features and treatment, including the use of botulinum toxin. Blepharospasm, the most frequent feature of cranial dystonia, and hemifacial spasm are two involuntary movement disorders that affect facial muscles. The cause of blepharospasm and other forms of cranial dystonia is not known. Hemifacial spasm is usually due to compression of the seventh cranial nerve at its exit from the brain stem. Cranial dystonia may result in severe (...) disability. Hemifacial spasm tends to be much less disabling but may cause considerable distress and embarrassment. Patients affected with these disorders are often mistakenly considered to have psychiatric problems. Although the two disorders are quite distinct pathophysiologically, therapy with botulinum toxin has proven very effective in both. We review the clinical features, proposed pathophysiologic features, differential diagnosis and treatment, including the use of botulinum toxin, of cranial

1988 CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal

9855. [Usefulness of tranexamic acid in cranial remodeling surgery]. (Abstract)

[Usefulness of tranexamic acid in cranial remodeling surgery]. To assess the usefulness of tranexamic acid (TA) in pediatric cranial remodeling surgery, by analyzing its effects on bleeding and transfusion requirements, number of days of cranial drainage required, and time spent in the postoperative recovery unit.A single-blind, controlled study was designed with 20 patients (10 cases and 10 controls) randomly assigned to receive or not receive 15 mg/kg of intravenous TA upon anesthetic (...) surgery. TA group patients also spent less time in the recovery unit (60 +/- 14 vs 72 +/- 11 hours). Blood test variables in TA-treated children were also better 24 hours after surgery with regard to hemoglobin (12.1 +/- 2 vs 11.6 +/- 1.3 mg/dL) and platelet (261 +/- 68.5 vs 181.6 +/- 58.1 platelets/mm3) concentrations, and cephalin time (33 +/- 12 vs 49 +/- 16 seconds). No complications related to TA treatment were observed.TA can reduce perioperative bleeding in the context of pediatric cranial

2003 Revista española de anestesiología y reanimación Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9856. Prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission. (Abstract)

Prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with small-cell lung cancer decreases the overall rate of brain metastases without an effect on overall survival. It has been suggested that this treatment may increase neuropsychological syndromes and brain abnormalities indicated by computed tomography scans. However, other retrospective data suggested a beneficial effect on overall survival (...) for patients in complete remission.Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of prophylactic cranial irradiation on brain metastasis, overall survival, and late-occurring toxic effects in patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission.We conducted a prospective study of 300 patients who had small-cell lung cancer that was in complete remission. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either prophylactic cranial irradiation delivering 24 Gy in eight fractions during 12 days (treatment group

1995 Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9857. BFM-oriented treatment for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia without cranial irradiation and treatment reduction for standard risk patients: results of DCLSG protocol ALL-8 (1991-1996). Full Text available with Trip Pro

BFM-oriented treatment for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia without cranial irradiation and treatment reduction for standard risk patients: results of DCLSG protocol ALL-8 (1991-1996). Modern treatment strategies, consisting of intensive chemotherapy and cranial irradiation, have remarkably improved the prognosis for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, patients with a potential for cure are at risk of severe acute and late adverse effects of treatment. Furthermore (...) , in 25-30% of patients treatment still fails. The objectives of the DCLSG study ALL 8 were to decrease the toxicity and to increase the effectivity of BFM-oriented treatment. Decrease of toxicity was aimed at by confirmation of the results of the previous DCLSG study ALL-7, showing that the majority (94%) of children with ALL can successfully be treated with BFM-oriented therapy without cranial irradiation, and by reduction of treatment for standard risk (SRG) patients. To increase the cure rate

2002 Leukemia : official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9858. Effect of perioperative oral carprofen on postoperative pain in dogs undergoing surgery for stabilization of ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments. (Abstract)

Effect of perioperative oral carprofen on postoperative pain in dogs undergoing surgery for stabilization of ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments. A randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of oral carprofen for the control of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing knee surgery for stabilization of ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments. Dogs were randomly assigned to treatment with carprofen (n = 10) or placebo (n = 9). Pain was assessed at 1, 2 (...) , 4, 6, 24, and 48 hours and 10 and 21 days postoperatively. Eight of 10 dogs treated with carprofen and five of nine dogs treated with placebo were given at least one dose of morphine as rescue therapy. The mean relative dose of morphine given at 1 hour (P =.01) and 24 hours (P =.02) after surgery was greater for dogs treated with carprofen than for dogs given a placebo. There were no significant postoperative differences in cortisol levels or any measured variable. It appears that the scoring

2002 Veterinary therapeutics : research in applied veterinary medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9859. Botulinum A toxin for cranial-cervical dystonia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. (Abstract)

Botulinum A toxin for cranial-cervical dystonia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. We studied the effects of botulinum A toxin in 12 patients with blepharospasm and 10 patients with oromandibular-cervical dystonia received in a double-blind manner. All blepharospasm patients improved, 71.6% on a clinical rating score, 60.7% by self-assessment, and 38.9% by video-rating; there was no improvement with placebo. The beneficial effects lasted a mean of 12.5 weeks (range, 5 to 28). Only 37.5

1987 Neurology

9860. [Role of total parenteral nutrition in determining liver insufficiency in patients with cranial injuries. Glucose vs glucose + lipids]. (Abstract)

[Role of total parenteral nutrition in determining liver insufficiency in patients with cranial injuries. Glucose vs glucose + lipids]. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) rich in glucose may cause a deposition of triglycerides in the liver with consequent steatosis. We have valued the role of different nutrients in the determinism of liver failure. Sixty-five patients with severe and isolated head trauma (GCS score of 7 or less), 50 men and 15 women, of mean age 28 years (range: 15-68 years) were (...) prospectively studied. All patients have a negative history for liver disease. In 24 randomly selected patients only glucose (group G) was administered as non-protein caloric source, while other 41 patients received glucose and Intralipid 10% (group GL) in ratio 70:30. The global incidence of cholestasis was 52.3% (34 patients): 17 patients (70.8%) of the group G and other 17 patients (41.5%) of the group GL (less than 0.025). No significant differences regarding the day of beginning of the cholestasis

1989 Minerva anestesiologica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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